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or have sought shelter under the flag of other nations. The trade, however, increases an. nually, under the flag of other nations.”—Rep. to Congress, 121h April, 1822.
In the nineteenth report of the British African Institution, in 1825, the names and des scription of 218 vessels are given, engaged, or strongly suspected of being engaged in the slave trade.-Rep. to Cong. 7h April, 1830. page 276.
There were innported into Mauritius, from 12th June, 1823, to 12th April, 1826, 840 slaves.-British State Papers. Vol. 25, No. 68, page 26.
The captures by a single British squadron were as follows,--1824, seven vessels with 1613 slaves; 1825, nineteen vessels, with 3649 slaves; 1826, seventeen vessels, with 3589 slaves; 1827, nineteen vessels, with 1963 slaves.--British State Papers. Vol. 26, No. 366.
There were imported into Bahia, from 1st April to June 9, 1827, 3089 slaves, in fifteen vessels.- Vol. 26. No. 542, page 253.
There were imported into the port of Naranham, in 1826, 553 slaves.-Same, page 256.
There were seventeen French vessels boarded by the African from 3rd Aug. to 23rd Nov. 1826, containing 2577 slaves.-Same, page 265.
The mixed commission at Sierra Leone condemned slavers as follows: 1825, ten vessels with 752 slaves. 1826, twenty vessels with 4017 slaves. Till July 1827, seventeen vessels with 1750 slaves.-Same, page 13.
The importations into Rio de Janeiro were as follows 1820, 15020 slaves—1821, 24, 134. -1822, 27,363.-1823, 20,349.—1824, 29,503.—1825, 26,254.-1826, 33,999.-1827, 294 789.—1828, 43,555.-1829 to 1st March, 13,459. Walsh's Brazil.-Vol. 2, page 178.
The British Squadron on the coast of Africa in 1829, captured 22 vessels with 5210 slaves; and from 8th Nov. 1830, to 19th March, 1832, eleven vessels with 2,627 slaves.Surgeon Leonard's records of a voyage, page 268-9.
One or two cases will show the sickening and horrid cruelty, with which this detestable and murderous traffic is now carried on.
On the 10th of Sept. 1831, the two tenders in company, chased into the river Bouny and captured the Spanish brigs, Rapido and Regulo, the former of 175, tons, eight large guns, fifty six men, and 204 slaves; the latter 147 tons, five large guns, fifty men and two slaves; both bound to Cuba. Connected with the capture of these two vessels, a circumstance of the most horrid and revolting nature occurred, the relation of which will afford an additional instance of the cruelty and apathy of those who carry on the slave trade.During the chase, they were seen from our vessels to throw their slaves overboard, by twos, shackled together by the ancles, and left in this manner to sink or swim as they best could! Men, women, and young children were seen in great numbers struggling in the water, by every one on board the two tenders; and dreadful to relate upwards of 150 of these wretched creatures perished in this way, without there being a hand to help them; for they had all disappeared before the tenders reached the spot, excepting two, who were fortunately saved."--Leonard's records of a voyage, page 234.
I havintended to relate other cases, but I am sick at heart with the exhibition of the dreadful extent to which the trade is still carried on, and the bloody and horrible cruelty with which it is now accompanied
In my first number I showed the extent of the efforts made to stop the slave trade, in this number I have shown that the trade is carried on, to its usual extent, and with increased and increasing horrors. From this melancholy review it will be seen how inefficient have hitherto been all the noble efforts of governments, aided by the great and good men in the United States and in Europe. The Christian world must turn to and employ some other agency, or the trade will continue. In my next I shall examine the tendency, which the colony of Liberia, and other colonies have had and will have to arrest and finally stop this odious traffic. April 14, 1834.
IN FAVOR OF COLONIZATION.—No. 6.
MR. EDITOR:-In his 6th number, your correspondent J. L., instead of proving the charges made and reiterated in his previous numbers, against the Colonization Society, informs us, that “we will for the present ground our weapons."
