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St. Mary's church is still standing.* The other church gave place to the new citadel formed by cardinal Richelieu.
The hotel-de-ville, situated in the market-place, has still a belfry, the chimes of which are celebrated. The guildhall of the staple, in which the prince of Castille's lodgings were prepared in 1508 (p. 60), and those of Henry VIII. in 1532,t is likewise in existence, and, in the words of Sir Henry Ellis, “exhibits a curious mixture of the well-known Tudor style with the forms of Flemish architecture." After the capture of the town, in 1558, the Staple inn was appropriated for the residence of the conqueror, and from him it has since borne the name of the hotel de Guise.
The names of all the principal towers on the walls may be gathered from the documents in the Appendix to this volume. In looking at the print, and proceeding from the right hand towards the left, we accompany “the ordre of the wardes” described in p. 159. The first remarkable feature is the Watergate, near which many ships are waiting ; we may suppose them fishing-boats in the “ herring-time," of which busy season, and its attendant cares, some curious particulars will be found at p. 152. Directly in front of this are buildings which on one side terminated the quay in front of the town, and which connected the town wall with a round tower, built immediately upon the water, and guarding the entrance to the inner harbour. This is believed to have been the Search or Searcher's tower mentioned in p. 123 and p. 161.
The next and principal gate of the town is the Lantern gate. In advance of this now stands the gate which is well known from a print by Hogarth, and which was built in 1685, when the modern fortifications were formed by cardinal Richelieu. In the same situation, in our ancient view, are seen “ the hedd bytwene both stayres byfore the Lanterne gate, and also the pere that standeth in the Fishers' gap," all which required repair in 1530 (see p. 123). On the quay without the Lantern gate was a spot called Paradise, no doubt originally a garden, and here it was that the games of keyles
* The discovery, in 1840, of some paintings in St. Mary's church, which were accompanied by an inscription commemorative of Thomas Wodehouse, and various shields of arms (different from those borne by the present Wodehouse family), will be found noticed in the Gentleman's Magazine, N. S. vol. xx. p. 77.
+ In 1520 the King was lodged at the exchequer. (Holinshed.) In 1532, the exchequer was prepared for the French king, (see p. 117.)
and hand-out were played in the days of Henry the Eighth.* The name of Paradise occurs as early as the reign of Richard the Second,t and it is still retained in the nomenclature of the town, though now but little appropriate to the purlieus of a sea-port.
The great tower terminating the line of wall in the view was the Beauchamp tower, and in advance thereof we see the Beauchamp bulwark, the services assigned to which, in event of an enemy's approach, are described in p. 125. In proceeding, from this point, round the walls in the rear of the town (and the reader may now turn to the annexed Map,) we arrive at the Milk gate, no doubt so called from its affording the readiest access to the adjoining pastures. There was a new bulwark before this, in the reign of Henry VIII., and another before the next principal tower, called Dewlyn, Dyvelin, or Dublin tower. Soon after the Staple Inn abutted upon the town wall; then came the Prince's tower and bulwarks ; and not far distant was one called the Northumberland tower (named in p. 160); after which succeeded the Boulogne gate, and from thence there was one principal ward of the walls to the Castle.
Sir Henry Ellis, writing in 1827, remarked that, “ The southern bulwarks are yet defended by the identical bastions erected according to the orders given by Henry VIII., and which continue unaltered within the rampart which forms the modern fortification;" but from a subsequent writer it appears that, more recently, “ the inner ramparts have been removed to make way for bastions."
In order to illustrate the situation of the several places in the vicinity of Calais that are mentioned in the course of the volume, a reduced copy has been made of a contemporary map, which is preserved in the Cottonian collection, Aug. I. ij. 71. There can be little doubt that this is the “platt of the marches" which was made by Stephen the Almayne, in the year 1540.||
* See p. xli.
+ Act for the repair of the haven of Caleys, 21 Ric. II. Rot. Parl. vol. iii. p. 371. There was a spot bearing the same name near the palace of Westminster.
See note at p. 126. § Murray's Handbook for France, 1843.
|| See the extract in p. 197, from the Proceedings, &c. of the Privy Council, vol. vii. In the Index to that volume, p. 360, this person has been identified with “ Mr. Steven," who was in 1542 master of the works at Carlisle. There is, in the same collection, No. 57 b, another “Platt of the Lowe country at Calais," made in 37 Hen. VIII. “ by me
Ratuned Fat-simile , s ! 22e of Orginal Drawung in Brit. Mus. Cott MS Aug. I vol. 2.f. 71.
Map of the Marches