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lating War, many thousands who had net, refused it as unequal to his deserts, hitherto 'gone with the party' were re- and ex-Gov. Wm. L. Marcy, notoriously pelled and alienated; and though with a adverse to Van Buren and Wright in the Targe proportion the ties of party were too internal politics of New-York, was called strong for the dictates of conscience, yet to the Cabinet, with the portfolio of Sectheir support of the Administration and its retary of War. It was understood that Heir became colder, more hesitating, less the Collectorship of New-York would be effective than it had been, while many bestowed as Messrs. Wright and Van openly and utterly renounced the whole Buren should prefer ; but this expectation *concern. When, on the meeting of the also was blasted ; Mr. C. W. Lawrence, XXXth Congress in December, 1847, an a politician of the Croswell and Marcy Opposition majority in the House was school, being appointed instead of Mr. evinced by the choice of a Whig Speaker, Jona. I. Coddington. The alienation thus the discomfiture of the place holders was originated was fed by a thousand followalmost ensured. We believe there has ing occurrences, until at length, in Novemnever been an instance under our Federal ber, 1846, Gov. Wright was signally deConstitution in which a President has feated in a canvass for reelection, and it been elected of adverse politics to those was asserted that the Administration had of the Speaker of the House last before connived at and promoted his discomfiture. chosen.

Gov. Wright died a few months afterBut a concurring cause of weakness and ward, but the feud thus commenced was dissolution had already been developed in fought out over his grave. A State Conthe ranks of the professing Democracy of vention assembled at Syracuse early in the Empire State. Here, in 1843, the 47 to nominate ·Democratic candidates name of Silas Wright had been in- for State Officers ; each wing made the volved in aid of the election of Polk, and most desperate exertions to secure he, an original and earnest opponent of majority of the Delegates, and there were the Tyler Treaty for the Annexation of several contests for seats, the settlement Texas, had been run as Governor, in order of which would determine the character 10 reconcile many Democratic opponents of the Convention. Superior management of Annexation to the support of Polk and and tact were clearly on the side of the the party. The plan succeeded but too Croswell or Conservative faction, now well well. Mr. Polk carried the State by 5, 106 known by the appellation of Hunkers ;' votes, and was thereby elected, while while the more Radical or Wright and Mr. Wright ran far ahead of him for Van Buren faction were equally well Governor, receiving 10,030 majority. Al- known as · Barnburners,' (in allusion to though this disparity evinced in the clear- an anti-Radical story of a thick-skulled est manner the immense service which Dutchman who had burnt his barn to clear Mr. Wright had done the party in con- it of rats and mice.) The Hunkers' carsenting to run on the ticket, yot there ried most of the contested seats, and prowere not wanting sycophants and adven- ceeded to nominate a State Ticket enturers to poison the ears of the Presi- tirely of their own faith, substituting dent elect and his coterie with tales of Orville Hungerford for A. C. Flagg as the treachery of Gov. Wright's especial Controller. in the election which followfriends, who (they asserted) had placed him ed, the leading and more ardent Barnat the head of the poll at the expense of burners' refused to support the ticket so other candidates on the ticket, and even formed, leaving the Whigs to sweep the plotted to defeat the Electoral Ticket !-- State by an average majority of over Mr. Polk, a weak man, was like all weak Thirty Thousand. (See Returns in last men, jealous of superiority and uneasy year's Almanac.) under a sense of obligation: every intima But the Hunkers, though beaten, claimtion that Mr. Wright had elected him was ed to have got possession of the party an agony. A misunderstandling followed, machinery ; appointed a new State Cenas was natural. It is currently understood tral Committee, and in due time called that the President elect felt constrained another State Convention at Albany, to offer a choice of places in his Cabinet to which framed an Electoral Ticket and Gov. Wright, who declined it in view of chose the State Delegates to Baltimore.-his obligation to the People of New York, Meantime the Barnburners had thembut asked that Azariah C. Flagg should selves called a State Convention at Utica, be made Secretary of the Treasury instead. the call being made by a majority of the This, if not absolutely promised, was vir-· Democratic' Members of the Legislatually assured; but Mr. R. J. Walker, to ture, and as such held to be regular and whom the Attorney-Generalship had been according to the usages of the party!-assigned in the original cast of the Cabi- This Convention chose a full Delegation

