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This volume of the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA, for the year 1868, presents the complete restoration, as members of the Union, of all the Southern States except three, and the final disappearance of all difficulties between the citizens of those States and the Federal Government. The execution of the reconstruction acts of Congress was commenced near the close of the previous year, elections were held and delegates chosen to conventions in the several States ; these conventions assembled; constitutions were drafted, discussed, amended and submitted to the people, and adopted. New and important principles, working a radical change in the society of the Southern States, were thus declared and enforced. The military rulers, quietly surrendering their authority to the civil officers, withdrew, and the several States thus reorganized again appeared by their representatives in the chambers of Congress and took an active part in its proceedings. In these pages will be found the details of all the steps taken to reach this end, such as the registration acts, and the qualifications required of voters in order to make the discrimination demanded by Congress; the orders of the military commanders, the proceedings of the conventions, the features of the new constitutions, and their adoption; the reorganization of the State governments; the removal of incumbents, and the inauguration of new executive officers; the assembling of the Legislatures ; the coöperation of the colored men in all these proceedings; the strifes of factions, and the gradual restoration of order, with the final and complete amnesty proclaimed by the President.

The details of the internal affairs of the United States comprise the revenue and expenditure of the Government, the change in the nature and extent of its public debt, the fluctuations of its currency, and the receipts from its system of taxation, with its operation upon the industrial interests and prosperity of the people; the extent of the banking system; the fruits of agriculture and the activity of commerce; the proceedings in the Southern States to complete the reorganization of their social affairs; the various political conventions of the year, both national and State ; the results of the elections; the acts of State Legislatures; the rapid improvement of educational and charitable institutions under the care of the State governments; the debts and resources of the several States, and all those facts which show their surprising development.

In Europe and Asia movements commenced to throw off the burden of some of the old governments and secure a greater degree of freedom to the people. On the former continent these movements were comparatively peaceful, while on the latter they were attended with violent and bloody disturbances. The details of these events, together with the peaceful progress of affairs in other countries of the world, as well as the extent and influence of the public press in many parts of Europe, are fully narrated.

The progress of mechanical industry among civilized nations, especially as shown by such stupendous public works as the Suez Canal, the Pacific Railroad, the Mont Cenis and Hoosac Tunnels, and the sewage embankment of the Thames,' is illustrated and fully shown.

Not less interest than usual has existed in the diplomatic relations of the Federal Government with foreign nations, especially in the negotiations relative to the Alabama claims, the purchase of territory from Russia and other countries, and the difficulties with Paraguay.

The developments in the various branches of Astronomical, Chemical, and other sciences, with the new applications to useful purposes, are extensively described.

The alarming and destructive earthquakes which have terrified the inhabitants of several countries are fully noticed, as also the scourge among the cattle of this country, and the measures taken to combat it.

Geographical discoveries have continued in all quarters of the globe, and the discoveries made have been fully related.

The record of Literature is as extensive as usual, and the titles of all the more important works have been arranged under the various classes to which they belong

The interesting history of the religious denominations of the country, with an account of their conventions, branches, membership, views on social affairs, and the progress of their opinions, is presented from official sources.

A brief tribute has been given to the memory of deceased persons of note in every department of society.

All important documents, messages, orders, treaties, and letters from official persons, have been inserted entire.



