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A manuscript palimpsestus of the Va- | ordered by the emperor Basil, embeltican, wbich, like those of the Ambrosian lished with four hundred ricb and brilat Milan, came from the convent of Saint | liant miniatures representing martyrColomban di Bobbio, has supplied to doms of saints of the Greek church, with Cicero's Republica some new fragments, views of churches, monasteries, and hidden for eight or nine centuries under basilics, is a curious and complete mo-, the text of Saint Augustine's Commen nument of the cold, pompous, monotary on the Psalms.
tonous painting of the Byzantian school The precious autograph manuscript at the end of the tenth century. of Petrarch's Rime shows lo what extent The Breviary of Mathias Corvinus is be laboured his poems :
admired for the composition and richness
of its miniatures and ornaments. This Da indi in qua cotante carte aspergo
great king of Hungary had collected at Di pensieri, di lagrime e d'incbiostro,
Bude a library of more than fifty thouTanto ne squarcio, n'apparecchio, e vergo.' sand volumes and manuscripts, confided
lo iwo Italians, Galeotti and Ugulelli, Petrarch throws some familiar details the finest of its time; and its pillage by of his life among his verses : in this the Turks in 1527, the year in which manner he writes that he is called to Rome was sacked by the troops of supper (sed vocor ad cænam), and Charles V., may be regarded as one of other remarks not less prosaic.
the great bibliographic catastrophes of A fine manuscript of Dante in Boccac- modern times, and one of the chief events cio's writing, was sent by him to Pe- of his reign and of the history of his trarch, who, as some say, has annoled country. Corvinus purchased annually it. This manuscript, the most precious to the amount of 30,000 ducals, a prodiof the Divina Commedia in existence, is gious sum, equal 10 72,6001. of our connected with and represents the three present money. This Breviary, of the great creators of Italian literature, but it end of the fifteenth century, seems to does little honour to Petrarch, as it proves have been executed at Florence by one how little eager he was to procure the of the clever calligraphers that he mainDivina Commedia, and shows us by ibe lained in Italy, of whom he bad no less singular answer to which this present than thirty. gave occasion, that he concealed his A Life of Federico, duke of Urbino, envy of Dante's verses under a show of presents some fine miniatures by Dom contempt.
Clovio, a good painter of such portraits, The magnificent Latin Bible of the pupil of Giulio Romano and friend of lukes, illustrated with bigueres, o dirabes= | The curious Mexican calendar unfolds ques, landscapes, is a monument of art and stretches to a prodigious length. which has been reckoned worthy of It is not on human skin like the iwo Perugino or the best painters bis con- horrible Mexican manuscripts of the temporaries.
Dresden and Vienna libraries; the maThe mutilated scroll, thirty-two feet nuscript in the first of these libraries is long, of fine parchment covered with also a calendar, and both of them have miniatures, representing a part of the been represented by Humboldt. History of Joshua, which ornaments a A Plutarch, from Christina's library, Greek manuscript of the seventh or has manuscript notes by Grotius. eighth century, is one of the greatest The imperfect miniatures of the curiosities of the Vatican.
twelfth century on the manuscript of The menologus, or Greek Calendar, Donizon's Latin poem present the full
Trionf. These 'Rime, wild the note at the Rime with various readings, followed by the treatise Ambrosian and the letter to Dondi (see book vii. on the Moral Virtues of King Robert, who tberein ch. v.), are the principal autographs of Petrarch takes only the title of king of Jerusalem so as to be now estant. There is a story stating that in bis more like Solomou; of the Tesorello, by Brunetto solitary walks at Vaucluse and Arquè, be had Latiul, and of four Canzoni, by Biodo Boniccbi, of written a great number of verses on bis pelisse; Siena, Rome, 1612, in folto. but that this garment was burnt at Florence in Ibe • See a charming letter written in bis name by siileenth century, during a plague, as suspected of the latter to a young German lady, also a vignette contagion. See the Preface to the edition of the paloter, l. vl. p. 565 et seq.
