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Confucius.

as containing the essence of all their sciences and mora mountain, how art thou fallen! The grand machine is Confucius.
lity. Nature bad bestowed upon him a most amiable demolished, and the wise and the virtuous are no more.
temper, and his moral deportment was altogether un The kings will not follow my maxims: I am no long-
exceptionable. He acqnired a distinguished reputation er useful on earth ; it is, therefore, time that I should
for humility, sincerity, the government of his appetites, quit it.” On uttering these words he was seized with
a disinterested heart, and a sovereign contempt of a lethargy, which brought him to the grave. He fi-
wealth. These rare qualities pointed him out as a pro-

nished his honourable career in the 720 year of his age,
per person to fill offices of importance and trust in the in his native kingdom, to which he had returned in
government of his country, which he did with honour company with bis disciples. It is frequently the fate
to himself and advantage to the empire. These public of illustrious characters, never to be properly valued
stations afforded him excellent opportunities of estima till they are cut off by death ; which was the case with
ting with accuracy the true state of morals among his Confucius. The whole empire of China bewailed the
countrymen, which at this time were dissolute and vi. loss of him, and erected innumerable edifices to per-
cious in the extreme. He conceived the godlike idea petuate bis memory, adorned with such honourable in-
of attempting a general reformation both in morals and scriptions as the following : " To the great master;"
in politics, and his efforts for some time were attended “ To the chief doctor ;" “ To the saint;" “ To the
with such remarkable effects, that he inspired his coun wise king of literature ;” “ To the instructor of em-
trymen with a just veneration for his excellent charac perors and kings." All his descendants, even to
ter, and gratitude for his exertions, being raised to a the present day, enjoy the honourable title and of-
siation of the last importance in the kingdom of Lu. fice of mandarins, and are exempted from the pay-
Here his counsels and advice were productive of the ment of taxes to the emperor, as well as the princes of
most beneficial consequences, in establishing good or the blood. The man who applies for the title of doctor,
der, the due exercise of justice, concord, and decorum, must previously have made a present to a mandarin de-
through the whole kingdom. As it thus very natural scended in a direct line from Confucius. The writings
ly became an object of admiration, so, likewise, neigh- of this great man are esteemed by the Chinese as of
bouring princes beheld with envy its growing happi- the highest authority, next to the five volumes, to which
ness and prosperity ; to destroy which they contrived he modestly acknowledges himself to have been much
a fatal and effectual expedient. The king of Tsi being indebted. His works are, 1. The Tay-hio; The Grand
apprehensive, that if the king of Lu continued to be Science, or School of Adults," chiefly intended for the
directed by the wisdom and sound policy of Confucius, information of princes and magistrates, recommending
he would soon become by far too powerful, sent bim the duties of self-government, and uniform obedience
and his nobility a present of the most beautiful young to the laws of right reason. 2. The Chong-yong, or
women, trained up from their infancy in all the arts of “ Immutable Medium," in whicl be shews its impor-
seduction, who were but too successful in plunging the tance in the government of the passions by a variety of
whole court into voluptuousness and dissipation. This examples, and points out the method of arriving at per-
demolished, in a short time, the whole of that beautiful fection in virtue. 3. Lung-yu, or moral and sententions
fabric which had been erected by Confucius. Finding discourses, which exhibit a lively picture of the opinions,
it a hopeless attempt to stem the universal torrent of conduct, and maxims of Confucius and his followers.
corruption and depravity, he resolved to exert his ta 4. lleng-tsi, the book of Mencius, which derived its
lents in some distant kingdom, in the philanthropic name from one of that great philosopher's disciples.
cause of moral reformation, in hopes of better success. These are all deservedly esteemed by the Chinese, be-
But he had the mortification to discover, that vice was ing beld next in importance to the five volumes. 5. The
everywhere triumphant, while virtue, that darling of Hyau-king, or dissertation on the duty and respect
his soul, was coinpelled to hide her head. This in which children owe their parents; and, 6. Tlie Syan-
duced him to adopt the more humble, although hyo, or science for children, being a judicious collection
not the less interesting employment of a teacher of of moral sentences from ancient and modern writers.
youth, in which he made great and rapid progress. If a fair and impartial estimate of the religion of
About 600 of his scholars were sent into different Confucius be made, it cannot be viewed in any other
parts of the empire, to carry on his favourite work of light than as uncorrupted deism, although he has some-
moral reformation. Among his disciples, 72 were re times been accused of befriending and secretly propa-
markably distinguished above the rest for their mental gating atheistical sentiments ; but such an accusation is
acquisitions, and 10 others were deemed superior, even as cruel as it is unjust, since the purity of his moral pre-
to these, as having a thorough comprehension of their cepts, and the acknowledged rectitude of his whole de-
master's whole system. These were divided by him in. portment, are utterly incompatible with such a supposi-
to four classes : the first being destined to the study of tion. He considered the Tyen or Deity as the purest
the moral virtues; the second to the arts of logic and and most perfect essence, principle and source of all
public speaking ; the third class studied jurisprudence things in the boundless universe ; who is absolutely in-
and the duties of the civil magistrate ; and public speak- dependent, omnipotent, the governor and guardian of
ing, or the delivery of popular discourses on moral every thing ; possessed of infinite wisdom which nothing
topics. Indefatigable, however, as his labours were, can deceive; holy, without partiality, of unlimited
the task was too mighty to be accomplished by human goodness and justice. We are at a loss to form any
exertions. During his last illness, he declared to his adequate opinion of his sentiments relative to the soul
pupils, that the grief of bis mind occasioned by the of man and the doctrine of futurity, having no well au-
profligacy of human nature was become insupportable; thenticated data, on which to proceed. His morality is
and with a melancholy voice, he exclaimed “ Immense in many instances superior to that of Greece and Rome,
Vol. VI. Part II.