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to the National Convention at Baltimore, Chief Magistracy, while bis signal and while the Hunkers chose Representative long-continued labors for the Whig cause Delegates by Congressional District Con- were deemed fairly to entitle him to this ventions. When the Baltimore Conven- recognition of his worth. Another class tiou assembled, (May 1, 1848,) each side perceived in the brilliant achievements, was fully and ably represented, and their the blameless life and the sound principles conflicting claims were urged with ability of Gen. WINFIELD Scott, the Conqueror and desperate earnestness, first before a of Mexico, the elements of unquestionable large Committee, then in full Convention. and merited success, and rigorously urged It was finally decided that neither should his nomination. John MCLEAN and be admitted to cast the vote of New York THOMAS Corwin of Ohio had each of them in the ballotings for President and Vice- advocates for the Presidency, but they had President. The Convention then proceed-withdrawn their names from the canvass. ed to its work, and on the fourth ballot And finally, a large majority of the prominominated Gen. LEWIS Cass of Michigan nent politicians of the party, especially for President, and Gen. William O. But- throughout the South and West, and inLer of Kentucky was afterward nominat- cluding most of the Whig Members of ed for Vice-President. The · Hunkers 'Congress, discerned in the character and promptly and heartily concurred in those life of Gen. ZACHARY TAYLOR the ele. nominations; but the Barnburners,' to ments of a popularity which nothing could whum Gen. Cass was especially obnox- withstand, and deemed his nomination ious, utterly repudiated them, and prompt- equivalent to an election. It is not alone ly called a State Convention, which as- or mainly, they urged, that he has been sembled at Utica, (May 22d,) and nominat- uniformly successful in the field, winning ed MARTIN Van Buren for President, and decisive victories over armies numbering HENRY Dodgs (ex-Governor, and now treble and quadruple his own, but that he

S. Senator,) of Wisconsin, for Vice- has uniformly shown limself so wise, so President. Gov. Dodge declined the nom. simple, so modest, 80 scrupulous in his ination and adhered to Gen. Cass; but obedience to the civil power, that we urge Mr. Van Buren, though accepting with bis nomination, and pledge to it the supunfuigned reluctance, resolved to abide port of a large majority of the People. the issue. Several gentlemen from other These considerations prevailed with the States participated in the doings at Utica, Convention. Gen. TAYLOR was nomir.ated but New-York alone was regularly and for President on the fourth ballot, the votes fully represented. The New York Dele- running as follows: gates were therefore empowered to attend and take part in a more general Conven- Zachary Taylor.......111 tion called upon farther notice to meet at Henry Clay...

Winfield Scott........ Buffalo in August, and which did meet Daniel Webster... accordingly.

John M. Clayton.

*John McLean...
Meantime, (June 1, 1848,) a Whig Na-
tional Convention assembled at Philadel Total...

279
phia, every State in the Union being rep * Withdrawn before.
resented; Texas, which alone had no In point of fact, this nomination had
Delegates present, having instructed Loui- been settled from the beginning. Many
siana to vote for her. Hon. JOHN M. Delegates who voted for other candidates
MOREHEA]), Ex-Governor of North Caro- at first were known to be really in favor
lina, was chosen President. An excited of Gen. Taylor, and only voting for others
struugle for the Presidential nomination in deference to the opinions of their constit-
had long been anticipated. A large ma- uents.
jority of the Whig voters, in the opinion MILLARD FILLMORE of New York was
of this writer, ardently desired and confi- on the second ballot nominated for Vice-
dently expected the nomination of their President by a decided majority.
old and dearly loved standard-bearer, The opposition to Gen. Taylor in the
HENRY CLAY, believing that the People Whig ranks had been in no considerable
were now ready to do justice to his emi-degree personal. The merits claimed for
nent statesmanship, abilities, devoted him by his friends were very generally
patriotism, and unsurpassed public ser-conceded. But it was objected to him that
vices. A less numerous but most respect- his Military achievements formed, after
able boily, especially in New-England, all, the basis of his aspiration to the Presi-
but by vo neans confined to that section, dency, since without these his personal
regarded the transcendent abilities and merits and virtues would never have made
world-wide fame of DANIEL WEBSTER as him a formidable candidate-and to eleva-
eminently calculated to shed lustre on the tion to high civil trusts on the strength of

1st ballot.