When I read this, I supposed we were to have no more indefinite and groundless charges; no more extracts from speeches, quoted as Reports of the Board of Managers; and that if former charges were not attempted to be proved, new charges at least would not be made. In all this I was mistaken. The grounding of his weapon, is but the arrow of the flying Parthian; and the writer who in every page has cried out, Do as you would be done by, shuts his eyes and stops his ears to that other precept, Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.
“We now understand the Board and Z. to say—that they do not expect or design to affect the system of slavery, or to benefit to any extent the free people of colour; or even to do more for Africa, than keep a kind of warlike or military garrison, into which missionaa ries may retreat when their God neglects lo protect and stand by them."
I hope Z. will never follow the example here set, of trifling with and profaning the great and holy name of Him who made the heavens and the earth; and however much it may suit your correspondent to ridicule and make sport of the missionary enterprise, he may be assured there are thousands and hundreds of thousands, who will no more respect his wit, than they will approve his profanity. Where has Z. said what he is here charged with saying?' But I forbear. It was not to notice such a mode of reasoning, that I asked the privilege of using the columns of the “Friend.”
What agency the colonization cause has had, or may have in arresting the slave trade, is very much a question of evidence. One fact here is worth a hundred speculations; and the testimony of men on the spot, is, and must be, conclusive, be that testimony what it may. But it will be found, that in the facts stated by eye witnesses of what they relate, and in the judgment of those, who from their situation in Africa are able to decide correctly, there is entire unanimity.
“The policy which I have invariably pursued in all the intercourse of the colony with the natives, is that of humanity, benevolence and justice. They have been treated as men and brethren of a common family. We have practically taught them in the spirit of the Parent Institution, that one end of our settlement in their country, is to 'o theñ good. We have adopted sixty of their children; and brought them forward as children of the colony-and shown a tender regard for their happiness and a sacred regard to their rights, even when possessed of a dictatorial power over both. In this conduct a new and surprising view of the character of civilized man has been presented to them. They have for the first time witnessed the effort of principles superior to the hopes of mercenary advantage, in this conduct of the settlers, and for the first time appear to be apprised of the fact, that among civilized people, there is a good as well as a bad class. They have learnt from this colony, what no other foreigners have cared to teach themtheir immor. tality-their accountability to God who made them, and the destruction which certainly awaits at last the unrestrained indulgence of their lusts and vices. They have for the first time learned and still can scarcely believe, that thousands of strangers, in another hemisphere, are cordially interested in the advancement of their happiness. Ourinfluence over them is unbounded. We have their confidence and their friendship, and those built on the fullest conviction, that we are incapable of betraying the one or violating the other.
“One of the most obvious effects of this colony has already been to check, in this part of Africa, the prevalence of the slave trade. Between Cape Mount and Tradetown, comprehending a line of 140 miles, not a slaver dares to attempt this guilty traffic; our influence with the natives, of this section of the coast, is known to be so great, as to expose to certain miscarriage, any transaction entered into with them for slaves. But there is a moral feeling at work in the minds of most of our neighbours, contracted doubtless by means of their intercourse with the colony, which represents to them the dark business in a new aspect of repulsiveness and absurdity. Most are convinced that it is indeed a bad business. But minds even as ignorant as theirs, cannot be unaffected to see foreigners more concerned for the welfare of Africans than Africans for each other. Perhaps it is yet to be seen, that the most barbarous of practices may be effectually undermined, by an influence as silent and unpretending as the persuasive power of Christian example,” Mr, Ashmun to the Board, 31st Dec., 1825. Repository, vol. 2. p. 97-99.
“We have thought proper to interdict the slave trade on the whole line of coast, comprehended between Cape Mount and Tradetown, both inclusive. The ground assumed is that of a qualified jurisdiction, actually held by the colony over this whole district. It is believed that no slaver will proceed to land ber cargo, (and without landing it he cannot get slaves,) in the face of such an interdict formally notified to him. But, in case his audacity prevails, and the goods are landed, we have only to announce to the native chiefs of the place, that, according to the laws of the colony, those goods are forfeited, and an instant seizure, in nine cases out of ten, is certain to follow.”_Mr. Ashmun to the Board, 10th May, 1826. Repository, p. 184.