+

3 R

and

Confucius, and yields to none upon earth, except to that of divine fore, as made them speak it very differently; so that Confeoia. Confusion, revelation. The religion of Confucius, notwithstand by the various inflexions, terminations, and pronun.

ing the estimation in which he is beld, is adopted as a ciations of divers dialects, they could no more under model by none of his countrymen, the literati except- stand one another, than they who understand Latin ed. Their prevailing system is a mediey of pagan can understand those who speak French, Italian, or idolatry and the fabulous superstition of the Indians, Spanish, though all these languages arise out of it. introduced into China by Fo, in the first century of the This opinion is adopted by Casaubon, and by Bishop Christian era.

Patrick in his Commentary in loc. and is certainly much CONFUSION, in a general sense, is ooposed to ore more probable than either of the former. And Mr der, in a pertubation whereof confusion consists : e. gr. Shuckford maintains, that the confusion arose from when things prior in nature do not precede, or posterior small beginnings, by the invention of new words in eido not follow, &c.

ther of the three families of Shem, Ham, and Japhet, In a logical sense, confusion is opposed to distinctness which might contribute to separate them from one anoor perspicuity: and may happen either in words, as ther: and that in each family new differences of speech when miscontrived or misapplied; or in ideas, as when might gradually arise, so that each of these families the idea of any thing presents something along with it, went on to divide and subdivide among themselves. which does not properly belong to that thing. See Others, again, as Mr Jos. Mede and Dr Wotton, &c. IDEA and NOTION.

not satisfied with either of the foregoing methods of In a physical sense, confusion is a sort of union or accounting for the diversity of languages among manmixture by mere contiguity. Such is that between kind, have recourse to an extraordinary interposition fluids of contrary nature, as oil and vinegar, &c. of divine power, by which new languages were framed

Confusion, in Scots Law, is a method of suspending and communicated to different families by a supernaand extinguishing obligations. For the illustration of tural infusion or inspiration ; which languages bave been this, see Law Index.

