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the grade of doctor. The obligatory , scientific societies and academies in the courses are : religious instruction; theo- original text, is the largest and most retkal philosophy: pure elementary ma- complete in Italy. The portfolios of the thematics; latin philology; moral phi- professors are carefully preserved there, los pay; mathematical aod experimental and must form an interesting compilapbysus. The following courses are not lion. An under-librarian's place was ob izatory : universal history; natural vacant about the middle of 1826, and bosory; rural economy; pedagogy; his- was about to be competed for, as are all lory of Austria ; historical sciences; ar- literary functions in the Lombardo-Vecheology and numismatics; diplomatics; netian kingdom. This method, which clasical Latin literature; Greek philo- might be thought the best, and which bory: criticism ; Italian literature and appears to me very good for nominacions Jadaoage: history of the fine arts; his- to offices of a secondary nature, is howlory of philosophy; German language; ever offensive to the Italians, and I have beraldry.
heard it reprobated by men of enlightBy this table one may judge of the ened minds. professorsbips of the university of Pavia There are three free eollcges at Pavia, and the extent of ils education; it will namely, the Caccia, Borromeo, and coafirma the remark that we have pre- Ghislieri colleges; the two first are fawwusly made on the pretended obscu- mily foundations and are still supported rantispe of Austria : in this list there by the founders' munificence. Such is a course of statistics, which we have foundations are by no means rare in Devet bad, and courses in pedagogy and Italy; perhaps arisiocracy bas no nobler diplomatics in actual progress; real nor- attribuie than this perpetual benefit of mal and charter scbools. As to the in- education conferred on successive genestruction. I leave been informed by some rations who must naturally become atof the most distinguished professors that tached to these same families. The CacIt is pender compuisory nor restricted;cia college receives from twenty-five to the siarves bave been augmented, and lbirty pupils, all from Novara, the counare even b.cher now than they were try of ihe Caccia family; the Borromeo, under the Freoch government, which bad thirty-six; and the Ghislieri, sixty, and already made some additions to them; twelve boarders. The finest of the estathey are at least as high as those of the blishments is the Borromeo college, profesors of the academy of Paris, and founded by Saint Charles, as well as a it is well known that living in Italy is great number of the first schools of Lomfar less espensive.
bardy. With its imposing front, vast The ancient library of Pavia, establish- porticoes, the elegance of its architecture, ed by the Sforza family, and chiefly by ihe brilliant frescos of Federico Zuccari, duke Galeas, with ihe advice of Petrarch representing the History of Saint CharWorcessively despoiled by Louis XII. les, which cover the walls and ceiling of in lin. and in 1526 by Marshal Lautrec; the great ball, this superb cdifce seems ibe creat library of the rue Richelieu is rather a palace than a college. inute tied to it for the finest editions of the frieenth century, of which it now has
CHAPTER VI. the ricte collection in the world. The presnt library of the University was Towers. - Boetius. – Malaspina bouse-Museum. foonded by Count Firmian, and it has tereived the greater part of Haller's I experienced numerous historical disB Being intended for educational appointments at Pavia : I went to the nk, has scarcely any ancient manu. church of Saint Peter in ciel d'oro 10 wonpes mirept those proceeding from the look for the tomb of Boetius, that really wu; paud monastery of Saint Peter in greal man, minister, scholar, orator, trei d'oro, and with all its fisty thousand philosopher, poel, musician, and martyr Volumes, it contains but few scarce works. io the public welfare and the truth in Ius Cuiiection of the memoirs of all the an age of barbarism ;' it was no longer
Dute hos some fine verses on the burying of Giuso in Cleldauro, ad essa da martiro, hocaint Peter in ciel d'oro:
E ja esillo venne a questa pace. La cursa ondella l'anvaa santa) fu cacciata giace
(PARAD. X. 137.)
