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might be referred to as of a groundless and arbitrary more intimate, we lost our relish for the Horsley character, in particular the idea which he announces style of criticism, and are not conscious of being inas a principle of interpretation for the prophetical debted to his productions in this department for any Scriptures in general, that the prophets often start, real light on the passages that more especially need as if per saltum, from the first to the second advent the aid of an interpreter. What is peculiar to himof Christ; and that though they should speak, almost self we have almost invariably found, on closer exain the same breath, of mercy and judgment alike in mination, to turn out untenable. connexion with his appearance, yet the one must be How should it have happened, that a mind so referred to the first, the other only to his second highly gifted, and seemingly so much bent in this coming. But we rather point, for another illustra- particular direction, should, after all, have failed to tion, to the discourses on the 45th Psalm, where there advance its favourite pursuit? We believe the groundare several most incorrect and groundless represen- element of the failure lay in the constitution of the tations, such as the distinguishing between the Jew. mind itself, which, however distinguished for clearish and Gentile Churches, as if they had a separate ness of perception, comprehension of view, and viplace and standing in the Psalmist's delineation (con- gour of thought, was deficient in that delicacy of trary to the whole tenor of Scripture, and especially feeling which thoroughly sympathizes with the oriof prophetical Scripture, which often indeed speaks ginal writers, and that spirit of cautious, subdued, of Jew and Gentile, but never of a Jewish and a painstaking investigation, without which it is imGentile Church, as distinct individualities–Scripture possible to achieve any thing of importance in the knows but of one Church under all dispensations); walks of criticism. Naturally bold, enterprising, and and also when, following out this mistaken idea, he impatient of restraint, he was too apt to seek, by rash views the exhortation, " Hearken, O daughter, and speculation or ingenious but hasty deduction, to acconsider, and incline thine ear, forget also thine own complish what could only be reached by long.contipeople, and thy father's house,” as an address to the nued inquiry and profound research. What has Hebrew Church, calling upon her to forget the Jew-sometimes been foolishly said of him by way of euloish religion and ceremonies—again running counterto gium, “ that he never found a difficulty," virtually the uniform style of the prophets, which always re- pronounces his condemnation; for it betrays the presents the fathers of the Jewish people as emphati- rashness with which he called in the aid of his fancy cally the men of God, and a return to them, not an to help out the imperfection of less expert, but niore alienation from them, as the dutiful part for their de legitimate, resources. His critical writings, consescendants.
quently, partake largely of the speculative and conThese things, and others of a similar kind, occa- jectural character, and make no satisfactory advance sionally presenting themselves in the sermons, in the work of interpretation, because they pay too plainly call for the exercise of a spirit of discrimina- little deference to the fixed laws of interpretation tion; they indicate a certain degree of rashness and move far too much in the arbitrary and unsettled haste in particular parts, and even a want of thorough region of individual opinion. insight into the relations of the Old and the New in
It was an unhappy contingence, and tended greatly Scriptare. Yet, notwithstanding such exceptions, the to feed this wrong bias in Bishop Horsley's mental discourses of Horsley are unquestionably productions constitution, that his lot was cast in a time when, of a high order, and usually exhibit the meaning of after a long period of dearth and superficiality in reScripture with great power and faithfulness. But for gard to the interpretation of Scripture, especially of the more professedly critical and expository parts of Old Testament scripture, critics had begun to indulge his productions, comprising six out of the nine vo- in the most wanton license, and sought to improve lumes of the uniform edition of his works, we must men's knowledge of Scripture very much by improvspeak in a much more qualified tone. They have ing Scripture itself
. When a passage occurred of frequently been lauded as valuable contributions to difficult interpretation, an attempt to clear the diffi. the critical study of Old Testament scripture (for culty was sure to be made by a proposed emendation to that division of the Bible they all belong), but they in the text-altering some of the letters so as to have never, excepting with a limited number of per- make new words, or transposing some of the words sons in this country, attained to much authority as so as to make new sentences, or, finally, throwing learned expositions, and out of Britain they seem al- the sentences into a new order, so as to make a better most entirely unknown. We do not remember to connexion. This species of critical skill had been have seen so much as a passing allusion to them in carried to its perfection by some who were in high any of the more learned commentaries of other repute about the time that Horsley began to turn his countries; and the more that the cultivation of sacred attention to this department of labour-such as Calearning proceeds in this country, they seem to be pellus, Houbigant, Lowth, Hare, in some degree also falling the more into the background.