“The importance of this colony, as it regards the native tribes of the coast, is, in my es. timation, great. They already begin to perceive that it is civilization and the blessings of religion, which give superiority to man over his fellow man. They had supposed it was the white skin; but now they see in their neighbourhood men of their own colour, enjoy. ing all those advantages, hitherto deemed peculiar to the former. This has elicited a spirit of inquiry, which must tend to their benefit. The philanthropist may anticipate the day when our language and religion will spread over this now benighted land. The slave trade will cease as the colony progresses and extends its settlements. The very spot where now exists a free people, was a depot for the reception of manacled slaves. This fact alone is entitled to consideration, and ought to arouse the zeal of the friends of humanity every where.”—Captain Nicholson, of the United States Navy, to Mr. Clay, 1828. Repository, vol. 4, p. 95.
I have concluded to continue the factory at Grand Bassa, as I find it is the means of our exercising a considerable influence over a large tract of country. The chiefs have promised if I continue the factory, to pay their debts, and have nothing to do with the slave, trade, nor permit any slaves to be sold in their territory.”—Dr. Mechlin to the Board, 31st August, 1829. Řepository, vol. 5, p. 280.
Most of the petty kings around us would gladly place themselves under our protection. On the death of King Peter, his head man, assumed the name of King Long Peter, and placed himself and people under the protection of the colony. A deputation was sent down to inform me of the fact, and receive my orders respecting their future disposal. They were informed that hereafter they would be subject to our laws, that they must consider themselves Americans, and entirely independent of the neighbouring tribes, who should not molest them. . “When this was made known to them, it was received with shouts of joy, and they could scarcely be restrained from coming down in a body to visit us, though then late in the afternoon. The advantages to be derived from this arrangement, they are well aware of. They are at once freed from the oppressive customs and laws of the surrounding tribes, and know they cannot be sold into slavery, as they were before at any moment liable to be. They will be secured from the hostile incursions of other tribes, for such is the terror with which we have inspired them, that they will not molest any whom they consider as belonging to the colony.
"I find our colony is becoming more known in the interior, from the increased number of Mandingoes who resort to us. These people form the connecting link, or medium of communication, between the interior tribes and those inhabiting the sea coast.”-Dr. Mechlin to the Board, 20th March, 1830. Repository, vol. 6, p. 53–55.
“The Thupoos, a warlike tribe who inhabit the country in the interior, at no great distance from Sierra Leone, have for several years waged a cruel and destructive war with their neighbours, murdering and enslaving all on whom they could lay their hands. In the progress of their victory, they reached the Sherbro Bullooms, (a tribe inhabiting the fine country directly southeast of Sierra Leone, and extending 120 miles along the coast,) and manifested a disposition to exterminate them by the sword, or reduce them to slavery. Under these circumstances the chiefs placed themselves under the protection of the British Government, and on the 24th of September last, entered into a formal treaty. In accordance with this treaty, Major General Turner, on the 4th of October, issued his proclamation, declaring the acquired territory an integral part of Sierra Leone. Thus is the slave trade forever abolished, in a country which has commonly yielded fifteen or twenty thousand victims annually.”—London Missionary Register for December, 1825.
“In Freetown there are two government schools, on Bell's system, for the education of black children of every race, Maroons, Settlers and liberated Africans. In the male school, there are at present, 385 divided into ten classes. The boys are taught reading, writing and arithmetic only; the girls, besides these, are instructed in needle work. Every attention seems to be paid to their instruction; and, besides being remarkably clean, neatly dressed, and well behaved, the progress they have made in these branches of education, deserves the highest praise."-Surgeon Leonard's Records of a voyage to Africa, 1830-2, p. 59.
"There is no scarcity of Methodist chapels and meeting-houses in the place; and almost all the villages possess some residents attached to the Church Missionary Society, who, by their strenuous exertions in the cause of morality and religion, have all along been extremely unpopular among the dissolute Europeans."- Page 60. .. "During my visits to Kipey, I occasionally entered the church while the negro children were singing a diurnal song of praise, superintended by a black missionary assistant belonging to the village. As my visits were always accidental, the children were, of course, quite unprepared, and I cannot speak too highly of the progress they appeared to have made in reading and writing, and of their clean and neat appearance.”-Page 70.