length portrait of the heroical countess have been more naturally placed than in Matilda, holding a grenade : her cos- the Vatican. lume is rich and picturesque; she is A sketch of the three first cantos of covered with a gold cap of a conical the Gerusalemme, written by Tasso in form, ornamented with precious stones his nineteenth year, when living at in the lower part ; a rose-coloured veil | Bologna under the protection of the is thrown over this cap; the chlamys is duke of Urbino, to whom he dedicates lack colour, with a gold band also set them, is singularly interesting. Or the with stones; the gown is sky blue. Some one hundred and sixteen octaves in this scenes are characteristic: one miniature manuscript, several are relained in the represents the emperor Henry IV. pros- poem. It was on reading these fine trated before Malilda, and Hugo, abbot fragments that the Bolognese senator of Cluny, with his crosier and mitre; | Bolognetti, likewise a poet, rapturously the inscription is : The king implores repeated the verses of Propertius on the the abbot and Matilda also. He was Æneid : in reality indebled to their intercession for the absolution which the pope had Cedite. Romani scriptores, cedite Grail. refused him ; but a powerful emperor at Nescio quid majus nascitur laiade.: the feet of an abbot and a woman shows the spirit of the age.
The other autographs of Tasso consist The manuscript of the Lives and of several of his treatises and dialogues: poems of Provençal poets, by Le Monge, viz.: Piposta a Plutarco sulla fortuna of the Golden Isles, as he was surnamed, de' Romani, e della virtù d' Alessandro; of the isles of Hyères where this monk, il Forzio, Dialogo della Virtù ; il Minwho died in 1108, had his hermitage; turno, Dialogo della Belle::a; il Cathis brilliant manuscripı had belonged taneo, Dialogo delle Conclusioni amolo Petrarch and Bembo, and bears some rose; il Ficino, Dialogo dell' Arti; il notes by them. If it be not the original | Malpiglio, secondo Dialogo del Fugir and one of the best manuscripts of the la Moltitudine ; e il Constantino, Diatroubadours, it must still be esteemed logo della Clemenza. the most curious monument of the an. Some printed works at the Vatican, cient poetry of Provence that the Valican on vellum, are in the first rank of the possesses.
masterpieces and rarities of typograpby; The manuscript copy of the Treatise
we may enumerate as such: one of the on the Seven Sacraments, the work of thr e copies of the Treatise on the Seren Henry VIII., sent and dedicated by him Sacraments (London, 1501), sent by 10 Leo X., and which procured its author Henry VII. to Leo X.; one of the four Ibe title of Angelic, despite the coarse copies of the famous edition of the Bible abuse it lavishes on Luther his adver- in four languages, called the Polyglot of sary, is laboriously written. At the Cardinal Ximenes (1516-17); the magni. boliom of the last page is this distich in ficent Arabic Bible (Rome, 1671); the the king's band :
five Greek Bible of Aldus (1518); one
of the ihree copies of the Epistles of St. Anglorum rer lenricus, Leo Decime, mitult
Jerome (Rome, 1468 ); one of the three lloc upus, et Gdei (este et amicitie.'
copies of the first and rare edition of
brary of works on art formed by Ciro.
" See ante, book vill. cb. II.
the library was farther augmented by Cicognara, • Lib. 11., Eleg. ultim. v. 65.
and a considerable number of volumes of the Fatt 3 This number of four thousand eight hundred cau have sioce been added thereto. is taken from the catalogue priated at Plsa in 1824;
The vast Chiaramonti museum was
created by Pius VII. and classed by CaMuseum.-Chiaramonti museum.-Medica Minerva.
nova. The following articles may be -Nile. -Pio-Clementino museum.- Torso.-Me
distinguished : a fine fragment of a bassoleager. - Canova's Perseus, Wrestlers. - Nercury.
relievo of Apollo seated; a statue of -Laocoon, – The Apollo. — Hall of animals, – Ariadne.- Jupiter.-Visit by torchlight.-Grego
a woman with the attributes of Autumn; riaoo museum.-Geographical maps.--Arazzi.