there : the church had been suppressed | tomb but the words, Here are the bones thirty years, and I beheld it then encum- of king Liutprand; this simple inscripbered with the forage of a Polish regi- tion was one day destined io be itself ment. The body of Boetius had been ignobly smothered over with trusses of put in the cathedral, but, in the language hay, and I sought it in vain. of the day, there were no funds to build Pavia, called in the olden times the him a tomb. Certainly the Liutprands City of a hundred Towers, has but two and Othos, those princes of the middle now standing. One of those now brown ages that we look on as barbarians, some down, from its extravagant structure, eight or ten centuries ago, bad crected was called the point downwards ( pizzo and magnificently enlarged the mauso- in giù). The tower which bears the leum of Boetius; they had not yet, to name of Boetius is modern; the tradition avoid rendering honour to virtue, adopt- even of bis imprisonment in a tower can ed this eternal and invincible argument be traced no farther back than Jacopo of our civilisation. The tomb of Liut-Gualla, an historian of the fifteenth cen. prand was at first placed in the church of tury. As to the site of the palace of the Saint Adrian, but some time after it was Lombard kings, probably near the church carried to the basilic of Saint Peter in of Saint Michael, Iwasinformed by a learnciel d'oro; in his will he desired that he ed man whom I consulted that there were might be interred at the feet of Boetius, fourteen opinions on the subject, without that when he ceased to exist be might counting his own, I believe; so I bad not seem to cease testifying his respect not the courage to look for its locality. for that illustrious man. The coffin of In front of the Malaspina house are this great king, as we are informed by a the busts of Boetius and Petrarcb, men learned Pavian, was supported by four greatly differing in fortune, genius, and small marble columns; bis statue in royal character, whom chance alone could bave robes was placed above. The decision of brought into juxta-position. An elegant the council of Trent caused the coffin to | inscription by Morcelli, placed beneath be taken down, as it was then decreed the bust of Boetius, informs us that it that the burial-place of saints only should was near that spot where he was imbe above the surface of the earth. The prisoned, and composed his book on the asbes of Liutprand were deposited at the Consolations of Philosophy. The infoot of a pilaster in the choir; the ori-scription on Petrarch's bust states that ginal epitap, which told of his piety and he came to pass the autumns within the valour, the wisdom of his laws, his con- walls of that house, the residence of his quest of the Roman state, and his victories son-in-law Brossano, architectural surover the Saracens in France when he veyor to Galeas Visconti, and husband Dew to succour Charles Martel, tbe tak- of his natural daughter, a triling inciing of Ravenna, Spolelo, and Benevento dent, but somewhat crude, which sadly
- all these signs of glory had disappear- disconcerts our imaginings respecting the ed, and nothing was left on his fallen fidelity of Laura's bard. This daughter
· The tomb of Boetius was erected in the church bimself, with a sort of Italian simplicity singular of Saint Augustine by the king of the Lombards, enough, bow he bad thought of escaping from the Llutprand, about 726 ; tbe emperor Otho III. erected passion which enslaved bis mind and formed his another and a magnificent one in marble with a very torment, by yielding to propensities somewhat less remarkable inscription composed by Gerbert, after- platonic. But be pretends that in spite of these wards pope under the name of Sylvester II. (Noli- indulgences he dever really loved any but Laura, se appartenenti alla storia della sia patria that be was always conscious of the disgracefulness raccolte ed illustrate da Giuseppe Robolini, gen- of such babits, and ultimately ridded bimsell of tiluomo pavese. Pavia, 1826 et seq.; tom. I. 210, them in bis fortietb rear. carm. lib. 1. Ep. 12, et and 11. 86.) Gerbert was one of the most learned Epist. ad Post. quoted by Foscolo, Essays on pemen of his day, but he did not inveut clocks as trarch, III. some have supposed (V. Gallia christiana, tom. 1.); On ibe death of a child of Ibis daughter's, Petrarch be was born in Auvergne, and may be added to ibe composed some natural and toocbing Latin rerses, illustrious Auvergnats mentioned by M. de Cha- wbica be bad engraved on its tomb : teaubriand in bis Voyage a Clermont.
· Notizie appartenenti alla storia della sua patria, Fii mondi norus bospes iter vitæque rolantis raccolte ed Illustrate da Gluseppe Robolini, vol. I. Alligeram tenero limina dura pede; p. 04.
