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ing objections are relied upon as insur- , establishments, let him go to the western mountable :

part of this state, the rapid growth of 1. That this ought to be a commercial which is without a parallel in the history of and agricultural, and not a manufacturing nations, and he will find that mills and country.

manufactures formed the first rudiments 2. That manufactures are unfriendly to of those almost countless villages, and commerce and agriculture.

towns which spangle that fertile and beau3. That they cannot be carried on to tisul country, emphatically styled, the advantage, because labour is higher than in Eden of the state. Europe.

2d. That our manufactures are nox4. That they demoralize and deprave ious to our commerce and agriculture. those employed in them.

This is little else than so many empty 5. That they should be left to them- words. How can that which widens the selves, and not forced into premature exist field of commerce be said to injure it? Will ence by government patronage.

these logicians assert that Brisish manu6. That such patronage would diminish factures have injured British commerce? the revenue and resources of government. No; but they speak with two tongues ; one

True to her interest, when Great Bri- for themselves, and one for us. We have tain cannot force a market by the bayonet, three resources; they have but two: abanshe does it by circumvention. It was this don one, they say, that we may be equal. policy, exercised towards these states, When did they set us the example of such whilst colonies, that, with other aggreso complaisance! And as to any pretended sions, led to resistance. It was the con- injury to agriculture, by the absorption of tinuance of this policy, and the influence of labour, we find that out of 200,000 perher manufactures, that lately went near to sons formerly employed in our factories, prostrate our government, sever our union, in two branches alone, more than 120,000 and overturn our independence. And this were women and children. Was agriculpolicy, as long as it is fed with any hope of ture benefited when, on the stopping of our ruin, will leave no means untried to the cotton and woollen manufactures, injure us. Such is the policy that car- these women returned to idleness, the chilries despotism round the globe ; that whis- dren to the poor house, and the men, not pers in our ears, and would instil into to the farms, but to the cities from whence our hearts, pernicious counsels.

they came. And now to our argument:

3d. That manufactures cannot be 'car1st. That this ought to be a commer- ried on here to advantage whilst labour is cial and agricultural country.

so much higher than in England. If this position were not the entering This

may be plausible to those who are wedge for other sophistries, we should as ignorant of that country as its partihave nothing to do but to agree: but sans are, or affect to be, of this. Our when they go the length of saying, “Give labour is, indeed, numerically higher ; up manufacturing that you may be com- but taxes and impositions are so much mercial and agricultural,” we say, no! lower, that we can afford to pay more, but we will manufacture, that we may because our goods are charged with litbe agricultural and commercial. And we tle else. It is true that in England the tell them, read your bistory, and see how labourer receives less, because what he England's commerce has depended on, earns by his industry is paid away, beand grown out of, her manufactures. fore it reaches his hands, in tithes, pen.

If England's commerce has depended sions, taxes, poor-rates, and a thousand upon her manufactures, and without any exactions to pamper the pride and luxuagricultural resources she has risen to ry of those who live but to consume the wealth, we may well say, having a resource fruits of the earth—who neither work, the more in the abundance of our soil, nor add to the stock of national wealth.

Do you give up all the competition, let us But it proves nothing for the lowness manufacture for you.' Great Britain of wages, that this poor man's substance would surely think this an arrogaat pre- is eaten dp by so many that had no tension, and she would think rightly. Why, share in earning it. And there is anoththen, presume that we should be her dupe ? er answer worth attention : If our fa

Does any one seek to be convinced, by brics are upheld for a time, a power will a single fact, that the settlement of the develope itself which will sink this formi

unds, and the prosperity of the country, dable objection into nothing ; that of ladepend, essentially, upon manufacturing I bour-saving machinery; a power of which

AGEMENT OF DOMESTIC MANUFAC

TURES.

no man can'at present foresee the limit our present object, we would quote abun. or extent; a power indigenous in this coun- dance of valuable matter from this autry, where nien, by the free exercise of thentic and useful work.

We can ontheir will and faculties, have acquired a ly.here recommend it to the perusal of characteristic aptitude for mechanical in- all who take interest in their country's ventions. Many instances prove this po- welfare. sition, so honourable to our country. Further selections will be made

And what field of competition is so desirable as that which calls into activity the fin- from this valuable production in est powers and greatest energies of useful in- future numbers, tellect; the powers that will make us strong in war, secure in peace, respected abroad, happy at home. But there is another mo- AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE ENCOURtive, still nearer at hand; these manufactures give bread to many whom years, infirmities, or sex, disqualify from labours of a ruder cast, and make them rather a

This Society was instituted in source of wealth to the community than the city of New York, in 1816. an incụmbrance. And so little does the Daniel D. Tompkins, Vice-Presidepression of our manufactures depend dent of the United States, is Preupon scarcity of hands, that many are carried on by apprentices without wages. And sident of the Society, and many since the peace, many persons have been of the most distinguished men in obliged to return from them to the poor the state are active members of houses, and be again consigned to pauperism.