Kennicott, and various others both in this country We are not much surprised at this, for it accords and on the Continent. The greater portion of Horssubstantially with what has taken place in the history ley's translations and critical notes seem to have been of our own experience. When not far from the written under the influence of this capricious school commencement of our critical studies on Old Testa of emendators; and it was only in his later years that ment scripture, the translations and notes of Horsley he became alive to its unsatisfactory nature and danstood high in our list of authorities—they appeared gerous liberties. A better spirit in this respect apto striko aut such rich meanings, and with such bold pears in his work on Hosea, published in his own freedom to clear a way through many hard and ob- lifetime, though within a few years of its close, and scure sentences, that nothing in our youthful appre- which, from this characteristic alone, we gather to hension could equal the sagunity and depth of his have been, as to its preparation, subsequent in point critical talent. But, continually as our investigations of timo to his other productions in the same line. proceeded, and our acquaintance with the peculiarities We regret we should be left only to gather this, and of the sacred penmen, in thought and diction, became l that the collected edition of his works, though published by the respectable house of Longman, and | ing-here a solid and satisfactory explanation, there edited by the author's own son, should be so utterly another entirely the reverse; no clear, consistent, void of information respecting even the comparative and uniform principle of interpretation. Sometimes dates of his productions, or of any attempt to account we are told the words are to be taken in the literal for the occasional defects and discrepancies they dis- sense, and presently again we find the mystical precover. If they had been dug out of some obscure ferred; but why, in either case, the one rather than corner a hundred years after his death, and brought the other should be imposed upon our belief, is itself to light by some entire stranger, they could not have an unresolved mystery. Thus, on the first chapter appeared in a more shapeless and disjointed condi- of Hosea, and in the very same verse, the tenth," the tion. But, in regard to the point now under consi- children of Israel” mentioned in one clause, are underation, there can be no doubt that the work on derstood to be the mystical Israel; while“ the place" Hosea was, in its main part at least, composed after spoken of in another, where it was to be said of those the rest; for not only is it comparatively free from who once were no people of God,“ Ye are the chilthe error as to textual emendations which pervades dren of the living God,” is referred to Jerusalem and them, but it delivers, in the Introduction, a strong the natural Israel. “They shall come up out of the protest against the error itself, “ Against this opi- land,” or “from the earth,” as he unhappily renders nion,” he says—the opinion that the chief difficulties it in the last verse of the first chapter, is a literal arise from corruptions in the Hebrew text_“I must coming up of the Jews from all parts of the earth to openly and earnestly protest, it is an erroneous opi- Jerusalem; but the sentence in chap. viii 13, “ They nion, pregnant with the most mischievous conse- shall return into Egypt,” is not to be taken literally quences. ... That the corruptions in any part of a going down to Egypt; it simply indicates their are so numerous, or in such degree, as to be a prin- “ being reduced to an abject, oppressed condition, ciple cause of obscurity, or, indeed, to be a cause of like that of the Egyptian servitude.” This constant obscurity at all, with the utmost confidence I deny. interchanging of the literal and the spiritual, without And, be the corruptions what they may, I must pro- any grounds of reason shown, and so as merely to test against the ill-advised measure, as to me it