Franciscus genitor, genitris Francisca, secutos 3 Petrarch, alloding to the birth of an illegiti- Hos, de fonte sacro pomen idem tenui. pate son previous to that of ibis daughter, avows Inlens formosus, solamen dulce parentum,
Annib el Saint Wlebael. - Cathedral, -Tomb of
is the one who, in the absence of her that noble instrument may be ipferred. lalber-in-law and husband, so cordially The frescos representing the Virgin's received Boccaccio when he visited Pavia, coronation, the Four doctors of the und notwilbstanding his fifty-five years, Church, and the painting over the altar bis obesity, and pitiful appearance, he of the Virgin, are curious productions of did not think it prudent to lodge in her Andrino d'Edesia, a painter of Pavia, beuse lest ber reputation might be com- contemporary with Giotto. A St. Se promised. Marquis Ludovico Malas bastian, and a St. Luke, by Moncalvo, pina, who died in 1835, above eighty are good. years of age, bad erected at his own The vast majestic church del Carmine expeose and from his own designs, a no
is of the fourteenth century. Several ble but plaio edifice destined to receive of its paintings are esteemed, namely: his rakable collection of priots, and his a Crucifix, by Malosso; St. Anne, by partides, among which ibere are not Moncalvo; st. Sebastian and divers enly some of the best Italian masters, saints, a painting in six compartments, bet several of the Flemish school, as well inscribed with the name of Bernardino
a quantity of antique works and the Cotignola, a painter of the sixteenth ceniseyitable Egyptian museum, fortunately tury, whose works are scarce. e very extensive. The front is deco Santa Maria Coronata, commonly und with a basso-relievo presenting called de Canepanova, of a plain but helgares of Raimondi, Raphael, and noble architecture, is by Bramante ; it Webad Angelo, by S. Monti of Ra contains some fine paintings : Jael and Jedna
, she also executed the statue of Sisera; David and Abigail, by Monthe Genius of the Arts, placed opposite calvo; á Judith, an Esther, by Tiarini, an the catrame-door. This handsome and excellent painter of the Bolognese school ; Beful foundation is besides an academy Rachel at the well; the Hebrews o le foe arts; it will perpetuate at the marching towards the land of promise, one lime ile memory of the taste, ta- by Camillo Procaccini; and two other bers, and patriotism of its generous subjects from the Old Testament, by his
At Saint Marino, a Holy Family is CRAPTER VII.
attributed to Gaudenzio Ferrari; St. Jerome and the Virgin, to his illustrious
pupil Bernardino Luini. Saint Augustin.-Bridge.
Saint Francis has two good pictures :
a St. Matthew, by Bernardino Campi; De Gothic church of Saint Michael, a St. Catherine, by Procaccini. ses of the oldest monuments of Christian or the throng of deceptive remains Chaty
, seems to be of the sixth cen which abound in Italy, Pavia, perhaps, ar among the basso-relievos sculp- possesses two of the most brilliant and
sier, boc 000 sors mea læta minus, 2002 a leils, el vere gaudia vitæ,
e slepe, tam cito, tam facile. jana custer flerum peragraverat orbem,
estum terris dedit orbs, rapuitque Papla :
tua piolog of d'Agencourt, of Malaspina, lo
ured on the exterior of this old basilic, which the child is already grown, acWith wems to have infused into Chris- ninety-five statues, in all four hundred
relievo, is an angel playing on a piece of workmanship of the close of the
best imagined. The first is the pompous the remarked an Annunciation, in pretended tomb of Saint Augustine, for
merly standing in the church of Saint en espressive sculpture of Saint Mi- cathedral. The sculptures which ornabe is moreover suited to such a sect, ment it, consisting of fifty basso-relievos,
spirit of Islamism. In another animals, are a singularly remarkable
a bort, fallor, obria vita fuit.
bis Guide of Pavia, and of Rosmlol, in the History of Milan, has been recently contradicted by SanQuintino (Dell'italiana architettura durante la dominazione longobarda, Brescia, 1829). According to San-Quintino, Pavia and the old church of Saint Michael were burnt in 924 by the Hungarians : 80 that the present church can only be of the end of ibe elevenih century.
