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The language of the names upon it is English, but they are all spelt after a German fashion. The surveyor has written ve for way: as, to the left of the town, after passing the waterhos, or “water-house,” is the medel ve, that is, the middle way; and to the extreme right of the map is Bolen ve, the way to Boulogne. Near this is the laser hos, the lazar-house, or hospital for lepers. Master Stephen has written od for wood, as Caleve od and Sanddyng felde od ; and mel for mill, as fines mel. Churches, fields, and dykes, are described by kerck, feld, and dyck, and every bulwark is marked bolvork, though the latter word has in some places been altered to bolwork by the lithographer. The several pools of water called plashes by the English are written plays. “Wetel's plays," near Guisnes, was so named after the family of Whetehyll, noticed in p. xli. : there was also Whetehill's bulwark at Guisnes, mentioned in p. 199. Towards the centre of the map is the tornpick, i.e. the turnpike.
Passing out of the town of Calais, towards Boulogne, the traveller saw on his left the gallows and wheel, seldom, if ever, unfurnished with the mouldering remains of the traitor, the spy, or the robber. He then went past the fortress of Newnham bridge, marked ne non bruge in the map, * and proceeded by a few houses at the causey, (written case,) which houses were burnt by the French in 1513, (see p. 13 of our chronicle), to the village of Pepeling. Of this parish the antiquary Leland was some time the rector. On the right, after passing Pepeling, is Boninges, beyond Thomas Pettyt,” as marked on its back. No. 75 is a map roughly drawn of all the country of Guynes and Bolenois. No. 69 is a map of the fields near Guisnes.
In “ Les Plans et Profiles de toutes les principales Villes de France, par le Sieur Tassin," an oblong quarto, 1638, are-1. Carte particuliere des environs de Calais ; 2. A plan of Calais ; 3. A view of Calais ; 4. A plan of Le fort de Nieulet (Newnhambridge).
A view of Calais, drawn by Johan Peeters, is in the “ Topographia Galliæ, Francof. 1656,” vol. ii. and also a plan of the town.
* The name Newnhambridge seems to have been an alteration from Newlandbridge, under which title it occurs in lord Berners' translation of Froissart, and in Holinshed, reign of Edward III. ; and the latter was apparently corrupted from Nieullet, which is the orthography of Mr. Johnes's Froissart, and of most of the French writers, ancient and modern : in a map by L. Denis, 1776, it is “Fort Nieulay.” In the old edition of Froissart, Paris, 1530, it is printed “ le pont de Millaiz,” a form evidently partaking of clerical error.
+ Leland's license for his perpetual non-residence from his “ parsonage of Peppeling," was dated 12 July, 1536, (Pat. 28 Hen. VIII. pars 1, n. 19,) and is appended to his Life, Oxf. 1772, p. 83.
which is “ Pettem,” called Pytham in a record of the time of Henry VIII.*
Besides Calais, and its contiguous fortresses of Risebank and Newnhambridge, the principal places in the map are the Flemish town of Graveling, at the extreme left; the French castle of Ardres, near the upper margin ; the English town and castle of Guysnes ; and the castle of Hammes. Between Calais and Graveling will be seen Marck and Owe, or Oye ; places which gave name to the royal manors into which the adjacent country was divided, and the bailiwicks of which formed places for the English office-hunters. A little above Marck is “ Colaem,” or Colume, where was one of the principal fortalices in the reign of Edward III. (see p. xxxiii): it is written Coulogne in a map by Louis Denis, Oct. 1776.
As showing, in some degree, the manner in which the country was inhabited, the following document may be here introduced. It was written early in the reign of Elizabeth, at the time when calculations were made as to the probability of recovering Calais.t
Indorsed,—A certyffycate of suche persones dwelling in Callyce and
Hames, as be well affected to the English Natyon.
(MS. Harl. 283. f. 154.)
In Calis, John Masters, at the salmander, a Calisian born. There is another John de Master there, but he is a Frenchman.
In Calis, mistris Burton, at the three headdes.
In Calis, seargeant Marian, the seargeant of the haven, that gives and takes the passeportes ; a sure and trustie freind.
Without the landgate, along the dyke, is John Harvye ; he is a boateman ; sure also.
At Waldam the brewer is a Calisian, called Thomas Haines ; there is another that keepes lodging, whose name is forgotten.