seems, suit his own ideas of truth or propriety, pervading, however countenanced by great examples, of at- as it does, the most of his notes on the prophecies, tempting to remove any obscurity supposed to arise but in those on the Psalms appearing in its most from them by what is called conjectural emendations. capricious and extravagant form, prevents them from Considering the matter only as a problem in the doc-throwing any steady and determinate light on the trine of chances, the odds are always infinitely more difficult points connected with the study of the against conjecture; for one instance in which it may prophetic Word ; they can afford no satisfaction to restore the original reading, in one thousand, or any one who would proceed on sure ground, and go more, it will only leave corruption worse con- thoroughly into the investigation of the subject. founded.” We cordially assent to the soundness of Even on what may be called minor points, such, for the principle embodied in this extract; but, unfor example, as the question, whether the command to tunately, the author was so late in discovering it, that Hosea, to go and take to himself a wife of infamous the work on Hosea alone derived the benefit of the character, is to be understood of a transaction in discovery, and the translations and notes on other real life, or of what passed in vision before the portions of Scripture seem to have been left as they eye of the prophet, let any one compare the disoriginally proceeded from his pen, and are remark- cussion of the subject in Horsley's Introduction able for nothing more than the frequent disregard with that in Hengstenberg's Christology, and, whichthey exhibit of the principle which so strongly com- ever side of the question be may be disposed to esmended itself to his riper judgment.
pouse, he cannot but be struck with the immense supeIt was well for our author to have thus reached a riority on the part of the German professor, in critical sound conclusion, where, at an earlier period, he had acumen, exactness of learning, uniformity of princiso frequently erred; but there was still another ave- ple, and thoroughness of investigation.
We are nue for the display of an arbitrary spirit of interpre-confident he will find the same in many other and tation, viz., in regard to the meanings of words and more important examples if he pursues the compathe construction of sentences. And here to the last rison through the first three chapters of the propheb. he exhibited a false taste, especially in regard to the Finally, The critical productions of Horsley are senses put upon unusual, and sometimes even upon still further marred by the occasional appearance in quite common, words. That his chief authority for them of a tincture of Hutchinsonianism; by which the meanings he adopts should so often be Parkhurst we mean, a disposition to draw from statements of -the most capricious and arbitrary of lexicographers Scripture recondite meanings and discoveries of -is itself a sufficient indication how lax and un- truth such as no sober inquirer would ever think of satisfactory his practice was in this respect; and, in deriving from the particular passages. We can point a multitude of cases, the specific sense he prefers only to a single illustration taken from the work on rests upon no other ground than an etymological de Hosea : “ The cherubim of the temple, and the rivation-of itself a very unsafe guide in interpreta- calves of Dan and Bethel, were both hieroglyphical tion, and only to be resorted to in extreme cases. It figures-the one, of God's institution ; the other, of would take us too long, however, to support the al- man’s_in direct contravention of the second comlegation now made by an adequate number of ex- mandment. The cherub was a compound figux; amples, nor will it be necessary for such as are ac- the calf single. Jeroboam therefore, and kas subquainted with his writings: a plenitude of examples jects, were Unitarians.” But if the composition of cannot fail to have occurred to themselves.