Perne, hipe cælo restituendus eram.
siderable of that epoch. The second the Magi appears to be the last work of counterfeit rempant in the cathedral is the old age of Camillo Procaccini, as the lance of Roland, a sort of oar pointed we are informed by this paibetic inscripwith iron, suspended from the ceiling. tion of the time :- Hic Camilli ProcacThis cathedral is a monument of no cini manus inclite ceciderunt. The great importance; it has been recently figure of the Virgin has but little gracerepaired, and the old Gothic is nearly rulness and is the weakest part of the hidden by the new constructions. There painting, which is not, however, desare some paintings, however, not desti- titute of a sort of variety. tute of merit, as those of the high altar, Near Varese is the famous Madonna by Carlo Sacchi, a Parian painter of the del Monte, whose féle the maidens of the seventeenth century and a clever colo- neighbourhood were then going to celerist; at the altar of the Rosary, the brate (it was in the mouth of September Mysteries, by Antonio Solari, surnamed on the eve of the Nativity of the Virgin). Zingaro, who was born at Venice and The whole district had ibat air of joy, not in the Abruzzi, as some have sup- which the catholicism, enlivened by orposed; a St. Syrus and two other paini- naments, ' of the inhabitants of Italy ings near it, the best works of Carlo gives to the popular manners of the Antonio Rossi, a pupil and follower of country. The prospect from the MaProcaccini; a Flagellation; the Virgin donna del Monte is varied, immense, and the Marys, by Danielo Crespi. and magnificent, extending from the
The covered bridge over the Ticino, chain of the Alps where Moni-Rose raises supported by a hundred columns of gra- its towering summit, as far as Milan. The nite, with its elegant front on the side church and the fourteen cbapels, built towards the town, is a monument of the by the roadside, have some good paintfourteenth century, which, with the ings of the best Lombard masters of tbe waterworks of the same period, still fourteenth century. bears witness to the grandeur and utility I committed the fault of not going of the public works at Pavia under the to Lugano, which its lake, the frescos of republican government.
Luini, and its Gazette of the Ticino,
render worthy of a visit from the lovers CIIAPTER VIII.
of nature, the arts, and liberty.
I was delighted with Cosmo: its posiVarese.- Madonna del Monte. - Itallap Catbolicism.
lion in a species of valley on the banks - Cosmo.-Catbedral - Bles Joriæ.-Lyceum.- of the lake and its many towers render Library.- Casino.-Theatre.-Tower of Baradello. it picturesque. The marble cathedral
erected by ihe people is a vast and beauBefore returning to Milan, in 1827, tiful monument of the era of the revival. I visited Cosmo. The road, on leaving Rodari, an able architect and sculptor of Sesto Calende, differs completely from the close of the fineenth century, 100 the flat and monotonous one leading to little known. executed the elegant galMilan. This corner of Lombardy, being lery, the chandeliers of the allar of Saint nearer the Alps, is picturesque and full Lucy, the exquisite pilasters of the organ, of variety. The road passes by Varese, the graceful ornaments of a little door. a rich and preity town, of a joyous aspect the Christ in his mother's arms, and and well peopled, near the lake of its some other excellent statues. On the own name; it has a theatre, a casino, outside wall are the remains of an inand some splendid villas, where Ilalian scription relative to Pliny, which has magnificence is already displayed. A been quoted by Gruter and tbe divers par of the road passes under some editors of the Latin Epistolary, although beautiful trellis work, belonging. I be- it contains nothing very interesting for lieve, to the gardens of the neighbour- bistory. The baptistry is attributed to ing villas, and the view from thence Bramante. The Natirity, the Adoracoinmands all the country to a great tion of the Magi, the Virgin, St. Jedistance. The octagonal baptistry of rome and some saints are by Bernardino the principal church is a monument Luini; a Flight into Egypi, the Esporremarkable for its antiquity, and is sals of the Virgin, by Gaudenzio Fera remnant of the Lombards. In an rari. elegant little church, the Adoration of 'D'oracmenis egare.-BOILEAR.