* Nicholas Hall clerk was presented to the church of the blessed Mary at Pytham, in the county of Guysnes, within the marches of Calais, and diocese of Canterbury, the 26th March, 1530, which was then vacant by death. Pat. 21 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 2, in Rymer, xiv. 387. + See Ellis's Original Letters, Second Series, vol. ii. p. 2.
Wael dam in the map, on the road to Gravelines.
Att Oey, along the downes, * ar three Calisians, fishermen ; sure also; butt there names ar forgotten.
Beyond Oey, in the waie to Graveling, next to Graveling, in the two greate farmes, dwelleth Harrie Grenewood; the other I have forgotten.
At Mark, are two northern wemen, that kepe vittaileng ; bothe sure.
Downe in the marrishe, toward Hammes, I thenk there be vj Calisian soldiours, sure.
At Hammes Castell, the brewer is a Calisian, sure, John Hawll.
At Hammes there is one Haines, that hath in farme all the fisheng in the pooles from Hammes to Ard.
In Gysnes there are two bretheren, called Vincentes, the one a cowper, the other a farmer.
Half a myle out of Gysnes, a rich man ; his name is Peter John (son . . .... (the paper cut off.)
The farmer of mounser de Vinion is a Calisian, but hated of the Inglishe.
Att Mount de Ore,I dwelleth a fouterer, called Archer, an Irishman; sure.
Att Tourneyham, next howse to the further gate, dwelleth a widow Calisian ; a sure freind.
In the high waie to St. Omer's from thence dwelleth John King; the village forgotten.
In St. Omer's, William Smith, by St. Bartaines ; and diverse others, both within and without.
At Ark there is an odd fellow, called mouns' de Prye ; sure.
By St. Augustine's cloisture there is one sure freind; butt he muste not be named, for good respect.
All thereabout dwell Calisians; and yf there be anie hollow-harted amongst them, they all will hate him lyke a toade.
* The sand hills on the sea coast.
+ Probably the “ Hof kerck” of our map, and “Offekerque " in the map by L. Denis, 1776.
I “Mountore" will be found at the upper corner of the map.
There be Fleminges a nombre, that in anie action will be readie to helpe where gaine may arise.
Lawrence Minter, an Inglishe soldiour, dwelling between Graveling and Mark-dyke.
Other Englishe soldiours there be that do serve within Graveling, who be trustie and assured ; and so there be dispersed throughout the contrie a number of others well affected, and readie to service for England.
CAPTAINS, LIEUTENANTS, AND DEPUTIES OF CALAIS.
Froissart states that the first captain of Calais appointed by Edward III. was Sir Amery of Pavia, “a Lumbard borne, whom the kyng had greatly avaunced,” and that before the expiration of eighteen months this Lombard plotted to sell the town to the French, but having been discovered was pardoned, on condition of his continuing the negociation, and entrapping the captain of St. Omer's, with whom he treated. Of the consummation of this plot, and the repulse of the Frenchmen, in which the king was personally engaged, a long and interesting account is given by Froissart. That historian, however, seems to have mistaken the post occupied by the Italian, who was appointed commander of the King's galleys by patent dated Westminster, 24 April, 1348, (Rymer, v. 619,) but by a previous patent, dated at Calais, 8th Oct. 1347, and therefore a few weeks only after its surrender, John de Montgomery was appointed captain of the town of Calais, and at the same date John de Gatesden was appointed Marshal of the town. (Rymer, v. 293.)
The following list of the captains and other chief commanders of Calais was probably extracted from the records cited, whilst the town was still in the possession of England. The editor has not attempted to make such additions to it as a careful research would doubtless produce, except a few names towards the latter end, in connection with the period of the present volume. The index to the Rolls of Parliament, p. 112, refers to some other names, as well as to several particulars connected with the administration of those who are here mentioned. The high rank of many of them corresponds with the statement of Comines, that the captainship of Calais was one of the best places in Christendom.
[MS. Cotton. Faustina, E. vii. f. 16.) Johannes de Chivereston constituitur capitaneus et custos villæ Calisiæ quamdiu regi placuerit. Teste rege apud Westm. 1 Dec. ao 21. (2 pars Franc. 21 Edw. III. m. 4.)