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zioni. Part of the estates belonging to antiquity. This was one of those brilthis convent were purchased, under the liant companies of bathers, which so French administration, by S. Ricciardi, much confounded the vanity of the Roman formerly minister of justice, a magistrate orator on his return from Sicily, when, distinguished for bis independence and as he landed on the quay now called la great information, who has taken the title Malva, he expected to receive the hoorCount de'Camaldoli,and has converted nours of his countrymen, who were the property into a very pleasant villa, ignorant of his questorship, or supposed wbicb bas been well sung by two good it at Syracuse instead of Lilybeum.3 or Italian poels of the present day.

all the splendour of Puteoli a few ruins The lake of Agoano has nothing curious alone remain. now, except its wild and gloomy site; The ancient temple consecrated to for the phenomenon of its water boiling Augustus by the Roman knight Calwitbout heat, a pretty just image of some purnius, a monument of Roman opulence kinds of enthusiasm, has ceased to exist. and degradation, of which only the in

Like every body else, I went to see the scription and some sew columns still celebrated grotta del Cane : in travelling subsist, is the cathedral dedicated to Saint there are some things that must be seen, Proculus, the companion of Saint Jatbough little interesting. This grotto, nuarius. much less curious than the neighbouring In the square, a fine pedestal of white Vapour baths of San Germano, or the marble, ornamented with fourteen figures Dumerous and less spacious grotlos of the representing towns of Asia Minor oversame kind at Lalera, in the Roman states, thrown by an earthquake and rebuilt by is dol open as formerly; it is let to a Tiberius, seems to have supported a peasant wbo keeps the key and is paid statue of the emperor, which remains for showingit, being generally there with | buried under the buildings of the modern a dog jotended for the experiment. The town. 4 Another statue of a senator, life of this poor animal is thus past in still on its pedestal, retains its inscripcontinual swoons, wbich, at least, are tion, Dol pretended, an advantage they have The port of Pozzuoli was one of the over many in fashionable life.

most magnificent in Italy, and its merThe Solfatara is a fine antique volcanic chants, like those of London now, were ruin. This plain of sulphur, wbite, hot, reputed the richest in the world. The soking, hollow, and sonorous, has an mole was repaired by Adrian and Anextraordinary aspect : one is almost toninus Pius, but the epoch of its fountempted to pierce its thin and fragile dation is unknown; of ils twenty-five erust, to fathom the fiery abyss it covers. arches, thirteen only are standing : the Among the fêtes celebrated at Naples by last, a prodigious construction, plunges ibe magnificence of Alfonso, on the arri- sixty palms beneath the sca. The bridge, val of the emperor Frederick III. in 1452, a stupid work of Caligula's, in imitathe most surprising was a hunt by torch lion of the Via Appia, which served light in the enclosure of the Solfatara, for his triumphal passage from Pozzuoli where the arrangement of the lights in lo Baiæ, rested on this superb mole. that natural circus, the number of ani Its fine barracks and tower are the old mals, the music and the brilliant costumes palace of the viceroy, Pedro of Toledo, of the hunters, seemed to realise the who was instrumental in repeopling prodigies of magic.

Pozzuoli, when nearly deserled after the Pozzuoli, with its languishing popula- dreadful earthquake of 1538; he restored tion, is the only inhabited point on this its lost waters, and executed other useful coast, which was once covered with bril- works. The temple of Jupiter Serapis, lianit villas, sumptuous edifices, and a magnificent wreck of Roman grancalled by Cicero Puteolana et Cumana deur, shows the splendour of the art in regna. : Then all Rome crowded to the Adrian's reign. The roof was of white #alers of Puteoli, the Spa or Baden of marble, and some parts of it are still in

"La villa di Camaldoll al Vomero, polimetro del

. A M. Ricci, 1827. La villa di Camaldoli, stanze, Aaples, 1833, by Signora Maria Giuseppa Guacci.

* Epist. ad Al, lib, suv, 18.

