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For FEBRUARY, 1821.


Mr. URBAN, Inner Temple, Feb. 2. It will be seen in the following I SEND you copies of some unpub- Letters, that he was on a familiar

lished Letters of that prioce of footing with the Duchess of SomerPrognosticators, William Lilly *, to set, and was not only consulted by his learned but credulous friend Elias her in private, but publicly admitted Ashmolet. They tally exactly with to her table. the character of seeming simplicity The origioals of these Epistles, and and real shrewdoese which he has so of some others of less interest, are amposingly delineated in his “Memoirs among the manuscripts in the British of his Life and Times," a work which Museum. Some few words are so has been recently introduced to the illegible from age and friction, that I public in a new and interesting form, have not been able to decipher them ; in a Number of the Retrospective but the reader will find no difficulty Review. The promineot part which in supplying the omissions, from the Lilly plays io 'Hudibras, under the sense of the context. pame of Sidrophel, would alone be sofficient to confer a considerable de

Hersham, 10 Nov. 1671. gree of interest on the character and

Honourable Patron, history of this accomplished impostor ; but the respectable rank in society comply with Mr. Andrewes, for the good

I tell you seriously I was content to which he acquired and maintained, of the... ...; be sayd he had lived an the faith wbich so many of every uncomfortable life this halfe yeare, every class of life reposed in bis predictions, one sneering at him, and nobody taking and the political importance which notice of him. I smarily responded, you was attached to him in the middle of must.... lesse and performe more ; then the seventeenth century, render him I reprobated all. ..; at last, put my worthy of being recorded as a striking finger on my

and sayde ioslance of the triumph of credulity, he went away presentlie to the Dutchesse in a comparatively recent period, of Somerset, told her Mr. Lilly and be over the learned and unlearned of an

weare friends. Three days before, her caligbtened nation. We can scarcely Grace sent

for me to dinner. I told her induce our minds to believe that the all

, before persons of qualitye; after din.

er, she sept for me ; we had private concoolemporaries of Milton and Butler ference; had he not [been) reconciled, were the dupes of the low cunning of bis worke had been done ; this it is to be William Lilly—a man of uo very ex- butter-merchant to a Dutchesse. You traordioary capacity, and of very must have an account of our follies, as moderate attainments.

well as of our love. Your gallant (Mrs.

# William Lilly was a famous Astrologer, born in Leicestershire, in 1602. His Al. maanacks were in repute upwards of 38 years. In this mao we have a striking instance of ibe general superstition and ignorance that prevailed in the time of the civil war be. tween Charies I. and his Parliament; for the King consulted this Astrologer to know where he should conceal bimself, if be could escape from Hampton Court. On the other band, General Fairfas sent for him to bis army to ask him if he could tell by bis art whether God was with them and their cause. Lilly, who made his fortune (like the Pythia of Delphos) by favourable predictions to both parties, assured the General that God would be with him and his army.-EDIT.

+ The celebrated English Philosopher and Antiquary, who was founder of the Asbmolean Museum at Oxford. He was born at Lichfield in 1617, and died at South Lambeth in 1692,-- EDIT.

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100 Wm. Lilly the Astrologer.- Biblical Criticism. (Feb. Lilly) sends you some puddingse, but I measured thy diaper, and find it will make intende them onlye for my gallant (Mrs. 12 clouts, and leave enough for a tableAshmole), unto whom, yourselfe, and clothe for thy table in the dining rome. If King Norroy, I present my harty re- I cut it all, it will make 21 clouts. Let spectes.

Your old friend, me koow thy mind in it. My rebellious

W. L. wife had leasure to write no more, being To my honoured Patron, Elias Ashi- making custards, pan-cakes, and oat.

mole, esq. in Shier Lane, with a cakes. She down on her knees intreated Baskett, but no mercury in it.

mee to conclude it, which I do, and wishe

myselfe Honourable Patron,

Your vertuous Lady's invincible I am very glad you got safe to Blyth

gallant, Hall, but oportet me objurgum, scoldam,

Wm. LILLY. chidam tecum, and blame your rusticism, [To Elias Ashmole.] lovedonism, neglectism; in all youre Letter there was not one worde, sillable, or I may probably trouble you at a diminitive letter, purporting, mentioning, future period with some particulars or notifying, how my gallant was in health, bot generally known of this remarkhow she did, how safe she came into the

able personage.

J. P. C. countrye, how her healthe is at present : these are errors, sins, contumelys (et quid

Mr. URBAN, non), not to be pardoned : et hoc est de

Babergh, Feb. 5. rum) : amend this erroneous and unpar

N your Number for January, (p: donable crime in your nexte.