the symbol determined the character of the worshipBut, beyond this, when we look to the exposition per's faith in this respect, une people who kept by he gives of particular passages, and the views he the cherubim vuld not be Trinitarians, for these takes of the topics unfolded in the prophetical Scrip. compound figures consisted, not of three, but of four tures, we see the same spirit of arbitrariness prevail. distinct parts: a four-in-one God, therefore, must
have been the object of their worship. Besides, if | just at the point where, as Dr Nichol would say, the cherubic figures were symbols of the Godhead, ' remoteness passes into invisibility.” We have a how could they also fail to be made in violation of strong penchant for the stratified remains of ancient the second commandment? Could God himself set cities, such as those of old Nineveh, lately dug out up what he so stringently forbade his people to by Layard from beneath the sepulchres of many make? This were indeed to establish by his exam. generations, and carrying one back almost to the ple, what he had sought to overthrow in the precept. days of Nimrod; and we delight above all things in
On the whole, therefore, we cannot but regard it researches among " sepulchral remains," in which as unfortunate, that Horsley should have adventured the language of the dead, strangely commingling with into the field of biblical criticism and exposition; at the faith of the living, sheds a light on the history least, that he should have done precisely what he of the Church, and where the grave, untrue for once did in it, and no more. He has contributed nothing to its character, is no longer“ the house of silence.” to the real stores of sacred learning, or to an exact Judge, then, of our delight in the perusal of The and well-founded acquaintance with the import of Church in the Catacombs—a work which, though it has the original Scriptures. By his high authority and been for some time before the public, has not, we example he did contribute much to the perpetuation think, met with all the attention which its excellence of a false taste and an arbitrary dealing, first with deserves. Without further preface, we beg to carry the letter, and then with the meaning, of the sacred our readers along with us while we follow this inteltext. By much the greater portion of his writings ligent guide through one of the most interesting exin this department are, not only from their fragmen- / hibitions of the antique ever opened to the eyes of tary character, of small value, but also, from their modern curiosity. inherent nature, fitted to mislead as much as to guide; Into the ancient history and original uses of the they are chiefly to be regarded as productions of catacombs we do not now enter. Suffice it to say, talent, indeed, but of talent misapplied, and so yield that these were gloomy caverns, lying beneath ing little solid fruit ; and it is to the productions of the city of Rome, where the primitive Christians another kind-his discourses and controversial writ- found a retreat from persecution, and where they ings—that we must still point for the real monu- were accustomed to conduct their worship and bury ments of his great powers, and for the proof of their dead. Being dug chiefly in the sand, with inimportant services rendered to the cause of scriptural numerable windings and entrances, capable of being Christianity.
opened or blocked up, and extending over the whole
Campagna for miles, these labyrinths afforded an THE CHURCH IN THE CATACOMBS.*
asylum to the persecuted Christians, which, though “Every man," it has often been observed," has his pursuit. “The catacombs,” says our author,“ have
sometimes violated, frequently preserved them from own hobby;
" and it is well that it should be so, otherwise “ the hobby-horse,” as Hamlet says, might noble witnesses to the truth.
been illustrious by the actual martyrdom of some
Xystus, bishop of be “forgot," and the rider himself might get out of Rome, together with Quartus, one of his clergy, sufpractice. Wisely has it therefore been ordained in the world of science, natural, mental, and moral, the First, another bishop of Rome, was traced by
fered below ground in the time of Cyprian. Stephen that each man should have his own department, in heathen soldiers to his subterraneous chapel; on the which, from his peculiar idiosyncrasy, he takes spe- conclusion of divine service he was thrust back into cial delight, and in which, by devoting to it his time and strength, he becomes fitted to shine. One, for and beheaded. The letters of Christians then living
his episcopal chair [his pulpit, as we should say], example, selecting the field of nature, may be seen soaring aloft in the stellar heavens, like our friend idea of exaggeration ; while their expectation of