3 See the amusing relation of this scene, pro Plancio, XITI.

4 It is said to be now at tbe Study.

existence; the beautiful columns and name of Academia, was then by the the pavement are under water. This seaside; and the Roman orator could mixture of water and ruins is tolerably angle from his terrace wbile medilating picturesque, but very unhealthy, and a bis Academics. Adrian, who died at great obstacle to archeological research. Baiæ, was buried in this bouse, and his The shells jocrusted on some of the successor, the pious Antoninus, delerstill erect columns of cipoline marble, mined to convert bis tomb into a temple. prove that the sea has risen iwerty-two The lakes Lucrine and Averous, which palms (of ten English inches each) above | Augustus connected with the sea, were its present height; it would thus have convulsed by the earthquake of 1538, submerged the whole town and sur which greatly changed the mythological rounding country, beyond the entrance and Virgilian aspect of these places; of the gulf of Posilipo; which is little they still, however, retain their ancient likely, and men of science have dille names, but have fallen far beneath their rently explained the phenomenon. The fabulous destination; the Elysian Fields architect Niccolini, president of the Bor are now a good vineyard, and the Avabonica society of Naples, charged in rus Acheron, under the unmelodious 1828 with the draining of this little name of Fusaro, is used for soaking marsh, gives a reasonable explanation of hemp, and supplies excellent oysters. the trace of water at that height : be The Avernus, the Styx, the Acheron, supposes that during the earthquake of likewise existed in Egypt and Greece : il 1538, which filled up part of lake Lu seems that the ancients transported their crine, engulphed the great village of poetical machinery with them, as well Tripergola, and produced ju three days as their institutions and laws. the hill of Montenuovo,' a part of the To the west of lake Lucrine and the water was driven cut of the lake and south of Avernus was Cicero's other remained some time on the site of the villa called the Cumean, in which he temple of Scrapis. This mystical and began bis Republic; a villa differing popular religion, which, after being ba- from the one he possessed at Pozzuoli, nished from Rome several times, was and both so charming that he knew not near usurping the honours of the Capitol which to preser.? even in Cicero's days, a real pantheisni, The pretended grotto of the Sibyl is was the last of the antique religions that not a very agreeable place to visit; it is resisted christianity.

necessary to procure torches, and to des. The amphitheatre called the Coliseum, cend on ihe back of a guide into a long, though ruined by earthquakes and choked dark, and muddy cavern. The use of with luxuriant and picturesque vegeta- | these caves seems uncertain, though they lion, has not totally lost its ancient form; are found in most great edifices of antiit would hold forly thousand persons. quity, and local examination does not Augustus attended ihe games celebrated throw much light on the subject. Perin his honour there. The Labyrinth, haps these galleries of Roman architeca vast subterranean edifice, was probably ture, ornamented with basso-relievos the reservoir for the water of the nau blackened by the torches of ciceroni, machia given in the theatre.

were used as places of retirement and To the north of Pozzuoli, on the su baths in the great beats. perb Campanian road, are some antique The ruins of the three edifices called iombs in good preservation, extending the temples of Venus Genitrix, Mermore than two miles. They were shown cury, and Diana Lucifera, may be more to me by wretches so miserable that one reasonably supposed to belong to some might take them for spectres, inbabi- of the thermæ, with which the magnifilanls of the tombs, who were shortly to cence and voluptuousness of the Romans return into them.

had covered these shores. The baths The villa of Cicero, built on the plan of Nero are more likely to be authentie. of the Academy of Athens, which be These baths have inspired M. Casimir praised in bis letters, and called by the Delavigne with some of his finest verses:

* Epist. ad Alt., Jib. xiv. 13.