the roots and originals from which the several dialects Confusion of Tongues, in the history of mankind, is that are, or bave been, or will be spoken, as long as a memorable event, which happened in the one hundred this earth shall last, have arisen, and to which they and first year according to the Hebrew chronology, may with ease be reduced. As to the number of lanand the four hundred and first year by the Samaritan, guages thus introduced, many opinions bave been after the flood, at the overthrow of Babel; and which adopted. If there were no more than there were nawas providentially brought about in order to facilitate tions or heads of nations, then the number would be the dispersion of mankind and the population of the seven for Japhet, four for Ham, and five for Sbem; earth. Until this period there had been one common but if there were as many as there were families, which language, which formed a bond of union that prevented is the more probable opinion, their number cannot be the separation of mankind into distinct nations; and certainly assigned. However, the Hebrews fancy they some have supposed, that the tower of Babel was erect were 70, because the descendants from the sons of ed as a kind of fortress, by which the people intended Noah, enumerated Genesis x. were just so many. Alto defend themselves against that separation which lowing, then, the languages of the chief families to Noal had projected.

have been fundamentally different from each other, the There has been a considerable difference of opinion sub-languages and dialects within each branch would as to the nature of this confusion, and the manner in probably have had a mutual affinity, greater or less as which it was effected. Some learned men, prepossessed they settled nearer or farther from each other. But with the notion that all the different idioms now in the wbichsoever of these hypotheses is adopted, the priworld did at first arise from one original language to mary object of the confusion at Babel was the separawhich they may be reduced, and that the variety tion and dispersion of mankind. among them is no more than must naturally bave hap Dr Bryant, in the third volume of his Analysis of pened in a long course of time by the mere separation Ancient Mythology, has advanced a singular hypotheof the builders of Babel, have maintained, that there sis, both with respect to the confusion of tongues and were no new languages formed at the confusion ; butthe dispersion. He supposes that the confusion of lanthat this event was accomplished by creating a misun guage was local and partial, and limited to Babel only. derstanding and variance among the builders, without By Yarnba, Gen. xi. 1. and 8. which our translators any immediate influence on their languages. But this render the whole earth, be understands every region; opinion, advanced by Le Clerc, &c. seems to be di and by the same words in ver. 9. the whole region or rectly contrary to the obvious meaning of the word province. This confusion was occasioned, as be sup179w, shapha, “ lip,” used by the sacred bistorian. poses, by a labial failure ; so that the people could not Others have imagined, that this was brought about by articulate. Thus their speech was confounded, but not a temporary confusion of their speech, or rather of their altered; for as soon as they separated, they recovered apprehensions, causing them, whilst they continued to their true tenor of pronunciation, and the language of gether and spoke the same language, to understand the the earth continued for some ages nearly the same. words differently. Scaliger is of this opinion. Others, The interviews between the Hebrews and other naagain, account for this event by the privation of all tions recorded in Scripture, were conducted without language, and by supposing that mankind were under a an interpreter ; and he farther observes, that the varinecessity of associating together, and of imposing new ous languages which subsist at this day retain sufficient names on things by common consent. Another opi- relation to show, that they were once dialects from the nion ascribes the confusion to such an indistinct remem same matrix, and that their variety was the effect of brance of the original language which they spoke be time. See DISPERSION. 3

CONFUTATION,

3

Confutation CONFUTATION, in Rhetoric, &c. a part of an ing any degree of cold whatever; and it is only within Congelaoration, wherein the orator seconds his own arguments

few years that its congelation by artificial means was tion. Congela- and strengthens his cause, by refelling and destroying known, and still more lately that some climates were

the opposite arguments of the antagonist. This is done found to be so severe as to congeal this fluid by the cold
by denying what is apparently false, by detecting some of the atmosphere.
flaw in the reasoning of the adverse party, by granting The congelation of quicksilver was first ascertained Experi.
their argument, and showing its invalidity, or retorting by M. Joseph Adam Braun, professor of philosophy at ments of
it upon the adversary.