“The trade of the colony employs about 50,000 tons of shipping annually. Since the suppression of the slave trade in these rivers, the system of vassalage and enlistment, under the banner of a chief, which was so necessary for personal protection during its continuance, has ceased to exist; and the sun of freedom having poured his benignant beams on the desecrated soil, industry has been fostered and every description of work has made rapid progress among the native tribes in the vicinity.”—Page 71.
"It is among the children of these people brought up in the colony, that their mental capacity is to be judged of; and the children in the government schools at Freetown, as well as in those of the villages, appeared to me to be equal in intelligence and acquirements to European children of the same age.”- Page 91,
“Two things are worthy of remark among these poor Africans:-Great external respect is paid to the Sabbath. The blacks on that day are clean and neatly dressed, the religious meetings are well attended, and the busy clamour of the week is hushed into a solemn stillness, more impressive even than the calm serenity which pervades every thing on that hallowed day in our own free and happy land.”—Page 94.
There is no man now living who knows better what is the condition of Africa, and what are her wants, than the Rev. Dr. Philip. No man knows better what are the proper means to be employed, to raise her from the dust, to put a stop to the slave trade, to bestow upon her the rich blessings of the gospel, of free institutions and the knowledge and arts of civiliz, ed life. His situation enables him to state facts; the strength and clearness of his mind, and the soundness of his judgment, give a value to every thing he says; and his pure Christian principles and the entire devotion of his whole life for the good of Africa, is a pledge for the truth of his remarks, not to be questioned. From the latest writings of this distinguished man, I shall make a few extracts, to which I call the serious attention of your readers.
“The gospel never can have a permanent footing in a barbarous country, unless education and civilization go hand in hand with our religious instructions. On any other principle, we may labor for centuries without getting a step nearer our object—the conversion of the world to God—than that which may have been attained in the first ten or twelve years of our missions.”—Dr. Philip to the Society for Enquiry on Missions. Princeton. London Missionary Register, Jan. 1834, p. 9.
“Missionaries have two difficulties to encounter in this country--the demoralized state of the people, and the zeal of the Mahommedans among them. There is something in the doctrines of the Koran, exceedingly favorable to the dominion of its votaries, in such a country as Africa: they raise the savage to the condition of the barbarian; but there is nothing in them to raise them above a semi-barbarous state of society, and there is something in them to prevent a higher rise in the scale of civilization. A Christian community in the centre of Africa, would soon gain the ascendency in that quarter. Could you plant another colony, like that of Liberia, on the banks of the Niger, it might be the means of rolling baek the tide of Mahommedanism which appears to have set in with so strong a current from the North, and of establishing a Christian state in the centre of Africa. A solitary individual may do much among a reading people, and who hold many principles in common with himself, to which he can appealin his addresses to their understanding and their hearts; but in such a country as Africa, we must concentrate our strength; and keep firm possession of every inch which we have gained; and make use of the resources which we may be able to raise on it, for the further extension of our conquests.”-Same letter, Foreign Miss. Reg., page 12.
On the facts here related, and the testimony of so many competent and enlightened witnesses, I submit the subject to the sober judgment of your readers. My object has been to reach their understanding, to convince their judgment, not to carry their imagination.
Although I have divided the subject of the slave trade into three numbers, it is but one subject, and would have appeared better in a single number, embracing, as I have attempt. ed to elucidate it; first, the effort made by the Christian world to arrest this bloody and mür. derous traffic; second, the inefficiency of those efforts; and lastly, that the Colonization cause, is the only agency able to arrest its progress, and finally blot from existence this deepest stain on the annals of the human race.
April 21, 1834.
NEW ORGANIZATION OF THE SOCIETY.