1 It appears that Montenuovo is now gradually sinking; it would be curious to observe and minute this variation.

Ces temples du plaisir par la mort habités, and to avoid complicity in the base pro-
Ces portiques, ces bains prolongés sous les ondes,
Ont su Néron, caché dans leurs grottes profondes,

ceedings of their senate; a noble and Condamner Agrippine au sein des voluptés.

wise exile, a retirement willily but wrong. Au bruit des flots, roulant sur celle voûte bemide, fully blamed by Seneca : Nunquam aliter Il veillait, agité d'un espoir parricide;

hanc villam Vative vivo præteribam, Il jetait à Narcise un regard satisfait,

quam ut dicerem : Vatia hic situs est, 3 Quand, met d'épouvante et tremblant de colère, which, at each proscription, made people Il apprit que ces Bols, instruments du forfalt,

say of Vatia that he alone knew how to Se seulevabı d'horreur, lui rejetalent sa mère.

live : 0 Yatia, solus scis vivere. These burning grottos are still vapour

The Arco felice, almost entire, which, baibs of extraordinary effect. The cice- by its nobleness rather than proportions, rode, perfectly unawares to me, rushed

altests the magnificence of the Romans, in naked, and shortly after came out

was the ancient gate of Cumæ. This burning hot, streaming with perspira

once famous, but now deserted city bas tion, and uttering a kind of moaning nothing remarkable save ils numerous noise that quite disturbed me; happily its broken walls, Greek, Roman, and of

and shapeless fragments of antiquities, he soon recovered all his sang-froid the middle ages, and the delightful and claimed the reward of his customary experiment.

view that expands around its volcanic

heights. The colony of Cumæ, led by Hippocles Cumæus from Chalcis in ihe island

The Jake of Licola is a monument of of Eubea, was, according to Strabo, the Nero's prodigious works, called by Taoldest monument of the passage of the citus cupitor incredibilium, who wanted Greeks in Italy.

to make a canal from Ostia to lake Virgil gives it the same origin : geography and history are here Averpus. The works could not be exein unison with poetry. The last king cuted, and the waters remained in the of Rome, Tarquin, expelled by an arise preparatory excavations, which are still locratic revolution, according to an in-called Nero's ditch. genious Neapolitan writer,' ended his

The unhealthy coast of Baiæ and its days at Cumæ, after making or instiga- melancholy-looking castle, a hospital for

a few invalided gunners, would hardly ling war against the Roman people for

be taken for that delightful shore which twenty years.

The celebrated Sibyl, whose memory is predominant at Cumæ, Horace celebrated as ihe most delicious

in the universe : probably bad her grollo in the tortuous picturesque excavation, encumbered with

Nullus in orbe sloas Bajts prælucet amænis. broken rocks and of difficult access. This sybil, who, after burning several

Cicero thought his visit to Baiæ recopies of the book of Oracles, exacted of quired an apology, and the house he the same king a price equal to that she

bought in the environs injured bim in bad asked for many, already anticipated the minds of some grave senators. Sethe mania of book-hunters, amateurs of

neca named Baiæ the resort of all the medals, etc.; and indeed she ought to vices, diversorium vitiorum; and Prohave asked more. It was at Cumæ that

pertius thought Cynthia compromised Petronius, when arrested, opened his her reputation by sojourning there : veins, and disserted on pleasure with his friends to his last hour; and there, Tu modo corruptas quam primum desere Bajas, too, he placed the impure residence of his Trimalcion, in whom Voltaire, for Marius, Pompey, and Cæsar, bad each very good reasons, cannot recogoise a a villa at Baiæ : jo that of Cæsar died the man of talent, of Nero's age and rank.. young Marcellus, whom Livia was sus

On the road from Cumæ lo Misenum, pecled of poisoning. The beautiful villa alla Torre della Gaveta, are the re of Calpurnius Piso was ibe focus of the mains of a sumptuous villa, in which the great and unfortunate conspiracy against senator Servilius Vatia had secluded | Nero, to which Lucan, who bad basely bimself towards the end of his days, to flaltered bim, acceded more from the escape the eye of Sejanus and Tiberius, irritated self-love of a poet than from Dellico. Pensieri su l'istoria, p. 171.