it. It may be called the mother What we bave said of machinery, will society of many others that have be of more weight, when it is consider

since been formed. Its members ed what abundance of mill-sites are to be had in this country, of which the fee- have been the great means of simple, and all other charges, would not drawing the attention of Congress cost the annual expence of a steam en to the subject of American manuhigher than on the continent

' of Europe, factures. They have regular yet that has not prevented her from un- communications from societies derselling all her rivals, except such as formed in New-Jersey, Pennsylhave lately adopted the counteracting po- vania, District of Columbia, Dellicy we would recommend.

is worthy also of notice, that all aware, Ohio, Kentucky, Virginthese labour-saving machines, and me ia, and Mississippi. chanical improvements, which would be

Upon the arrival of the Presihailed by us as new planets in the firmament, are, in that country, the signals dent of the United States at Newof mobs, assassinations, and revolt; and York, in June 1817, he was adare in fact, at last established by the sole

itted as a member of this society protection of the strong arm of government.

-very highly appreciated the We refer on this head to Mr. Tench honour conferred upon him, and Coxe's “Statement of the Arts and Manu- in answering the address of the serts that the diminution of manual las society, declared—“ That he dubour in 1808, was estimated in England, |ly appreciated the objects of the in regard to the cotton business, at 200 institution, which were particularly to 1. And who observes further, that dear to him, from their being intiMr. John Duncan, of Glasgow, an able writer, and artist, considers it to be much mately connected with the REAL in. more.' In the same work, Mr. Coxe in- dependence of the Republic." stances the saw-gin, invented by Mr. Ely Upon the same day, (June 14th.) Whitney of Connecticut, as saving manu- the three venerable ex-presidents al labour in the proportion of 1000 to 1. If it were consistent with our limits, or of the United States, were ad

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mitted as members. It must be Society, my just acknowledgment for this gratifying to our readers, to see mark of attention, I tender to yourself the

assurance of my great respect and conthe manner in which these great sideration. men estimated the honour con

TH, JEFFERSON.

Mr. LYNCH. ferred upon them, and their views of “DOMESTIC MANUFACTURE."

Montpelier, June 27, 1817.

Sir-I have received your letter of the Their letters follow.

18th inst. informing me that the American Quincy, June 23, 1817.

Society for the encouragement of DomesSir-I have received the letter, you did tic Manufactures, has been pleased to me the honour of writing to me, on the elect me one of its members. 14th of this month, announcing to me my

Although I approve of the policy of leavelection, by the American Society for ing to the sagacity of individuals, and to the the encouragement of Domestic Manufác- impulse of private interest, the application tures, instituted in New-York, as a mem- of industry and capital, I'am equally perber : an honour made more illustrious by suaded that in this, as in other cases, there the presence of the President of the United are exceptions to the general rule, which States.

do not impair the principle of it. Among Be pleased, Sir, to present my respects

these exceptions, is the policy of encourato the Society, and my thanks for the hon- ging domestic manufactures, within cerour they have done me ; and to assure

tain limits, and in reference to certain ar

ticles. them, if the best wishes of a man at eightyone years of age, can promote the wise pur; of the subject, it may be remarked, that

Without entering into a detailed view poses of their institution, I shall be a useful member. For according to my superficial every prudent nation will wish to be indeview of political economy in civilized so

pendent of other nations, for the necessaciety, next to agricultore, which is the ry articles of food, of raiment, and of defirst and most splendid, manufactures are

fence; and particular considerations apsecond, and navigation the third. With plicable to the United States, seem to agriculture, manufactures, and navigation,

strengthen the motives to this indepen

dence. all the commerce which can be necessary or useful to the happiness of a nation, will above description, there may he others,

Besides the articles falling under the be secured. Accept my thanks for the civility with

for manufacturing which, natural adrantawhich you have communicated the vote of ges exist, which require temporary interpothe Society to their and your friend,

sitions for bringing them into regular and JOHN ADAMS.

su cessful activity: D. LYNCH, jun. Esq. Secretary of from abroad, and not withdrawn, nor with

Where the fund of industry is acquired the American Society for the encourage-held from other domestic employments, ment of Domestic Manufactures.

the case speaks for itself. Monticello, June, 26, 1817. I will only add, that among the articles Sir--I am thankful for the honour done of consumption and use, the preference, me by an association with the American in many cases, is decided merely by fashSociety for the encouragement of Domes-ion or habit. As far as equality, and still tic Manufactures, instituted in New-York, more, where a real superiority is found in The history of the last twenty years has the articles, manufactured at home, all been a sufficient lesson for us all, to de- must be sensible, that it is politic and patpend for necessaries on ourselves alone : riotic to encourage a preference of them, and I hope that twenty years more, will as affording a more certain source of supply place the American hemisphere under a for every class, and a more certain market system of its own, essentially peaceable for the surplus products of the agricultuand industrious, and not needing to ex-ral class. tract its comforts out of the eternal fires With these sentiments,I beg you to make raging in the old world. The efforts of nay acknowledgments for the marks of the members of your institution being ne- distinction conferred on me, and which I cessarily engaged in their respective vi- accept from respect for the Society, and cinages, I consider myself, by their choice, for its objects, rather than from any hope as but a link of union between the promo- of being useful as a member. To yourself, I ters there and here of the same patriotic tender my friendly respects. objects. Praying you to present to the

JAMES MADISON.