2d.
118
86
49
22
4

97
43
22
4
2

3d. 133 74 54 17

171 32 63

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0

279

279

279

brilliant Military achievements the Whigsinto such Territory from whom labor or service
party had ever been strongly opposed isilawfully claimed in any one of the United
It was farther urged that his opinions on and conveyed out of said Territory to the person
the great leading principles of National claiming his or hor labor or service."
Policy had never been clearly enunciated,
nor lis qualifications for the highest civil discussion (but not without evoking much

This Proviso was adopted with little
station conclusively demonstrated ; and feeling) by the House, nearly all the
especially that on the great absorbing Members from the Free States support-
question respecting the admission of Hu-
man Slavery into or its exclusion from the ing, while those from the Slave States op-

The bill thus amended was Territories of the Union just acquired from posed it.

sent to the Senate, and was promptly Mexico, his opinions were not known to accord with those of that great majority

met by Mr. D. H. Lewis, of Alabama, with

a motion to strike out the Proviso. Mr. of the Whig party which stood firm for Davis of Mass. rose in opposition to this Freedoun, but were with reason suspected motion, and and even confidently claimed to incline when word was brought that the House the other way. The objections thus raised had adjourned without day—the hour of were strengthened by the refusal of the Convention to pass a resolution affirming the House clock, though not yet reached

adjournment (noon) having been struck by the principle of the Wilmot Proviso, of by the Senate's. The bill thus failed for even to put forth any formal declaration of

the session, and among the most vociferfandamental Whig principles at all. On

ous mourners over its loss was Gen. Lewis these grounds, many Whigs felt constrained for months after the nomination to ly regretted, in repeated conversations,

Cass, a Senator from Michigan, who deepwithhold their support. But by letters that so fair an opportunity to establish the subsequently written by Gen. Taylor the doubts of his fidelity to Whig princi- principle of Freedom in the Territories

. ples and the apprehensions that he would

The next Session witnessed a revival veto any bill which Congress might pass of the bill, and of course of the Proviso ; the Territories, were pretty generally dis- both of which again passed the House,

but the latter was now defeated in the pelled, and a very general concurrence of the party in his support ultimately se- with its opponents, but in his speech

Senate-Gen. Cass now ranging himself cured, We return to the dissenters at Balti- avowing his concurrence in the principle

of the Proviso, while he regarded the atmore from the Cass and Butler nomination. In the progress of the Wright and Cros: tempt to establish it as untimely and inwell controversy in this State, a ditference auspicious. But soon after the next Conof opinion on a great National question Gen. Cass addressed an elaborate letter

gress assembled (Dec. 28, 1847,) the same had been gradually developed. When, to Mr.

A. O. P. Nicholson of Tenn., avowafter the victories on the Rio Grande ing that a change had taken place in his and the simultaneous declaration of War against Mexico, it became evident that views, and that he was now opposed to an acquisition of Territory would be ful constitutionality and at once perilous

the Proviso altogether, as at best of doubt. among the results of that War, the dis

and useless. This letter was widely cirposition and future institutions of that

culated, and was doubtless effectual in seTerritory become objects of general concern. Just as the XXIXth Congress was close of the War had removed most of the

curing the defeat of the Proviso when the closing its first or long session, Mr. David original grounds of opposition to it. Wilmot, a Representative from Penn

doubtless exerted an influence also in sylvania, after a hasty consultation with several of his Northern Democratic' and thus securing his nomination for Pres.

winning Southern support to Gen. Cass, friends, moved to add to a bill before the

ident. House, designed to give the President control of Three Millions of Dollars where

Long ere this, however, the Proviso or with to make Peace, a Proviso in the element in the feud which divided the