20,) INVESTIGATOR has slated God be thanked, all jo healthe (as also

some difficulties that occurred to him youre gallant). Learn of me how to respecting a passage in the Second write nexte time. The weather is here Book of Kings, chap. ix. 13. I beuncertaine; harvest comes slowly in ; last lieve it will be very easy to satisfy night much rain and thunder. Sister bim how the different and appareutly Mottos and Betty Sanders, now at my discordant translations of the passage house, are all affectionately ( sic dico) remembered to yourself and my gallant.

in question have ariseo ; although it My love is presented to your father and

may not be equally so to comply with mother (not one word of Queene Cudd.)

the latter part of his request, and to 'Ten thousand thankes to my Gallant for

give an exact aod literal Translation the cloke. I put it first on 22d July, St.

of the Original. Maudlin's Day; and alsoe last Saturdaye

The words in the Hebrew are, (cum .....) an aged weoman sente me

. Now the poun her to rest. I am persuaded , I shall cozen her, but I tooke her groate,

ral, is derived from the verb oby, fearing I shoulde gette no more that day, but 2d. came afterward. You see how I

which signifies to go up, or ascend; thrive therein, its a blessed cloke.

and hence it is used to desigoate

I doubt, under that guardianship, I shall

various things into which the idea committe many knaverys, but its the re- of ascending or of elevation eoters. ligion of phisicians. May yourselle and In the singular, a going up, or as my Gallant have good health where you cent, Josh. x. 10.; a hill, i Sam. ix. are, and when you returu, enjoy the same 11; in the plural, steps, or stairs for in London, Your old loving friend, ascending, i Kings X. 19; degrees,

Wm. Lilly.

or marks one above another on a For my much honoured friend, Elias

dial or horologie; and hence perAshmole, esq. at Mr. D'igdale's,

haps the horologie itself, 2 Kings II. at Blyth Hall in Warwickshire. Leave this at his house in Sbier

9, 10, 11; stories, or upper chamLane, to be conveyed to him.

bers, Amos ix. 6.

Froin bence we may easily see The following Letter is the joint the origin of the different translacomposition of the Astrologer and tions, which INVESTIGATOR has given Mrs. Lilly, his third wife:

in bis letter ; horologie, Great Bible; Dear Friend,

stairs, translation of 1611; steppes, This is to lett tbee know that we came

Bishop's Bible ; graduum, Latin transwell and seasonably home (wee found my deed of the word being

used in the

lation of 1624. I am not aware inhusbande looking at the gate in expectation of us), and also to ackoowledge the

sense of a tribunal, or elevated seal; seal sense I have of thine and thy hus- but still the derivation of the word bande's great kindnesse unto mee, unto

may sufficiently account for the triwhom my true love is presented. I have bunalis of the translation of 1529.

4d. to.

.אל גרם המעלות -in the plu מעלות of which ,מעלה


1821.) 2 Kings ix. 13, erplained.—Temple Church. 101 These few observations may, I think, It may be difficult perhaps for one be sufficient to account for the ap. unacquainted with Hebrew, as Invesparent discrepancies which Investi. TIGATOR states himself to be, to unGATOR bas noticed.

derstand clearly the preceding explaThe difficulty of giving an exact nation; the force of it is this. and literal translation of the whole The word in question seems in its passage arises from the word ond, primary sense to denote a bone, and of which the meaning is by no means is undoubtedly used in that sense : evident. The word indeed seems to now another Hebrew word, which bas have been so little understood, that the same primary meaning, is also the Seventy have not (according to

used to denote the substance of a the common reading) attempted to thing, or the thing itself, and hence translate it, but merely put it into it is argued, that the former may be Greek letters: éto to rappre twy are applied in the same manner : and as Batuar. Some assistance, however, an additional proof, it is stated, that towards explaining the passage may

the corresponding word in the cogperhaps be obtained by considering ally used in that way. If this rea

Date language, the Chaldee, is actu. the whole account.