refer to such scenes with a simplicity that dispels all Professor Nichol, in full cry after some fugitive sharing the same fate affords a vivid picture of those comet or pondescript nebula, and at once enlighten. dreadful times.” The idea of the gospel being ing, astonishing, and delighting us with a magnificent description of some marvellously distant planet, the preached, and its simple rites administered, in these light of which, though kindled ages ago, reached our
subterranean abodes, dimly lighted by the lamp, or vision only the other day. A second may be dis
some furtive opening communicating with the excovered, like another learned friend, Mr Hugh Miller,
ternal atmosphere, while their bloodthirsty enemies as far below as the other is above us, hard at work
were unconsciously walking above them, is suggestive
of various reflections. When we think of the fiery among fossiliferous deposits, eloquently deep in ichthyolites, and dimly visible among coal measures ;
trials which the early Christians were called to enwhile a third, like Dr Johnston of Berwick, whom
dure, it is impossible not to recognise the fostering we are also proud to number among our friends, may cradle for the infant community. And while the
hand of the Saviour in thus providing so fitting a very probably be found somewbere between earth and ocean, in search of those amphibious, half-living, dens and caves of the earth” illustrates the indestruc
spectacle of a Church existing for so many years “in half-vegetable substances, called zoophytes. Now, without advancing any thing like a claim to the tible character of Christianity, and the supernatural genius and originality of the writers just mentioned, the mind is irresistibly led to view this subterranean
power of endurance with which it inspires its votaries, we also (if the writer of the present humble article may be allowed to borrow
the editorial “we”) confess Church in the light of a moral volcano, the fires of to a hobby of our own, and that is
, an unconquerable find a'vent, and overflow the city under which they desire to pry into the disinterred remains of remote had so long burned unseen. But the most interesting nebulæ” of the past history of nations and churches, feature in the catacombs to the Christian, and espe* The Church in the Catacombs: A Description of the Primitive
cially the Protestant, antiquary, is the testimony Church of Rome, illustrated by its Sepulchral Remains. By Charles
which they bear, in the monuments which still exist, Maitland, M.D. London, 1846.
to the primitive purity and simplicity of the Roman Church. These monuments have, indeed, been now
VICTORINA DORMIT. removed from the caverns in which they were dis
“ Victorina sleeps." covered in the sixteenth century, and have been ar
GEMELLA DORMIT IN PACE. ranged chiefly at the entrance to the Vatican museum,
“ Gemella sleeps in peace.” the long corridors of which are completely lined with In the following inscription, the sure hope of a inscriptions plastered iuto the wall. “These have resurrection is expressed with the affecting simplicity been collected indiscriminately from the catacombs of natural affection :round Rome, and have hitherto remained unpub.
“PEACE. lished. To this gallery, from the circumstance of its “ This grief will always weigh upon me: may it be granted containing little more than sepulchral stones, the me to behold in sleep your revered countenance. My wife name Lapidarian, or delle Lapidi, has been given. Albana, always chaste and modest, 1 grieve, deprived of your The inscriptions, amounting to more than three thou- support: for our divine author gave you to me as a sacred sand, were arranged in their present order by lie in peace-in sleep--you will arise-a temporary rest is
boon. You, well-deserving one, having left your relations, Gaetano Marini. Notwithstanding the indifference granted you. She lived forty-five years, five months, and manifested by the hundreds of visitors who daily tra- thirteen days: buried in peace. Placus, her husband, made verse this corridor, there needs but little attention to this." invest its walls with a degree of interest scarcely to The following, no doubt, refers to a Christian pasbe exceeded by any other remains of past ages. 'I tor, discovered by the emissaries of the second have spent,' says Raoul Rochette,' many entire days Antonine while praying in the catacombs.
The in this sanctuary of antiquity. And were it only the event belongs to the fifth persecution, which began treasure of impressions which we receive from this in the year 161. A number of circumstances are immense collection of Christian epitaphs, taken from worthy of notice in this inscription; the beginning, the graves of the catacombs, and now attached to the which breaks out into an assurance of immortality, walls of the Vatican, this alone would be an inex- the insecurity of the time—the difficulty of procuring haustible fund of recollections and enjoyment for a Christian burial for the martyrs; and the concluding whole life.'”