Petersburg. He had been employed in making ther- M. Braun,
CONGE, in the French law, a license or permis- mometrical experiments, not with a view to make the
sion, granted by a superior to an inferior, which gives discovery he actually did, but to see how many degrees
bim a dispensation from some duty to which he was of cold he could produce. An excellent opportunity
before obliged. A woman cannot obligate herself for this occurred on the 14th of December 1759, when
without the congé or license of her husband ; a monk the mercury stood naturally at -34, which is now
cannot go out of his conven', without the congé of his known to be only five or six degrees above its point of
superiors.

congelation. M. Braun, having determined to avail Conge' d'elire, in ecclesiastical policy, the king's himself of this great degree of natural cold, prepared a permission royal to a dean and chapter in the time of freezing mixture of nitric acid and pounded ice, by a vacancy, to chose a bishop; or to an abbey, or priory, means of which his thermometer was reduced to -69, of his own foundation, to choose their abbot or prior. Part of the quicksilver had now really congealed; yot

The king of England, as sovereign patron of all so far was M. Braun from entertaining any suspicion of archbishoprics, bishoprics, and other ecclesiastical be the truth, that he had almost desisted from farther atnefices, had of ancient time free appointment of all tempts, being satisfied with having so far exceeded all ecclesiastical dignities, whensoever they chanced to be the philosophers who went before bim. Animated, void ; investing them first per bacculum et annulum, however, by the hopes of producing a still greater deand afterwards hy his letters patent; and in course of gree of cold, he renewed the experiment; but having time he made the election over to others, under cer expended all his pounded ice, he was obliged to subtain forms and limitations, as that they should at eve stitute snow in its place. With this fresh mixture the ry vacation, before they choose, demand the king's mercury sunk to -100, 240, and 352°. He then congé d'elire, and after the election crave his royal as supposed that the thermometer was broken ; but on sent, &c.

taking it out to observe whether it was so or not, he CONGE', in Architecture, a mould in form of a found the gnicksilver fixed, and continuing so for 12 quarter round, or a cavetto, which serves to separate minutes. On repeating the same experiment with antwo members from one another ; such as that which other thermometer which had been graduated no lower joins the shaft of the column to the cincture, called al than 120, all the mercury sunk into the ball, and so apophyge.

became solid as before, not beginning to reascend till Conges are also rings or ferrels formerly used in the after a still longer interval of time. Hence the proextremities of wooden pillars, to keep them from split- fessor concluded that the quicksilver was really frozen, ting, afterwards imitated in stone-work.

and prepared for making a decisive experiment. This
CONGELATION, signifies the passing of any body was accomplished on the 25th of the same month, and
from a fluid to a solid state : so that the term is thus the bulb of the thermometer broken as soon as the me.
applicable to metals when they resume their solid form tal was congealed. The mercury was now converted
after being heated, to water when it freezes, to wax, into a solid and sbining metallic mass, which extended
spermaceti, &e. when they become solid after having under the strokes of a pestle, in hardness rather in-
been rendered fluid by heat; and in general to all pro ferior to lead, and yielding a dull sound like that me-
cesses, where the whole substance of the fluid is con tal. Professor Æpinus made similar experiments at
verted into a solid : but it differs from crystallization; the same time, employing both thermometers and tubes
because in the latter process, though the salt passes of a larger bore : in which last he remarked, that the
from a fluid to a solid state, a considerable quantity of quicksilver fell sensibly on being frozen, assuming a
liquid is always left, so that the term congelation is concave surface, and likewise that the congealed pieces
never applied in this case.

sunk in fluid mercury.
The process of congelation in all cases depends upon, The fact being thus established, and fluidity no
or at least is accompanied with, the emission of heat, as longer to be considered as an essential property of
has been evinced by experiments made not only on wa quicksilver, M. Braun communicated an account of

ter, but on spermaceti, wax, &c. : for in all of these, his experiments to the Petersburgh Academy, on the
Is always though the thermometer immersed in them while fluid 6th of September 1760 ; of which a large extract was
attended continued to descend gradually till a certain period, inserted in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. lii.
with an
emission of

yet

it was as constantly observed to remain stationary, p. 156. Five years afterwards he published another heat.

or even to ascend while the congelation went on. See treatise on the same subject, under the title of Supple-
CHEMISTRY.

ment to his former dissertation. In this he declared,
It is not known whether all kinds of fluids are natı- that, since his former publication, he had never suffer-
rally capable of congelation or not; though we are ed any winter to elapse without repeating the experi-
certain that there are very great differences among ment of congealing quicksiļver, and never failed of

them in this respect. The most difficult of all those of success when the natural cold was of a sufficient Congetation of

which the congelation has been actually ascertained is strength for the purpose. This degree of natural cold quicksilver. quicksilver. This was long thought capable of resistThis was long thought capable of resist- he supposes to be 10 of Fahrenheit, though some

commencement

2

3 R 2

tion.

vol, iil

ounce.

