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all the distinguished officers of government; but such had now become the spirit of the day, that the town of Boston passed the following resolve, May 14th, 1773.

"Resolved, That if the council apply for Famiel Hall to dine in, on the anniversary election day, the select-men should not grant it, but upon conditions expressed, that neither the commissioners of the customs, nor their attendants, nor the officers of the army and navy, stationed here for the purpose of enforcing unconstitutional acts of Parliament, by military execution, be invited."

This resolve caused an infringement of the ancient custom, and the hall was not applied for.

The same spirit raged in Virginia, and they resolved in their house of Burgesses, to maintain a mutual intercourse with their sister colonies, by passing the following resolutions.

"Resolved, That a committee of eleven be appointed, whose business it shall be to obtain the most early, and authentic intelligence, of all such acts, and resolutions, of the British Parliament, or proceedings of administration, as may relate to, or affect the British colonies, and to keep up, and maintain, a correspondence, and communication with the sister colonies.

"Resolved, That the speaker transmit to the speakers of the several assemblies these resolutions, to be laid before their respective assemblies, and requesting them to appoint committees."

This measure met with the most cordial approbation of Massachusetts, and they devoted the first moments of their session to co operate with Virginia, by appointing a committee of fifteen, who were directed "to prepare a cir

Vol. Of. R

cular letter to the speakers, requesting them to lay the same before their respective assemblies, in confidence that they will comply with the wise, and salutary resolves of the house of Burgesses of Virginia.1'

These measures became general throughout the colonies.

At this time the house of assembly were thrown into a state of high agitation by a confidential communication, from Mr. Samuel Adams, of sundry letters, written in Massachusetts, and sent to Londou, under the signature of

Thomas Hutchinson, and Oliver, and five others,

all recommending to ministers, coercive measures against the colonies. These letters had been procured by Dr. Franklin in Londou, and transmitted to his correspondent in Massachusetts. Although the communication to the assembly was strictly confidential, the letters soon found their way into the public prints; and the public mind was highly incensed. The house of assembly, in committee of the whole, reported "that the tendency and design of the letters aforesaid was, to overthrow the constitution of this government, and introduce arbitrary power into thW province." Ayes 101, Nays 5.

When the house learnt that the letters had appeared in print, they took off the restriction, and gave them up for the public benefit. . They also resolved to petition the king to remove Governor Hutchinson, and Lieut. Gov. Oliver from the tjovernment of the province. They also sent up the letters to the council, who laid them before the governor, and demanded an avowal or denial of their authenticity; to which the governor frankly acknowledged his own signature, and the council resolved to concur witk the house in their petition for his removal. June 24th.

These letters, with the doings of the assembly, were immediately circulated through the province, by the corresponding committee, in a circular appropriate to the occ"asion, addressed to the town clerks of each town, to be communicated accordingly.

The prayer of the petition of the assembly, to his majesty, glowed with the keenest resentment, as well as invectives against the false, malicious, and scandalous misrepresentations of the governor and lieutenant-governor; declared them enemies to the king, as well as this colony, and prayed for speedy justice in their removal. This petition passed in the house by a majority of 82 to 12. Such was the resentment of the day.

Thus we see how God turned the counsels of Ahithophel

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CHAPTER IV.

CAUSES THAT LED TO THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION.—DE- „ STRUCTION OF THE TEA, &C

The destruction of the Gaspee schooner, at, or near to Providence, greatly incensed the Parliament, and they passed an act under the following title—" An act for the better securing his majesty's dock-yards, magazines, ships, ammunition, stores &c." by which the penalty of death was denounced against all, who should destroy, or aid, and assist in destroying, any of the articles named in this act,, and also subjected the. offenders to a trial in any shire, or county iu Great Britain.

Armed by the powers of this act, Parliament nex-t proceeded to pass another act, authorising the East-India company to export their own teas, with the power of collecting the duty of three pence per pound, reserved to government, on all teas landed in the American colonies.

The company were aware of the evils that might attend such an exportation, under such a duty, and offered to the minister to pay a duty of six-pence per pound on all teas exported, if they would withdraw the colonial duty of three pence ; but this was rejected, and the company shipped 600 chests of tea to Philadelphia—600 to New-York and Boston, and a general distribution, in the like proportion, through the other colonies.

The measure was rightly appreciated in America, and the refusal of the ministers to the offer of the East-India company, would have confirmed the views of the ministry, of riveting their system of taxation upon the colonies, through the medium of the duty on tea, had not their minds been firmly fixed before. The merchants of Philadelphia well kn«w that the merchants of Boston had not very religiously kept their non-importation agreement upon the article of tea; but had indulged so freely, as to have imported, in deliance of that agreement, more than 2000 chests of tea. Accordingly Mr. Thomas Mifflin, a noted merchant of Philadelphia, being present at Boston, put the question home to these sons of liberty— "Will you resist the landing of this tea? if you will, I will be answerable for Philadelphia. To which they readily assented, and pledged their honor. The citizens of Philadelphia immediately convened, and appointed a committee to wait on the merchants, who were appointed te receive, and sell the tea, and request their immediate resignation, which was promptly complied with, and a correspondence for mutual support, as well as resistance to the landing of the tea, was entered into between Philadelphia, and Boston. The sons of liberty in New-York, entered -into similar measures, which were supported by handbills and other spirited publications, cautioning, and warning the public against the danger that awaited their liberties, under the specious mask of a duty on tea; threatening with vengeance also, all such as should in any way be accessary to receiving, or selling the tea. lu these publications, the tea was termed the fetters and chains of liberty; and destruction denounced against any, and all who should presume to aid, or assist in landing the fetters, and chains, for the destruction of liberty. These pieces were signed Legion, Mohawks, fyc. The same measures were pursued in Philadelphia, and the' same resignation of the consignees became common in both these places; but the consignees in Boston refused; town meetings were called, and a committee appointed to wait on them, to press their resignation; but without effect; they were supported by the governor, and absolutely refused. Governor Hutchinson convened his council for advice, upon the best measures for keeping the

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