Free Soil question had become a potent words following : " And be it further enacted, That there shall be party in New-York. The Wright or Radi

cal wing had never cordially approved neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in any Territory on the continent of America which shall the policy of Annexation, though they had hereafter be acquired by or annexed to the United acquiesced in it under the stringency of States by virtue of this appropriation, or in any a party necessity, giving pledges to their whereof the party shall have been any convict followers that the acquisition of Texas ed: Provided, always, That any pain "pin

should not be permitted to operate as an

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to the National Convention at Baltimore, Chief Magistracy, while his signal and while the Hunkers chose Representative long-continued labors for the Whig cause Delegates by Congressional District Con- were deemed fairly to entitle him to this ventions. When the Baltimore Conven- recognition of his worth. Another class tion assembled, (May 1, 1848,) each side perceived in the brilliant achievements, was fully and ably represented, and their the blameless life and the sound principles contlicting claims were urged with ability of Gen. WINFIELD Scott, the Conqueror and desperate earnestness, first before a of Mexico, the elements of unquestionable large Committee, then in full Convention. and merited success, and rigorously urged It was finally decided that neither should his nomination. JOHN MCLEAN and be asimitted to cast the vote of New York Thomas CORWIN of Ohio had each of them in the ballotings for President and Vice- advocates for the Presidency, but they had President. The Convention then proceed- withdrawn their names from the canvass. ed to its work, and on the fourth ballot And finally, a large majority of the prominominated Gen. Lewis Cass of Michigan nent politicians of the party, especially for President, and Gen. WILLIAM O. But throughout the South and West, and inLER of Kentucky was afterward nominat- cluding most of the Whig Members of ed for Vice-President. The · Hunkers' Congress, discerned in the character and promptly and heartily concurred in those life of Gen. ZACHARY Taylor the ele. nominations; but the • Barnburners,' to ments of a popularity which nothing could whom Gen. Cass was especially obnox-withstand, and deemed his nomination ious, utterly repudiated them, and prompt- equivalent to an election. It is not alone ly called a State Convention, which as- or mainly, they urged, that he has been sembled at Utica, (May 22d,) and nominat- uniformly successful in the field, winning ed Martin Van Buren for President, and decisive victories over armies numbering HENRY Dodge (ex-Governor, and now treble and quadruple his own, but that he U. S. Senator,) of Wisconsin, for Vice- has uniformly shown himself so wise, so President. Gov. Dodge declined the nom. simple, so modest, so scrupulous in his ination and adhered to Gen. Cass; but obedience to the civil power, that we urge Mr. Van Buren, though accepting with bis nomination, and pledge to it the supunfeigned reluctance, resolved to abide port of a large majority of the People. the issue. Several gentlemen from other These considerations prevailed with the States participated in the doings at Utica, Convention. Gen. TAYLOR was nomir.ated but New-York alone was regularly and for President on the fourth ballot, the votes fully represented. The New York Dele- running as follows: gates were therefore empowered to attend and take part in a more general Conven-Zachary Taylor.

171 tion called upon farther notice to meet at Winfield Scott........ Buffalo in August, and which did meet Daniel Webster... 22 accordingly.

John M. Clayton..

*John McLean.. Meantime, (June 1, 1848,) a Whig National Convention assembled at Philadel Total.....

279 phia, every State in the Union being represented ; Texas, which alone had no In point of fact, this nomination had Delegates present, having instructed Loui- been settled from the beginning. Many siana to vote for her. Hon. John M. Delegates who voted for other candidates MOREHEAT), Ex-Governor of North Caro- at first were known to be really in favor lina, was chosen President. An excited of Gen. Taylor, and only voting for others struggle for the Presidential nomination in deference to the opinions of their constithad long been anticipated. A large ma- uents. jority of the Whig voters, in the opinion MILLARD FILLMORE of New York was of this writer, ardently desired and confi- on the second ballot nominated for Vicedently expected the nomination of their President by a decided majority. old and dearly loved standard-bearer, The opposition to Gen. Taylor in the HENRY CLAY, believing that the People Whig ranks had been in no considerable were now ready to do justice to his emi-degree personal. The merits claimed for nent statesmanship, abilities, devoted him by his friends were very generally patriotism, and unsurpassed public ser- conceded. But it was objected to bim that vices. A less numerous but most respect- his Military achievements formed, after able body, especially in New-England, all, the basis of his aspiration to the Presibut by no neans contined to that section, dency, since without these his personal regarded the transcendent abilities and merits and virtues would never have made world-wide fame of DANIEL WEBSTER as him a formidable candidate-and to elevaeminently calculated to shed lustre on the Ition to high civil trusts on the strength of

4th.

1st ballot.
...111

97
43

2d.
118
86
49
22

3d. 133 74 51 17 1 0

32 63 13 (0) 0

4
2

0

...279

279

279

* Withdrawn before.