French writers, art. Nodot, and the Pyrrhonisme * See, in ibe Siècle de Louis XIV., the Catalogue of de l'histoire, cb. air,

Epist. L.


patriotism, Nero's train, when he | Misenum was also the seat of pleasure : went to the waters of Baiæ, consisted of Nero had a house there, and ibe ruins a thousand carriages and two thousand are still visible of that of Lucullus, in mules shod with silver. The most which the prefect of the pretorian band, splendid of the ancient villas of Baiæ Macro, smothered Tiberius, who had seems to have been the one built by made him his favourile. Among the Alexander Severus for his mother the groltos and caverns which undermine empress Julia Mammea, who, with all ihis territory, the Grotta della Dragoher virtues, was inclined to avarice, and naria is an object of curiosity; it is an would never bave built such' a costly immense reservoir formed of five galleplace herself. of all the epithels that ries of unequal length, with iwelve pili he historians and poets of antiquity lars to support the roof, perhaps erected have lavished on these shores, they now by Nero io bring the thermal waters of deserve only one, that of tepide (iepid). Baiæ into his house.

On the coast of Bauli stood the house of Hortensius, called the Fishery, famous

CHAPTER II. for its murene, which were extolled by Cicero, Varro, and Pliny the elder; some Ischia.-View.-Baths.- Vittoria Colonna, of its remains are still visible near the beach. The ruin called the Tomb of My voyage to Ischia was only a day's Agrippina was perhaps a theatre, being passage in a steamboat; but I breat bed in the form of one. It was along the the delicious air of that island, and road to Misenum, beside Cæsar's villa, contemplated its marvellous panorama, that the dependants of Agrippina, ac- reckoned one of the finest in Italy, and cording to Tacitus, erected a small tomb even of all the coasts and isles of the (levem tumulum) to her memory, but Mediterranean. The tone of the inhabinot till after Nero's death.

tants seemed to me still more sonorous The Cento camerelle (the hundredihan that of the Neapolitans. On the little chambers), some of which seem to approach of the boats, they rushed into have served as reservoirs for rain water, the water, look the travellers on their are called Nero's prisons; for crime has shoulders, in order to let them the asses, given a sort of popularity to his name in which they drove before them with inthis country. The villa of Cæsar must credible shoutings and expedition. The have been near this point.

superb Epomeus, an extinct volcano, The celebrated Piscina Mirabile, an said to be older than Vesuvius, looks like ancient reservoir that supplied the fleet a peak of the Alps stricken with the stationed at Misenum wiib water, is the rays of a Neapolitan son. finest monument of this district, and the mined by deep romantic ravines, shaded only one in good preservation. This by lofty chesnuts; and on the lower bills elegant and solid

construction, whether which sink down to the sea, grow tha it belonged to Lucullus, Agrippa, or vines which produce the excellent white Claudius, equally exhibits the strength wine of Ischia. The last eruption of and grandeur of Roman fabrics. Epomeus took place in 1302 ; but the

The port of Misenum, begun by Cæsar lava seems as of yesterday, and its black and finished by Augustus, was the prin- and parched furrows contrast with the cipal Roman station on the Mediter-strength and brightness of the vegetalion ranean. Pliny the elder had the com below. mand of a fleet there when he started On the hill della Sentinella, one of on his fatal expedition to explore Ve- the most enchanting points of view in suvius, so much were science and the the island, was a pretty house letto love of knowledge allied, at Rome, with some foreign ladies, where I had the the most important and the highest func-honour to dine in excellent company; tions. This magnificent port, in part | This house belonged to the brother of filled up, has taken the name of Mare the bead physician of the baths del morto, which well accords with it now. Monte della Misericordia, an impor

tant thermal establishment. The miLucanum propriæ causæ accendebant, quod

neral waters of Ischia, which were known fainam carminum cjus premebat Nero, probibue to the ancients, are very salulary, parrutque ostentare, vanus adsimulatione. An. 1v. 49. I licularly for wounds, and a hol baih of