The young man was directed by soning be correct, the whole passage Elisba to go to Ramoth Gilead, look should be rendered, upon the very out Jehu, and take bim into an ioper stairs, or upon the stairs themselves. chamber; accordingly he went, and

A very full account of the manner found him sitting with the rest of the in which the houses were built in the caplains. The place where they were

East may be found in one of the preis not specified, but from the expres

liminary essays to Macknight's Harsions which follow, I should suppose for the better uuderstanding of what

mony, to which I refer INVESTIGATOR that they were sitting in the open I have said respecting the court and court or area in the centre of the the stairs leading from thence to the house ; and that when the young roof: and from that it will appear, prophet arrived he took Jehu into ihe house (verse 6), and when he had that this court was commonly used as performed bis commission, he opened

a place of assembly, and to receive

R. K. the door which led into the court, guests and strangers in. and fled, passing the other captains


Feb. 6. Right, and so made his escape into Tspondent E. 1. c." entertaine the street. When the captains heard the nature of bis errand, lbey im. respecting the origioal positions of

the venerable and aptient Monumediately conducted Jehu up the stairs which led from the court to

mental Effigies in the Temple Church, the top or hat roof of the house, altbough I fear I shall not be able

is so strongly felt by myself, that, spreading their garments for him to walk on, as a token of submission on

to explain it away, I am induced to their part (as the Disciples did to subject, the result of a visit to that

send you a few remarks upon the our Saviour on his triumphant enlry curious building in the autumn of into Jerusalem), and from that con. spicuous place proclaimed him King. With this view of the attendant chral remains of antiquity have ge.

The vicissitudes which the sepulcircumstances, I should be inclined to adopt the interpretation of Lu- nerally experienced; the dilapidations dovicus de Dieu, as given in Pole's ed zeal; and the transpositions which

they have suffered through misguidSynopsis, which is as follows. "092, significat 08, ossis: Rembi (in an age when these interestiog

frequently took place among them in libro Radicum vertit ad ipsosmet memorials of the illustrious dead gradus. Id mihi maxime arridet: 1.

were viewed rather as the relics of Quia 072 et osy sunt synonyma: vanity and superstition, than the last ambo significant os : inde oxy de. tribuie of respect to the amiable notat substantiam rei, ideoque ipsam Divine, the pious Benefactor, or the rem: cur non ergo idem valeat et distinguished Warrior,) have occa. 090? 2. Apud Chaldæos 1992 su- sioned much of the perplexity and mitor pro ipsâ re."

uncertainty wbich now attend our


last year:

102 On the Temple Church and Monuments. (Feb. enquiries. I am inclined to believe mains of the original building of that almost as much difficulty would 1185, but the clustered columns withaccompany the attempt to appro- in, with the incumbent arches, and priate several of the Mouuments in the whole of the square Church, seem the Temple Church, as in fixing the nearly to correspond with those expositions which they aotieotly oc. amples of Ecclesiastical buildings cupied. It is very improbable, even which we know to be of Heory the admitting the limited extent of the Tbird's reign*. If Mr. B. really Church, that so great a number of supposes that the whole of the Cirpoble personages were buried side cular building is not the work of by side, and their monuments crowd. one age, and the result of one de. ed together as we now see them ; sign (and if I interpret his words dissimilar in their forms, irregular rightly he does think so), I am of in their sizes, and clumsily fixed in different opinion. The foregoing obthe pavement. We cannot assert servations which I have offered on that any of these monuments were our aptient architecture, render any removed from the Choir to their remarks on this passage uppecessary. present situations ; though a removal I will only further state, that if we may with propriety be conjectured disallow that the whole of the Cir. to have taken place at a distant cular building of the Temple Churcb time, which is rendered very proba. is the work of ope period, and the ble by the supposed date of some of result of ope design, theo no such the memorials, and the knowo pe- style of architecture, as that com. riod in wbich the beautiful choir mooly and perhaps properly called the was erected.

compound style, ever existed, and the A minute examination of the Tem- transition from the Norman to the ple Church would, I thiok, lead to Pointed style was not gradual, but the conclusion, that the circular part, immediate. which now serves the purposes of a The three Moouments supposed tower or porch, was the whole of the to belong to Earls of Pembroke, original building, and therefore cou- and which are cross-legged, are as tained the altar, and that the present old as the 13th century, but the Church was appended lo it in the Tomb, which is said to represent reigu of Henry III. in the style of Geoffrey de Magnaville, A.D. 1148, architecture then newly adopted, the is of more remote antiquity than the proportioos and splendour of which Church in wbich it is deposited. were so superior to those of the Nor. This may be the fact, because the man style.

