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Supreme, circuit and district courts, - 26

Courts martial and court for the trial of impeachments, 27

Section 4.

Appointment of officers and salaries, ... ib.

Manner of appointing officers and filling vacancies, ib.

Of the salaries, ..... 28


Of the Powers, Rights and Duties of the General and, State Governments.

Section 1.

Foreign relations—War, Peace, Treaties, - - 30
Power of declaring and making war vested in congress, ib.
Power of making peace and treaties vested in the presi-
dent and senate, - * - - - 31
When congress interfere in treaties, - ib.
The president represents the majesty of the nation with

foreign powers, .... ib.

Section 2.

Finance, - ... - - - . 32

The power of taxation vested in congress, ib.

Objects of these powers, .... a.
Of the treasury—coining of money and its regulation

—bills of revenue, ... 33

Section 3.

Commerce, ...... ib.

Regulation of Commerce, ... ib.

Establishment of a national bank, - - ib.

System of bankrupt laws, ... 34

Section 4.

General and penal Legislation, - - - 35 General and special powers of congress to make penal

laws, ..... 35

Treason and attainder of treason, - - 36

Manner of trying crimes, ... ib.

Of the pardoning power, ... ib.

Of impeachments, .... a.

Of the supreme law of the land, ... ib.

Section 5.

Judicial Power, - - - - - - - 37

Extent of the judicial power, - ib.
Original and appellate jurisdiction, - - 38
Of the auxiliary system between the general govern-
ment and the states, ... ib.

Section 6.

New States, * - - - - - 39

Of the admission of new states into the Union, ib.

New states admitted, .... ib.

Section 7.

Local Jurisdiction of Congress, ... ib.

Places over which congress have exclusive legislation, ib.

Of the territory and other property of the United States, 40

Section 8.

Miscellaneous powers of Congress, ... ib.

Special powers of congress, - - ib.

Naturalization of foreigners, - - - 41

Section 9.

Protection of the States and guarantee of Republican government, ..... 42

Definition of the term republican form of government, ib.

Protection of the states against invasion and domes-
tic violence, - - , - - ib.

Section 10.

Restrictions on State and Federal Power, - - 43

Restrictions on the states, ... a.

Restrictions on congress, ... 44

Of the bill of rights, - ib.
Difference between the constitution and confederation

in the reserved powers, ... ib.

Section 11.

Public Law between the States, ... 45
Mutual rights of citizens, ... ib.
Fugitives from justice and personal service to be deli-
vered up on demand, - - ib.
The acts, records and proceedings of each state to

have full faith and credit in every other state, ib.

Section 12.

Mode of amending the constitution, ... 46

Manner of proposing amendments, - - ib.

Ratification of these amendments, - ib.

Amendments which have been made, - ib.

Concluding Remarks.

Beauty and harmony of the system of government under the

constitution, ..... 47

Balance between the two principles of national and state sovereignty, ..... 48

Distribution of powers between the federal and state governments, ...... ib.

APPENDIX. No. I. Declaration of Independence, ... 51


No. II. Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, 58 No. III. Constitution of the United States, with its amendments, - - - - - - 68

No. IV. "Washington's Farewell Letter, - - 86

Addenda, ------ 105

List of Contributors, - 107


This little work has no pretensions, save that of brevity and clearness. It is intended for the benefit of youth, of the general reader, and of foreigners. 1 believe that no attempt of the kind has yet been made; I mean on so limited a scale. I have endeavoured by a method of my own, to compress in plain and popular language, the prominent features of our excellent constitution in as small a space as possible, and at the same time to avoid obscurity. Whether 1 have succeeded or not, it is for the reader to determine.

I have" addressed this essay (for it claims no higher title) to the Law Academy of Philadelphia. For more than fourteen years I have had the honour of being at the head of that useful institution, who, during that time have been zealously pursuing their steady course, and whose members have enriched the legal profession with several valuable works. It is not so much for their instruction that I have presented them with this result of my studies, as that they might see in it a tribute of friendship and a testimony of my constant at

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