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brilliant Military achievements the Whig into such Territory from whom labor or service
party had ever been strongly opposed. is lawfully, claimed in any one of the United
It was farther urged that his opinions on and conveyed out of said Territory to the person
the great leading principles of National claiming his or her labor or service."
Policy had never been clearly enunciated,
nor iis qualifications for the highest civil discussion (but not without evoking much

This Proviso was adopted with little
station conclusively demonstrated; and
especially that on the great absorbing feeling) by the House, nearly all the

Members from the Free States support-
question respecting the admission of Hu-
man Slavery into or its exclusion from the ing, while those from the Slave States op-

The bill thus amended was
Territories of the Union just acquired from posed it.

sent to the Senate, and was promptly
Mexico, his opinions were not known to
accord with those of that great majority

met by Mr. D. H. Lewis, of Alabama, with
of the Whig party which stood firm for a motion to strike out the Proviso. Mr.
Freedoin, but were with reason suspected motion, and

Davis of Mass. rose in opposition to this
and even confidently claimed to incline when 'word was brought that the House

was speaking against it
the other way. The objections thus raised had adjourned without day—the hour of
were strengthened by the refusal of the
Convention to pass a resolutionaffirming the House clock, though not yet reached

adjournment (noon) having been struck by
the principle of the Wilmot Proviso, or
even to put forth any formal declaration of by the Senate's. The bill thus failed for
fundamental Whig principles at all. On the session, and among the most vocifer-
these grounds, many Whigs felt constrain- ous mourners over its loss was Gen. Lewis
ed for months after the nomination to ly regretted, in repeated conversations,

Cass, a Senator from Michigan, who deep-
withhold their support. But by letters
subsequently written by Gen. Taylor the that so fair an opportunity to establish the
doubts of his fidelity to Whig princi- principle of Freedom in the Territories

had been lost.
ples and the apprehensions that he would

The next Session witnessed a revival
veto any bill which Congress might pass of the bill, and of course of the Proviso ;
em bodying the principle of Freedom in both of which again passed the House,
the Territories, were pretty generally dis- but the latter was now defeated in the
pelled, and a very general concurrence
of the party in his support ultimately se- with its opponents, but in his speech

Senate-Gen. Cass now ranging himself
cured.
We return to the dissenters at Balti- avowing his concurrence in the principle

of the Proviso, while he regarded the at-
more from the Cass and Butler nomination.
In the progress of the Wright and Cros-tempt to establish it as untimely and in-
well controversy in this State, a ditference auspicious. But soon after the next Con-
of opinion on a great National question Gen. Cass addressed an elaborate letter

gress assembled (Dec. 28, 1847,) the same
had been gradually developed. When, to Mr.

A. O. P. Nicholson of Tenn., avowafter the victories on the Rio Grande ing that a change had taken place in his and the simultaneous declaration of War views, and that he was now opposed to against Mexico, it became evident that

the Proviso altogether, as at best of doubtan acquisition of Territory would be

ful constitutionality and at once perilous
among the results of that War, the dis-

and useless. This letter was widely cir-
position and future institutions of that culated, and was doubtless effectual in se-
Territory become objects of general con- curing the defeat of the Proviso when the
cern. Just as the XXIXth Congress was close of the War had removed most of the
closing its first or long session, Mr. David original grounds of opposition to it. It
Wilmot, a Representative from Penn-
sylvania, after a hasty consultation with doubtless exerted an influence also in
several of his Northern Democratic' winning Southern support to Gen. Cass,

and thus securing his nomination for Pres.
friends, moved to add to a bill before the

ident. House, designed to give the President control of Three Millions of Dollars where.

Long ere this, however, the Proviso or with to make Peace, a Proviso in the element in the feud which divided the

Free Soil question had become a potent
words following:

party in New-York. The Wright or Radi-
And be it further enacted, That there shall be cal wing had never cordially approved
Territory on the continent of America which shall the policy of Annexation, though they had
hereafter be acquired by or annexed to the United acquiesced in it under the stringency of
States by virtue of this appropriation, or in any a party necessity, giving pledges to their
other manner whatsoever, except for crimes followers that the acquisition of Texas
whereof the party shall 1:ave been duly convict-
ed: Provided, always, That any point ?**

should not be permitted to operate as an

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