sentence, recalling the words of Paul, “ as dying, and It is, of course, but a partial glance which we behold we live," and "if in this life only we have obtain in Dr Maitland's work of the three thousand hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable.” inscriptions thus rescued from oblivion, and preserved “ In Christ, Alexander is not dead, but lives beyond the from demolition and decay on the walls of the Vati- stars, and his body rests in this tomb. He lived under the can. But the first impression produced by the gene emperor Antonine, who, foreseeing that great benefit would ral survey here afforded, is the extreme simplicity result from his services, returned evil for good. For while of character, manners, and sentiments, which, judging on his knees, about to sacrifice to the true God, he was led from these memorials, marked the ancient Christians away to execution. O sad times! in which sacred rites and
prayers, even in caverns, afford no protection to us. What of Rome. Gathered, as we have reason to know, can be more wretched than such a life? and what than such .chiefly from the humbler ranks of society, their a death? when they could not be buried by their friends and monuments bear evidence, in the rudeness of their relations. At length they sparkle in heaven. He has scarcely style and meagreness of decoration, to the recorded lived who has lived in Christian times." * fact, that “not many wise men after the flesh, not The pagans, in accordance with their hopeless many mighty, not many noble,” were called at that creed, reduced the bodies of their departed friends to time to bear witness to Christ. Perhaps, too, the ashes, which were preserved in urns. The Christians, constant apprehension of detection may have pre- in token of their belief in the resurrection of the vented them from furnishing any thing more than a body, committed it entire to the earth, and paid great simple memorial of the departed, and may account attention to the subject of interment. But the cerefor the absence generally of all information as to mony, which seems to have been accompanied with their relatives, designations, and other particulars. embalment, after the manner of the Jews, though An incoherent sentence, or a straggling mis-spelt consoling to the living, only served to prolong the scrawl, such as Toroc piamuoruc, “ the place of Phile- decay of the dead; and time has accomplished, in mon,” inscribed upon a rough slab, destined to close the lapse of centuries, the speedier result of the fire. a niche in caverns where daylight could never pene. The following displays a tomb, cut out of the side of trate, tells of a persecuted, or at least oppressed, com- the sand galleries, and closed by a single slab, bearing munity. What can be simpler than the following ?- the inscription, “Valeria sleeps in peace :"
• The original words here are "PARVM VIXIT. QVI VIXIT tation, may not the first words stand alone, thus- " He has IV. X. TEM." Dr Maitland tells us he has ventured to render the scarcely lived who has lived ?"-a striking reflection on the vanity of concluding letters "IV. X. TEM." by " in Christianis temporibus." life, agreeing with the first sentence, “ He is not dead, but lives." -( The Church in the Catacombs, p. 32.) We doubt this interpre. The following letters may point to the date of the erection. I
Dust is seen lying on the lower wall of the cell, sleeps in Christ;' another is buried with a prayer that she resembling the shadow of a skeleton. “It reminds may live in the Lord Jesus.' But most of all, the cross in its us," says our author, “ of the words of Horace, “We simplest form is employed to testify the faith of the deceased ;
and whatever ignorance may have prevailed regarding the are but dust and a shadow.'»
letter of the Holy Writ, or the more mysterious doctrines The ornaments accompanying these inscriptions contained in it, there seems to have been no want of appreare, as has been already said, extremely simple, con- hension of that sacrifice, whereby alone we obtain remission sisting chiefly of palm-leaves or olive branches, the of our sins, and are made partakers of the kingdom of symbols of victory and peace, or the figure of a cross,
God.' The elements of a pure faith were written with an
iron pen, in the rock, for ever;' and if the Church of after rudely scratched on the stone. The latter sign, it is
times had looked back to her subterranean home, 'to the certain, came into use very early in the Christian
hole of the pit whence she was digged,' she would have Church; but we are strongly inclined to believe that sought in vain for traces of forced celibacy, the invocation of at first it was intended to represent, not the cross, saints, and the representation of Deity in painting or sculpbut the name of Christ, just as, using the Greek X, ture."—(Pp. 14-25.) we may now write Xtian. The following is the Positive testimonies are not wanting to some of monogram or figure which is frequently used in
the practices of the early Christians, directly opthese inscriptions for the words “In Christ,” and posed to the innovations of Papal Rome. The folwhich is always so rendered by our author :
lowing is sufficient to prove the marriage of the clergy :
“To Basilius the presbyter, and Felicitas his wife.”