ibe hermes, called Plato, Sleep, or the
bearded Bacchus, but which seems to The museum of the Vatican, the finest be a portrait of a person unknown; the and richest in the world, was begun curious little hermes presenting the douabout fifty years ago in a court and a ble emblem of Bacchus, young and old ; garden. One hardly knows which to a statue of Domitian; a Discobulus in a admire most, the zeal of the late pontiffs, niche of Braccio Nuovo; a head of or the singular fecundity of a soil which | Apollo near it; the Lucius Verus naked, has produced so many chefs-d'ouvre in as a hero, cleverly restored by Bacetti, so little time. Pliny states that in bis the head and truuk only being antique ; day there were more statues at Rome the bust of Commodus ; the beautifully than inhabitants. The abbé Barthélemy elegant Minerva, erroneously called calculated thal, notwithstanding the ra Medica, in persect preservation, the best vages of centuries and the mutilations of of all statues of Minerva, surcamed by the barbarians, the number of stalues Canova, the Apollo of draped figures ; exhumed at Rome up to the present the colossal Nile, noble and poetic, with century exceeded seventy thousand. If the sixteen lillle figures, emblems of the we likewise consider the great number sixteen cubits necessary to inundate of its columns, differing size and Egypt; a prelly lillle Anadyomene Veworkmanship, without including those nus; an unknown Greek philosopher destroyed or transported to other coun- resembling a Homer in the head ; the ties, how numerous must the edifices superb slalue of Fortune; Antonia, have been, how glorious the splendour mother of Claudius; the Juno, called of the eternal city, when peopled with Clemency; the bust of Caracalla when this multitude of figures, uninjured or young; an Euripides, full of character; new, placed in these same sumpluous a graceful Ganymedes; a Demosthenes, edilices ! A bishop of Tours, the vene whose slullering is seen and heard by rable Hildebert, who died in 1139, ce the motion of the lips; a Nerva supclebrated the antique statues then dis- riorly draped ; Antinous under the form covered at Rome in verses remarkably of Vertumnus; two heads, one of which elegant for the time, and with a kind of passes for Sappho, the ouber for Niobe; profane reverence extraordinary in a a bust of Adrian; a head of Venus of bishop of the twelfth century :
admirable outline; Sabina, Adrian's
wise, as Venus; the bust supposed Nee lamen annorum series, nec famma, Dec ensis to be Trajan's father; a fine head of ad pleoum potuit tale abolere decus,
Cicero. Die >uperum formas superl miraptur et ipsi
The Pio Clementino museum lakes Lirup uni Octis vullibus esse pares.
its name from the popes Clement XIII., See potuit Natura Deos boc ore creare Quo miranda Deum signa creavit homo.
Clement XIV., and Pius VI., who began Cultus adest bis numinibus, potiusque coluntur
and augmented il ; the latter bought Ariacis studio, quam deitate sua.
more than two thousand statues. The
sarcophagus of peperino and the noble It is impossible to contemplate un- and simple inscriptions taken from the moved this great number of personages tomb of the Scipios, seem to bave been known and uuknown, of these naines, lorn away by a real profanalion; and stones, and inscriptions, which are like they would be of far more louching effect an apparition, a resurrection of anti- in ihal solitary place,' than exposed quity. The physiognomics of many of amid a promiscuous crowd of stalues in thest personages differ much from their a museum; the inscription of the sarco
laine : the features of Nero, of a noble phagus, stating it to be that of Cornelius i espression, are not disfigured by crime; | Lucius Scipio Barbatus, ibc conqueror
Marcus Aurelius bas not a very fine face;
"See post ch xliv,
of the Sammiles and of Lucania, is not, sander and his two sons, Polydorus and as long supposed, the oldest in Latin, Athenodorus, of Rhodes. Sadolet celelbough among the most ancient.