THE MECHANIC ARTS.

SOCIETIES FOR THE ENCOURAGE-fence to the superiour sagacity of MENT OF MANUFACTURES, AND more experienced men; but the

benefits appear so obvious, that

they are suggested. Religious and ORIGINAL.

Masonic associations are multiAmoment's reflection mustshew plied almost beyond enumeration; any man of discernment, that as- and the best results have been sociations of the owners, of dif- produced. By the first, the desferent establishments, and of dif-titute bave been educated, and the ferent individuals, if combined light of religion extended by the upon the principles of mutual ac- last, the widow and the fathercommodation, and mutual inter- less have been protected, and the est, must be productive of the needy have been saved from the greatest utility. The adversity chilly grasp of cheerless poverty: produced by the last war, with

Societies of Manufacturers and many of the enterprising manu- Mechanics have been established facturers and mechanics in Con- in Hartford, Middletown, and necticut, is within the knowledge Litchfield, in this state; and they of every reader. Standing alone hold regular communications with and unassisted, they were pros. the principal Society in Newtrated, as the child would break York city—the great emporium the single rod; had they been uni- of our great Republic. If no peted, they would have rode out the cuniary benefit is hereby directly storm, as the bundled reeds would derived, it certainly imparts to all withstand the arm of the giant. the knowledge of improvements in

These ideas are suggested by manufacture, and activeknowledge the editor with the greatest defer- may be properly called capital.

Biliscellaneous Department.

MAN- PLEAS'D WITH VARIETY, MUST BE INDULG'D.

ORIGINAL,

THE SOCIAL COMPANION.

March 1819.......Paper II.

“How charming are thy borders—thy hills how beautiful-thy vallies how fertile and thy streams are lucid.”

Asiatic Poetry, ASI led my readers at the close corner of our beloved Connectiof my first paper to expect-Ariel cut. As he entered my closet, I has returned from his first excur- was in a pensive though not in a sion, through every nook and morose mood. His countenance

Vol. 1.

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beamed with delight as he enter- now proceed to point out the peed—for although he is invisible culiar advantages enjoyed by the to all the rest of the world, he as-people of Connecticut. This sumes form and shape when with command restored Ariel to a state me, i. e. the “Social Companion.” of animated joy; and he thus proExhilarated apparently to rap- ceeded,—“Connecticut has a cliture, he thus addressed me"1 mate that invigorates the human have faithfully explored the state system-a soil that furnishes man of Connecticut. I feel myself with all the variety of animal and wholly incompetent to express to vegetable food-waters that fayou, sir, the admiration I feel. As cilitate transportation ; aid the you well know, I have existed for manufacturer and mechanic, and many ages, and explored many furnish the most excellent fish. portions of the old and new world. But, sir, I will omit at this moment, I have seen the Ganges roll in to say more of its natural advan. Asia—the Danube in Europe, and tages. In a literary, moral, and the Nile in Africa. I have noti- religious point of view, Connecticed the few joys, and the many cut certainly stands preeminent miseries of the human beings who -not that it produces more sciinhabit these countries. I have entific scholars, more correct moalso wandered, unseen, along the ralists, or more sincere christians, delightful Ohio, and the majestic than other states and countriesMississippi. I have observed the but, literature is more generally advantages which a beneficent diffused-morality has a more Providence has there bestowed universal influence, and the beupon man—but sir, until I had ex-nign influence of religion affects plored this beloved Connecticut, more hearts than in any country I hardly thought any one country I ever visited." could unite in its own bosom the

Expecting nothing but a genbenefits of all."

eral report from my faithful agent I here checked Ariel for his en- at this time, I here dismissed him. thusiasm. He seemed mortified Immediately after, I received the and chagrined that I should have following communication. even a momentary doubt of his accuracy. Ariel! said I, a-be

TO THE SOCIAL COMPANION. eficent Providence has showered down blessings in rich profu Ever since I read your first Pa. sion upon every portion of the per in the RURAL MAGAZINE, I world. Even the wandering Arab have been in a state of constant of Zaharah finds blessings upon agitation. As I am a female, I that outspread and cheerless de- did not pay so much attention sert. After a short pause, Ariel to the “ Historical, Biographical, declared, “That the only way Agricultural, and Manufacturing that we could determine the su- Departments," as I conclude the periority of one country to anoth-gentlemen have. I always look èr, was, by comparing them to first after “ Poetry," then“ Misgether." Certainly, said I-and' cellany," and then Variety." I

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