“Petronia, a Levile's wife" (Maitland translates this, a priest's uite), “the type of modesty. In this place I lay my bones. Spare your tears, dear husband and daughters, and
believe that it is forbidden to weep for one who lives in From the resemblance this bore to the figure of the
God." cross it came afterwards to be identified with it, Such expressions as “living in God,” “ living in and gradually, as superstition increased, it became a Christ,” “ in
peace," a sweet soul in the place of crucifix, the object of a stupid adoration-a charm- refreshment,” “ borne away by angels,” ceasing an exorcism." The original intention,” says Maitland, from weeping," &c., which abound in these memo" of the symbol was entirely lost: from being a token rials, plainly show that the notion of a purgatory had of joy, crowned with flowers, a sign in which to con- never entered into the conceptions of the primitive quer, it became a thing of tears and agony, a stock Christians of Rome. The practice of infant baptism subject with the artist anxious to display his power is proved beyond all contradiction. of representing anguish."-(P. 162.) The following rude inscription proves the use of the cross to which
“Flavia Jovina, who lived three years and thirty days—
a neophyte-in peace." we have now referred, in the word “ Christi :"
“ The tile (tegula) of Candidus, the neophyte, who lived twenty-one months."
"The baptismal rite was often performed below ground, and fonts have been discovered in some of the chapels. The earliest recorded discussion within the Church upon the subject of infant baptism, is that which occurred in the year 253, as
to whether the rite should be deferred till the eighth day of LANNVS XỘI · MA
the infant's life. Cyprian disavows all knowledge of RTIR HIC REQVIESC
tinction between washing and sprinkling.”—(Pp. 222, 223.) IT • SUB DIOCLISIANO
On the offices and customs of the ancient Church,"
the information to be gleaned from these monuments PASSUS.
is much more unsatisfactory. On the vexed question “Lannus, the Martyr of Christ, rests here. He suffered
of Church government, what is here given is so exunder Diocletian.
ceedingly scanty, that we fear the Episcopalian pre
possessions of Dr Maitland must have prevented him But the most important purpose served by these from doing full justice to the subject. We do not ancient remains is the testimony which they bear accuse him of wilfully withholding testimonies which to the purity of the Christian faith and practice in might have told against his favourite form of polity, the age to which they refer. The allusions to but we have no doubt there are some of these which Christian doctrine are, indeed, very scanty; but the would have arrested the eye of a Presbyterian inves-strength of the argument which they furnish lies in tigator, and which he, being less on the outlook for the silence which they maintain on
them, has failed to notice. He seems to have prosuperstitions which characterized the Church of ceeded on the assumption, that Rome must always Rome in later times.
have had its diocesan bishop; and the following re“In general, our author remarks, "the inscriptions con,
marks, which are almost the only data on which we tained in the Lapidarian gallery, selected and arranged can form a guess at the real truth, are rather curiunder Papal superintendence, there are no prayers for the dead, no addresses to the Virgin Mary, nor to the apostles or earlier saints. The distinctive character of these re- "The highest office in the primitive Church of Rome was mains is essentially Christian; the name of Christ is re- that of bishop--the Episcopus or Papa. The last title, litepeated in an endless variety of forms; the second person of the Trinity is neither viewed in the Jewish light of a
rally signifying Father, though since become limited in its use,
was originally applied to bishops in general. In all the epistles temporal Messiah, nor degraded to the Socinian estimate of a mere example, but ie invested with all the honours of a
addressed to Cyprian by the Roman clergy, the Bishop of Redeemer. On this subject there is no reserve. On stones
Carthage is styled, 'The Blessed Pope Cyprian.' The form innumerable appears the Good Shepherd, bearing on his
is preserved by our Church in the words, Most Reverend shoulders the recovered sheep, by which many an 'illiterate
Father in God.' Jerome also applies the word Papa to the believer expressed his sense of personal salvation. One
head of a monastery. The title is found in an epitaph in the Lapidarian Gallery :