brated the discovery of the Laocoon in an The sublime lorso of Apollonius, per- eloquent poem, his best work. A lucra. haps the best piece of sculpture in the live recompense was accorded by JuVatican, is apparently one of the latest lius II. 1o Felice de' Fredis, who had found masterpieces of art among the Greeks it in his vineyard; he and his sons rebefore the loss of liberty. No other ceived a portion of the gabel dues at the figure has the flesh so true. Winckelman, gate of Saint John in Laterano, and whose science is very superior to his when Leo X. restored this revenue to taste, falls into a singular exaggeration the basilic, be gave them in compensaju bis Pindaric description of the Torso, lion the office then called officium scripboth in comparing the back to a chain toriæ apostolicæ, which is now abolished. of pleasant hills of muscles, and in pre- | A curious letter from Cesare Trivulzio tending that the body is above human to his brother Pomponio, wrillen from wants, that it has no veins, and that it Rome on the 1st of June 1506, gives an is made to enjoy life and not to eat : account of the festival then celebrated this stomach, with all its ideal, is that of by the Roman Poets. Laocoon and his a man of excellent digestion. Michael sons, though sacrificing at the altar in the Angelo used to say that he was the pupilor temple of Minerva, are quite naked, and the Torso : be was indebted to it for his yet on beholding this isolated ideal re. grandeur, as may be seen by the naked presentation of suffering humanity, of of the figures in the chapel of the Tombs, ihis spectacle of terror and pity excited and he has almost copied it in the St. Bar- by the anguish of the father and his tholomew of the Sixtine. The tradition children, the eye does not miss the cos that he when aged and blind often felt tume of the high priest, or the fillets of the Torso with his hands, despite its un Laocoon, so much is truth superior to certainty, is characteristic of the spirit of reality, so completely does the imaginathe lime and the passion for antiquity lion pass over the latter to contemplate that prevailed among the artists of that the former. Or the multitude of proepoch.
ductions inspired by the Laocoon, perThe legs and drapery of the fine Me- haps the bappiest is by Canova, who has leager, one of the best preserved antique imitated the head of Laocoon in the stalues, are hard and formal : the boar's dying Centaur of his Theseus. head is perfect, and proves the care with On an enormous granite tomb is a wbich ihe ancients executed animals fine basso-relievo representing Augustus and treated the different accessories. about to offer a sacrifice.
The Perseus, by Canova in his youth, The Apollo was discovered near Ostia, and not one of his good works, was his in Nero's baths, and madame de Staël first heroic statue. Notwithstanding the shrewdly expressed her surprise that he artist's opposition, it was set on the pe- could look at this noble figure without destal of ihe absent Apollo, and obtained the surname of the Consolatrice. With group of the Laocoon was found in the
a generous emotion. The convulsive all the merit of the muscles and inge-hot-balbs of Tilus : the two chefs-d'oeuvre nuity of contrast, the Damoxenes and might have been displaced. WinckelCreugas have the air of pugilists; it is man, in his celebrated and emphatic difficult to imagine a more ignoble con- description of the Apollo, deems it the queror than the first of these wrestlers : sublimest of antique statues; bis country it is the triumph of brute force in its man, Mengs, with still more exaggeramost abject state.