А. ABYSSINIA, a kingdom or empire in East- edge

of the highlands, and having the White ern Africa. Abyssinia proper has an area esti- and Blue Nile on the west and the Red Sea mated at 158,392 English square miles, and rather south by east. The following are some a population of from three to four millions; but of the principal towns : the whole of the Ethiopian plateau, which Gondar, in Amhara — the capital of the sometimes is also designated by the name of kingdom.--This town is stated by Heuglin, in Abyssinia, has, according to the Roman Catholic 1862, to have contained from six thousand to Bishop Massaja, and most of the recent writers seven thousand inhabitants, but it is said to on Abyssinia, a population of about 12,000,000 have been within the last two or three years of people, 9,000,000 of whom are Sidama and totally destroyed by the Emperor Theodore. Gallas. Abyssinia proper consists of a high Debra Tabor, in Amhara. - Formerly a small mountainous table-land, the eastern boundary village. It is now a place of considerable size, of which may be considered roughly as follow- and was the residence of the Emperor Theoing the fortieth degree of east longitude. Be- dore. Near Debra Tabor is Gaffat, where the tween this mountainous region and the sea European workmen of the Emperor resided, there is a tract of arid, low lying, water- and which was considered as his arsenal. less country, inhabited by the savage Danakil Adowa, the capital of Tigré.-- This is the tribes; this region at Massowah is only a few second city in the kingdom. It is stated by miles broad, but it widens out to two hundred MM. Ferret and Galinier to have contained in or three hundred miles at Tajurrah. In cli- 1840 not more than 4,000 inhabitants. Heumnate, inhabitants, soil, cultivation, etc., these glin, in 1862, put the population at 6,000. The two regions are totally opposite, the highlands miserable nature of Abyssinian towns may be being salubrious, temperate, generally well judged of by the description given by Manswatered and traversed by paths in every di- field Parkyns, in 1843, of this, the second city rection; while the low country is arid, water of the empire. He says: “I own I rather less, with few exceptions trackless and uncul- expected to see columns or obelisks, if not an tivated. This inhospitable region effectually acropolis, on some of the neighboring hills. cats off the highlands from all communication Judge, then, of my astonishment when, on arwith the sea except at three points, Massowah riving at this great city, the capital of one of and its neighborhood on the north, Amphilla the most powerful kingdoms of Ethiopia, I Bay, about one hundred miles to the southeast, found nothing but a large straggling village of and Tajurrah on the south. From these threó huts, some flat roofed, but mostly thatched points the roads into the interior are of a very with straw, and the walls of all of them built different character, for at Massowah they very of rough stones, laid together with mud, in the soon climb the eastern boundary of the high- rudest possible manner. Being wet, moreover, lands and continue along the elevated land, with the rain, the place presented the most whilst from Tajurrah they have to traverse miserably dirty appearance." two hundred or three hundred miles, and from Mr. Dufton, who visited Adowa, puts its Amphilla Bay from fifty to one hundred miles population at 10,000. of the low lying country before they reach the Antalo—the capital of Enderta, and one of highlands. The western and southern bound the principal towns of Tigré.—It is said by aries of Abyssinia are very undefined, but they Ferret and Galinier to contain from two hunmay be taken roughly as conterminous with the dred to three hundred houses.


Ankobar—the capital of Shoa.

exercised jurisdiction over the larger portion Angolala.—This is a place of considerable of Tigré, and several chiefs in northern Abyssize in Shoa. It is said to contain from three sinia acknowledged his supremacy. For some thousand to four thousand inhabitants.

months past he had maintained a large army Aliya Amba.—This is a large market town near Magdala, and had frequently boasted that in Shoa, and is said by D'Héricourt to contain he would attack the royal camp. Lieutenant from two thousand to three thousand inhabit. Prideaux, one of the captives, in a letter, dated ants.

18th October, 1867, reported that the WagPolitical anarchy, which for centuries has shum had marched into the Wollo-Galla counbeen the normal condition of Abyssinia, pre- . try against the Queen Waizero Masteeat. From vailed throughout the country at the beginning the letter of the London Times's correspondent, of the year 1868. The larger portion of the writing from Senafé on the 15th December, it country did not recognize the authority of The appeared that the British were in direct comodore, and many of the chiefs were in a state munication with Gobazie. of war either against Theodore or against The difficulty between England and King each other. The following was reported in Theodore of Abyssinia, during the past three January, 1868, to be the position of the more years, directed the special attention of the civilprominent chiefs:

ized world, and, in particular, the attention of Theodore, reported as holding only a small scholars, to the affairs of this country. The portion of Begamider and the two Ambas of origin of this difficulty has already been Debra Tabor and Magdala; the latter on the briefly referred to in the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA border of the Wollo-Galla country.- Menilek, for 1866. As, in the latter part of 1867, an King of Shoa. It was reported that a treaty important war grew out of the diplomatic dishad been made between him and the Wagshum agreement, a fuller résumé of the chief facts in Gobazie, on condition that, if they should over- the progress of the difficulty will be found come Theodore, Magdala was to be made over both interesting and useful. We begin this to Menilek. The latter addressed a letter, with résumé with the year 1848, when Lord Palmerfriendly overtures, to Queen Victoria, which ston appointed Mr. Walter Plowden consul was forwarded to the Queen by Colonel Mere- for Abyssinia, " for the protection of British wether in July, 1866.— Tirsoo Gobazie, at this trade." Consul Plowden, November 2, 1859, time exercised absolute sway over the prov- concluded a treaty of friendship and cominces of Wolkait and Samien, while several mi- merce with Ras Ali, King Theodore's predenor chiefs between Mantamma and Massowah cessor. In 1854, Ras Ali was defeated by recognized his supremacy. Some time before Kasai, who then got himself crowned under he had applied to the Egyptians for aid against the title of Theodorus, King of Kings, of Theodore, and it was reported he still main- Ethiopia. On June 25, 1855, Consul Plowtained friendly relations with the Viceroy.- den wrote to Lord Clarendon, describing King Kassai or Kassa. This man was said to have Theodore as a kind of warrior-saint, who had joined the Wagshum Gobazie in his first re- risen to reform Abyssinia. The King, howbellion against Theodore, and subsequently to ever, declined to permit the British consul to have turned against Gobazie and set up to be a reside in Abyssinia, on the ground that the king on his own account, wresting from his consular power interfered with his own. Mr. former master the larger portion if not the Plowden stated to him that Massowah would whole of Tigré. His last feat was the sacking be given up to him if he permitted the conof Adowa, the capital. The relations between sulate to be established. Theodore proposed him and the Wagshum were any thing but to send an ambassador to Queen Victoria, and friendly, and his overtures to the English were wished to know whether he would be reundoubtedly with a view to strengthen his posi- ceived. The conduct of Mr. Plowden was aption against his formidable antagonist.-Gebra proved, November 27, 1855, by Lord ClarenMehdin or Gabra Mathan. He seems to be the don, who intimated the readiness of the Britsame individual who prevented Dr. Beke from ish Government to receive an Abyssinian emproceeding inland from Halai. At that time bassy, on condition that the King renounced he was governor on the part of the Wagshum all idea of conquest in Egypt, and at Massoof the adjoining Akula-Kossay (or Okulekusai) wah. On February 2, 1861, Captain Came-the district in which Halai is situated, and ron was appointed consul in room of Mr. Plowhe appeared to hold the same appointment den, who had been killed about 1856, in Abysstill; but, as the tribes were determined to get sinia, by a rebel chief. To revenge Plowden's rid of him, he sought the intervention of the death, King Theodore killed the rebel chief British, who told him that, being in direct with his own hand in battle, and executed communication with his master, they declined 1,500 of his followers. He did this, he said, having any thing to do with him.

to win her Majesty's friendship. On February Wagshum Gobazie (the hereditary Shum or 20, 1862, Earl Russell wrote to King TheoPrince of Waag, a district of Lasta). This was dore, thanking him for his kindness to Mr. one of Theodore's most formidable antagonists, Plowden, informing him of the appointment and the most successful of the insurgent chiefs. of Captain Cameron, but saying nothing about Until a short time before he appears to have the reception of the ambassador. Consul

Cameron, on October 31, 1868, reported that a safe passage for his ambassadors. The King he had been received with all honor by Theo- stated that he wished an answer by Mr. Camedore. Mr. Cameron committed the blunder of ron, who would conduct his embassy to Engrefusing to accept the King's presents, although land. This letter, received by Earl Russell, he knew the refusal was of the nature of an February 12, 1863, was never answered. In insult." His Majesty," wrote the consul, place of returning to Massowah with the " made no reply for half an hour." On his King's letter to Queen Victoria, and to his return from Abyssinia, January, 1863, Consul consulate, Consul Cameron, March 31, 1863, Cameron was intrusted with a letter from proceeded to some of the Turkish tribes on King Theodore to Queen Victoria, asking for the frontier, who were Theodore's bitter

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demies. He is accused of having spoken very by Earl Russell, on September 8, 1863, and he mnadvisedly of the King of Abyssinia when on was told to return to Massowah. Toward the this journey. On April 22, 1863, Earl Rus- close of the year 1863, Mr. Cameron returned all wrote to Consul Cameron, disapproving to Gondar to the King of Abyssinia, without bis meddling in the affairs of Abyssinia, and any answer to the letter written by the latter to telling him he ought to have returned to Mas- the Queen. On Mr. Rassam's arrival in 1864,* wwah when ordered to do so. Another and sharper rebuke was sent to Consul Cameron *On Mr. Rassam, see ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1867, p. 2

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