Its base is


ferruginous sand is reputed efficacious ments less insipid than usual. The against cutaneous diseases.

gardens are agreeable : some five oaks The national costume of the peasants of the English garden have taken root is rich and very elegant, the ladies even in the lava, and seem the image of two adhere lo it; this dress is different in strong minds, which, when they agree, every place, but the silk bandkerchief are indestructible and inseparable. of bright colours, rolled up like a turban, The little fort of the Granatello, alis nearly universal.

most facing the palace, is worth a visit We had passed by the isle of Procida, for its view of the sea and the aspects of the girls of which now only wear tbeir Vesuvius from thence. Greek dresses on Sundays and festivals, At Resina is the palace of La Favorita like the Scotch highlanders, their self belonging to the prince of Salerno; its styled Roman costume. These girls ran gardens with their large trellises, in my down to the shore to see the steamer, an opinion, have been too much vaunted. instrument of modern commerce and Its real wonder is the floor of the oval industry, which strongly contrasted with room proceeding from the palace of Tithe poelical costumes of antiquity. berius at Caprea. We do not know

The isle of Nisida, now the lazaretto whether the ideal of antiquity extends of Naples, witnessed the parting of Brutus even over its vices; but the mosaic of and Porcia. Ischia, in modern times, Caprea, instead of causing disgust, only became ibe relreat of another worthy inspires curiosity. Madame de Genlis Roman, Villoria Colonna, marchioness has given a vivid description of the disof Pescario, the inconsolable widow of agreeable feelings she experienced when, the conqueror of Pavia, to whom her on entering the Palais Royal, she found contemporaries gave the title of divine, herself a momentary occupant of the a woman illustrious for her virtues, her regent's small apartments, wbich still beauty, the superiority of her poetical retained their mirrored alcove, and all talents, and who became the holy muse their old boudoir magnificence; the floor of Michael Angelo and the Beatrice or of Caprea is yet more defiled, nevertheibat Dante of the arts.'

less, on seeing the diversely coloured

marble of which it is composed, one can CHAPTER III.

only adınire the beauty of such a per

formance. The same kind of handiPortici.- 11 Granatello.-La Favorita.- Pavement.craft, so splendid and so suitable for

palaces, is still practiced in Italy; at the

hotel of the French embassy al Naples The lively, industrious, and crowded there is a clever and recent imitation of coast of Porlici, a kind of noisy, dusty the floor of La Favorita. quay, lined with pretly casinos, and a The apartments have several Views, royal residence, forms a true contrast from anong the best of the celebrated with the deserted strand of Pozzuoli. landscape-painter Hackert, who died Tbe palace is admirably situated; its about ten years ago. He was painter lo celebrated museum has been removed to the king of Naples, who paid bim six the Study; but it possesses some works ducals for each square foot of his paintby good French painters of the modern ings: the selfish artist has consequently school, portraits by Gérard, excellent made the sky iwo or three times larger Capuchins by Granet, and elegant paint- than it oughi to be; and the same fault ings by M. de Forbin. The antique exists in all the works be executed on mosaics, with which several rooms are these strange conditions. It was of this foored, make the inspection of aparl- artist that Alexis Orloff had ordered by


Utraque romana est, sed in hoc Victoria major :

Nulla dolere potest mortua, viva dolet.

: The comparison of Porcia and Vittorla Colouna has been elegantly expressed in the Laiin verses of Asiosło, who had already celebrated the marchioness lo ibe Orlando (can. XIXVII., st. »1. seq.): too vivam sfoc te, ml Brule, erterrita dixit

Portla, et ardentes sorbult ore laces; Avale, te extincio, dlalt Victoria, vivam

perpetuo mæ: las sic dolitura dies.

It is known that Michael Angelo made several drawings for Vittoria wbich were ciled by Yasar i os admirable works; be corresponded with her, and she inspired him with ten One sonnets and several madrigals full of sentiment and passiou.

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