Lion, will have it the only complete The Mercury, long erroneously called example ofthe sublime. All ibis studied the Antinous of the Vatican, is perfect enthusiasm seems to have caused a reaca in grace, vigour, and softness. The Laocoon seems to be of the times M. de Chateaubriand thinks it trop
lion in opinions concerning the Apollo. of the first emperors. The three artists vanté; Canova and Visconti are inclined of this immortal chef-d'æuvre, so finely to suppose it an improved imitation of a blending strength, expression, and pain, Which Pliny and Diderot reckon the sub- quity, that of Calamis, which
statue of bronze of much greater antilimest performance known, were age- niaus placed in the Ceramicus when
they were delivered from the plague. quil, with the sceptre and thunderbolt in The shuddering anger of the conqueror his hands, and the eagle at his feet. of Python, though rather theatrical, does
The cabinet called delle Maschere, not impair his divine beauty. Such ornamented with precious marble and is the privilege of Italy, and such was
the magnificent mosaic pavement of our long barbarism in the arts, that the Adrian's villa, contains the graceful Apollo, placed by Michael Angelo in the Ganymedes and the eagle, the Venus court of the Belvedere, has reigned over ready to bathe, the basso-relievo of The other inasterpieces of antique statuary Adrian's Apotheosis, and a Diana. for three hundred years, whilst our In the hall of the Muses, of which Diana, which is neither less animated Melpomene, I believe, is the finest, the nor less noble, and, when placed in juxta- portraits orillustrious persons with names position with the Apollo for lineen
in Greek are extremely interesting : a years by our victories, appeared not in- bermes of Sophocles, very rare; the ferior and is even preferred by some orator Æschines, unique; an inferior good judges of the present day, was negAspasia veiled; a hermes of Pericles lected and misesteemed in the gallery of covered with a helmet, very scarce; AlVersailles, by the court, the men of ge- cibiades: a hermes of Socrates. The nius of the seventeenth century, and the ApolloCitharæda crowned witb laurels, wits of the following.
in a long robe, singing and dancing, is The llall of Animals, a brilliant mu- very fine. seum of beasts, a menagerie of art, is The well-lighted rotunda, the rich unique. It is a further proof of the nosaic pavement of which is one of the wonderful skill of the ancients in repre- largest existing, bas a magnificent bowl senting animals, and in imparting to of porphyry, found in the thermæ of them their peculiar kind of beauty. A Titus, a colossal head of Jupiter, and a Stag of Powered alabaster, a Tiger, a colossal Juno. Lion in yellow breccia, a grcal Lion in The door of the spacions hall of the bigio marble, a Griffin, of Powered ala- Greek Cross is one of the most imposing boler, are worthy of particular notice.
In the entrance, the two The emperor Commodus on horseback, enormous sphinxes of red granile and throwing a javelin. is living, and like in the centre on the pavement a Pallas, the greal Tiberius of the principal niche, a mosaic of hard coloured stones, are is not misplaced amid the ferocious superb. A half-naked statue of Aubeasts of this gallery.
gustus is precious, and very rare, beThe gallery of statues presents a fine cause it relains its original head. Caligula; a superb Amazon drawing a In the grand staircase, the head of one bow, horribly repaired; a small and very of the two rivers recumbent was restored prelly Urania; the two remarkable by Michael Angelo, but, though fine, it seated statues of Menander and Possi- does not accord well with the rest of ihe dippus, formerly called Marius and statue; the independence of his genius Sylla; a Venus with a vase, supposed to must make him a most unfaithful rebe an aplique copy of the Venus of storer; instead of the majestic indolence Praxiteles; Ariadne forsaken, long called common lo rivers, this head has someCleopatru, a noble composition, which thing agitated, violent, satanic. has alinost given a reputation for dignity The apartment of the Car, so called and constancy to this frivolous and vo- from the elegant antique car, very well luptuous Egyptian, the real Armida or repaired, which stands in the middle, antiquity. The discovery of this figure, bas the pretended Sardanapalus, wbich which is somewhat dry in the draperies is only a bearded Bacchus : a Bacchus ; and perhaps only a copy of a more per- | a statue of a man veiled in the act of fect original, inspired the Count Casti-sacrificing, the drapery of which is rich glione with one of those elegant pieces and in good taste; iwo horses, one antithat the literati of the revival produced que and restored, the other modern. on the apparition of the antique chefs- The long gallery of Candelabra has dæuvre, which concludes with a Vir- some excellent ones; a great Bacchus io gilian panegyric of the age of Leo X.
wonderful preservation; a fine fountain To the last chamber of the busts is the supported by syrens A mosaic reprecelebrated statue of Jupiter seated, tran- senting fish, a pullet, asparagus, dates