The unanimity of the proceedings which were adopted at the last An. nual Meeting of the Colonization Society, for its reorganization, however gratifying to its friends, has not, it would seem, entirely silenced the cavils of its opponents. Some misrepresentations, to which it must be regretted that so respectable a print as the New-York Evangelist should have given currency, have led to the following conclusive publication, by a distinguished friend of Colonization, in the New-Haren Religious Intelligencer:
The very respectable standing of the New York Evangelist as a religious newspaper, makes it necessary for me to correct, in this public manner, an erroneous statement res. pecting the late meeting of the American Colonization Society, to which the proprietors of that paper seem to be giving the most extensive circulation in their power. The statement to which I refer, is found in the last sentence of the Editor's report of the proceedings at that meeting, published in the Evangelist of the 1st instant. The Editor asserts, that the attempted reform' was ended, 'leaving all things in regard to the management, &c. as they were from the beginning. This assertion is entirely untrue. If it were necessary, I think I could explain how the respected Editor came to make such a statement.--I doubt not that he made it with a good conscience.
I went to Washington at the appointment of the Managers of the Connecticut Colonia zation Society, and at the urgent solicitation of intelligent and benevolent men, in this State and out of it, with a view to aid in effecting a reform in the organization and management of the American Colonization Society. The reform which I, and those in whose, behalf I acted, desired, has been effected. The Society consists now, of tife-meinbers
and delegates from auxiliaries. The President and Vice Presidents are no longer ex-officio Managers. The direction of the Institution, instead of being left in the hands of an indefinite and imperfectly responsible body, is now committed to the executive officers and nine other individuals, who will annually render a strict account to their constituents. I feel no hesitation in saying for my colleagues as well as for myself, that we have full confidence in the ability, fidelity and benevolent views of the new Board as it is ac. tually constituted. And what is of no inferior consequence, while these reforms were discussed with much freedom, and while on particular points of discussion there was no little difference of opinion, the reformed constitution was finally agreed to, and the reformed Board of Managers was elected with entire unanimity.
My confidence in the success of the colony of Liberia, is not impaired, but strengthened. The want of management here and in Africa, by which the cause has been so much embarrassed, is at an end. The only constitutional objection of the Society, namely, the voluntary colonization of people of colour, now free or to be freed hereafter, will be pursued, I doubt not, vigorously, wisely and with singleness of purpose. With the discussion of the ethics of slavery, or the principles and process of its abolition, the Society has nothing to do; nor will the present Board be disposed to meddle with that subject. On the other hand, I am equally confident that the Society, as now organized, will not suffer itself to become auxiliary to any scheme for the compulsory removal or the increased oppressian of the colored people. * The Editors of papers friendly to the cause of African Improvement, are respectfully requested to give this communication a place in their columns.
*** LEONARD BACON. New-Haven, 13th of Feb, 1834.
TO THE FRIENDS OF COLONIZATION.
The Board of Managers of the American Colonization Society, deem it their duty to call upon all who, with them, have this great object at heart, to recollect that the season is comping around, (our National Jubilee) when benevolent Clergymen of every denomination throughout the United States, have heretofore called the attention of their congregations to the claims of this Society; which calls, have afforded to it great support in car. rying on their important work; and it is confidently expected that the call for the present year, will be equally successful.
The appeal now made, is prompted by considerations of the most pressing character. Much of the aid which, under ordinary circumstances, would have been given towards carrying on the operations of the Society, has been, and will probably continue to be afforded in the form of subscriptions to the loan of fifty thousand dollars proposed to be made by the Board for the purpose of extinguishing the debt of the Institution. The efforts to dispose of this stock loan have been attended with partial success; and the Board are encouraged to hope, that patience and perseverance will secure the full accomplishment of the scheme. But the avails of the loan being of course designed for the special object of paying the debt, the Managers must look to other sources for means to prosecute general objects. Among these are several important plans for the religious, moral and agricultural improvement of the Colony, which if realized cannot fail, they confidently believe, to render Liberia a residence powerfully attracting' every free man of colour, who desires to elevate himself in the scale of social being. They trust that the Reverend Clergy throughout the Union, sympathizing with them in zeal for this purpose, will give to it the strong aid of their influence and eloquence on the approaching Fourth of July.
It is to contributions arising from their exertions on that occasion; to the Auxiliary Societies; and to the public spirited individuals who have, from time to time set on foot, and carried into effect voluntary subscriptions, that the Parent Society looks for support in establishing a well-organized,