Temple was removed from Holborn, We learn from various histories, where the first Society in England that the Temple Church was founded was established, A.D. 1118. WheA.D. 1185, and the style of the ar. ther this curious effigy has been mischitecture, composing the circular named, or whether it was removed to building, agrees with this date. The the present Church, immediately after Pointed arch was certainly used about its completion, are equally doubtful. the middle of the 12th century; and To conclude, at the time when the though it was at first but sparingly choir was confortably fitted up with made use of, no considerable space pews, some of those valuable speciof time elapsed before its shape and mens of sculpture, which now iqproportions appear to have been pre. crease the interest, as well as the ferred to those of the Norman style, solemnity of the round Church, posout of which it probably arose. After sibly incumbered the floor, and were associatiog with the Norman arch in consequently removed. That no revarious ways, the Pointed style be. spect was felt for these memorials of came finally the settled order of Ec. past ages, wbeo the benches were disclesiastical Architecture at the be. carded for inclosed seats, is sufficiently ginning of the 13th century, subse. pruved in the curious tomb and figure quently to which period we find few, of a Bishop on the South side, having if any, of the characteristics of the been, till lately, entirely hidden from subverted style, retained. Mr. Britton, view. in his interesting work, entitled “ Ar- At a remote period perbaps, when chitectural Antiquities,” says, “The

an altar in the round Church became exterior wall of the Circular Church, unnecessary, the monumental figures with the great West door, are the re

* Vol. I. p. 14.

1821.) Advantages of Cotlage Husbandry.

103 which frona necessity had been dis- perity, and happiness, of the empire. persed in various parts of the floor, It is a fact established by the strongest were collected, as the means of preserv- and most irrefragable evidence, ibat ing them from the wanton injury to labourers are generally more induswhich they were exposed when lying trious and independent of parish aid, keparately.

1.1. B. and that their moral habits are much

better, where they hold small patches Mr. URBAN,

Feb. 14. of land. How gratifying it is to the CAR difficulties of the lower and benevolent mind, to contemplate the

, effects of this system! la the couoare become so visible to all raoks ties of Lincolo and Rutland, on an and parties, aod their source (want average of several years ending in of employinent) is so well koown, 1815, the poor rates are said to have that the imagination is racked in vain amounted only to eleven peace in the to discover the cause, that so infatu- pound. ates the laodholders, to torment them- The poor man, deprived of his priselves by starving others. It cannot vilege of common, the garden demowith any good grace be denied, that lished, of which he was once the there are ample meaos of relief, when happy occupant, forced into a lowa it is known, that there are more than or" village, and bereaved of every twenty millions of acres of waste land means of improving his condition, in the United Kingdom capaule of becomes the victim of sedition and giving profitable employment to the despair; and thus sink s not alone, but people ; and above thirteen millions drags his falling countrymen with of these would yield bread to the cul. him. There are, it is true, a great tivators, though the proprietors re- number of individuals, who have just tain them in an uncultivated state claim to the gratitude of their coun. without any motive whatever, unless try in this respect, and merit the they lend themselves to follow blindly pame of patriots; among wbom arc the doctrines of Maltbus; doctrines the Duchess of Rullaud, Marchioness from which humanily sbrinks, the of Exeter, Countess of Bridgewater, imagination recoils, the eye averts, Ladies Evans and Shelly, &c.: and and turns away with disgust.

the Lord Bishop of Chester, whose So much bas already been said on desires, dolphin - like, show themthe subject of cottage husbandry, selves above the element they live in, ! and its utility in every point of view, must not be forgotten; or Earl Slap

that since the year 1810 publicatious, hope, whose example is highly dein the shape of books, pamphlets, pa. serving imitation, not only in bis ragraphs in newspapers, and other building collages, and adding patches periodical works, have appeared to of land at small rents, (frequently for the oumber of above twentyfive a number of years at a pepper-corn,) thousand, all recominending the sys- but also for his general humanity, tem of cultivating the soil by means generosity, philanthropy, and, cerof collagers having small patches of tainly not least, for his conduct to laod attached to their dwelling, as the the Clergy on his estates, in uniting best means of alleviatiog the difficul. them with their parishioners in the ties of the nation. Each of these bas bonds of frieodship and mutual exone or more experiments, without a change of good offices. This be efsingle instance of failure; and all fects by contracting with them for their come to the same conclusion, that titbes, and thus removing a never-fail. this practice promotes industry, fur. ing source of strife ; whence they live dishes employment to all ages and with their flocks loving and beloved, both sexes, prevents dependence on as becomes their high office as amparish relief, is most favourable to bassadors of the Prince of Peace. morality, prevents little offences that This method was begun by the late tend to greater crimes, and in every Earl, probably at the suggestion of district, where it has been introduced, that excellent man and eminent solibas operated in dimioishing, while in citor, Alexander Murray, esq. wbo some it has altogether extinguished, had long been bis Lordship's copfipoor rates.

dential friend, as well as legal adviser. Such measures cannot fail to bene- C. M. Cheere, esq., M. P. for Camfit every rank of society, and contri- bridge, deserves well of his country bute greatly to the security, pros. for ihe improvements on his estates


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