The church of San Fedele, the oldest singers that I ever heard. This worst in the town, is of characteristic architec of the Italian actors is not, however, cold ture. There are some fine frescos altri- or dull like that of our provincial perbuted to Camillo Procaccini, and the formers: thanks to the language and the chapel of the Crucifix is of good archi- physiognomies of the country, il is hearty, lectore.
boisterous, expressive, and animated. The Ædes Joviæ presents, under the On an eminence near the road, is to vestibules, the porticoes of the court and be seen still standing the tower of Bathe staircase, a real museum of antique radello, another monument of the intesinscriptions. The device of the Giovio line broils an revolutions of Italy in the family is several times repeated on the middle ages. It is there that Napoleon walls, Falo prudentior minor, a parody della Torre was confined in an iron cage or that somewhat obscure verse of the until he perisbed, after nineteen months Georgics, on the foresight of ravens : of torment; this perpetual chief of the
Milanese was made prisoner by the army Aat rerum fato prudentia major; of the archbishop of Milan, Oibo Vis
conti, whom he had expelled; a defeat a motto of a destructive fatalism, little which overthrew the power of the TorWorthy of a scholar and philosopher. riani and brought about the sovereignty The #des Jovie was the abode of of the Visconti. Voltaire ridiculed these Cogn Giambattista Giovio, great nephew cage stories; it is clear, however, that the or Paolo Giovio, a man of erudition, and inhabitants of Cosmo shut up in three author of the Lettere lariane, somewhat | iron cages Napoleon della Torre and five ostentatiously surnamed the Varro of of his relatives taken with him, because Cosmo. The library contains ancient he had inflicted the same punishment on manuscripts, some of which are still un- one of their countrymen.' The lower of poblisbed ones of Paolo Giovio, Bene- Gabbia, which is still in existence at detto Giovio, the second scholar of this Mantua, and retains its cage; and the family, and of the count Giarnbattista. tower of Placentia, which has also a
A magnificent lyceum was founded in cage, assert this barbarily; it even lasted 1824. On the front are busts of the il- more than two centuries. The imprilastrious literali of Cosmo from the two sonment of the six Torriani took place in Pionys down to Carlo Gaston Rezzonico. | 1277; the same captivity is frequent at a learned critic and tolerably brilliant the end of the fifteenth century : the poet of the last century; busts, which duke of Nemours and cardinal La Balue are strangely enough surmounted by thai | underwent it, and Comines confesses of Saint Abbondio, which would be more that he had an eight months' taste sailably placed in the chapel, and ils of it. present position might now be occupied During the French domination, a teleby the bast of Volta, the honour of graph was established on the lower of Coumo. The library of the lyceum had Baradello; it has since been suppressed, a good beginning, and is already exten- as well as all the others in the Lombardowie. It is decorated with a large statue Venetian kingdom : one would say that by Berpino of St. Isidore keeping his German sluggisboess fell embarrassed ogen. So perpetually laboured is the by the rapidity of such an instrument. talent of this artist, that not only is the ait of the saint devoid of every shade of
CHAPTER IX. rostrits, bat even the calves are formal and bave also, in their way, a smack of Lake.-Greek names.-Factory-convent.--Pllulana. affectation.
Melzi villa. -Fiume Latte. - Frate dans. --GraveCosmo has a superb literary casino.
dona. – Baptistry. - Mu so palace. – Sommariva This establishment of an Italian town of
villa. -- Basso-relevos of Thorwaldsen, - Pula
d'Este. -Vico. - Odescalchi Vilia.- Elm. - Paolo fifteen thousand souls, is superior to all thrine of the same kind in Parts.
The new front of ibe theatre is a noble It is dificult to describe the variety piece of architecture, and the interior is and the enchanting localities of the lake pretty handsome : but the players were of Cosmo; with ils woods, rocks, and tartable, and I cannot forget a certain cascades, the mildness of the air, and Resina, one of the most affected Italian the olive and citron groves that reacte