Congela. commencement of the congelation might be perceived unaccountable ; for, in the first place, the natural cold Congela

when the temperature of the air was as high as + 2. was scarcely sufficient, along with that of the artificial tion
The results of all his experiments were, that with the mixture, which produces 32° more, to have congealed
above-mentioned frigorific mixtures, and once with the quicksilver; which yet appears to have been very
rectified spirits and snow, when the natural cold was at effectually done, by the length of time it continued
28°, he congealed the quicksilver, and discovered that solid. 2. It is not easy to account for the length of
it is a real metal which melts with a very small de time required for congealing the quicksilver in this ex-
gree of heat. Not perceiving, however, the necessary periment, since other frigorific mixtures begin to act
consequence of its great contraction in freezing, he, in almost immediately; and, 3. There was not at last
this work, as well as in the former, confounded its even the appearance of action, which consists in a so-
point of congelation with that of its greatest contrac lution of the snow, and not in its freezing into a mass.
tion in freezing, and thus marked the former a great “ The whole experiment (says Dr Blagden*) remains * Phil.
deal too low; though the point of congelation was very involved in such obscurity, that some persons have sup- Trames

.
uncertain according to him, various difficulties having posed the quicksilver itself was not frozen, but only
occurred to his attempts of finding the greatest point covered over with ice; to which opinion, however,
of contraction while freezing.

there are great objections. It is worthy of remark, The experiments of M. Braun were not repeated that Gottingen, though situated in the same latitude as Of Mr Blu

by any person till the year 1774, when Mr John Fremenbach.

London, and enjoying a temperate climate in general, deric Blumenbach, then a student of physic at Got becomes subject at times to a great severity of cold. tingen, performed them to more advantage than it ap This of 11th of January 1774 is one instance: I find pears

M. Braun bad ever done. He was encouraged others there where the thermometer sunk to -12°, to make the attempt by the excessive cold of the win -16°,or-19°; and at Cattlenburg, a small town about ter that year. “ I put (says he), at five in the even two German miles distant, to -30°. By watching such ing of January 11th, three drachms of quicksilver into extraordinary occasions, experiments on the freezing a small sugar-glass, and covered it with a mixture of of quicksilver might easily be performed in many snow and Egyptian sal-ammoniac. This mixture was places, where the possibility of them is at present litput loose into the glass, so that the quicksilver lay per ile suspected. The cold observed at Glasgow in 1780 fectly free, being only covered with it as by pieces would bave been fully sufficient for that purpose.” of ice; the whole, together with the glass, weighed In consequence of the publication of Ả. Braun's somewhat above an

It was hung out at a Experiments, the Royal Society desired their late sewindow in such a position as to expose it freely to cretary Dr Maty to make the necessary application to the north-west ; and two drachms more of sal-ammo the Hudson's Bay Company, in order to repeat the niac mixed with the snow on wbich it stood. The experiment in that country, Mr Hutchins, who was snow and sal-ammoniac, in the open air, soon froze then at London, and going out with a commission as into a mass like ice; no sensible change, bowever, ap governor of Albany fort, offered to undertake the expeared in the quicksilver that evening ; but at one in periments, and executed them very completely, freezing the morning it was found frozen solid. It had divided quicksilver twice in the mouth of January and Feinto two large and four smaller pieces; one of the bruary 1775. The account of his success was read former was hemispherical, the other cylindrical, each before the Royal Society at the commencement of the seemingly rather above a drachm in weight; the four severest winter that had been known for many years in small bits might amount to balf a scruple. They were Europe ; and at this time the experiment was repeated all with their flat side frozen hard to the glass, and no by two gentlemen of different countries. One was where immediately touched by the mixture; their co Dr Lambert Bicker, secretary to the Batavian society lour was a dull pale white with a bluish cast, like zinc, at Rotterdam; wbo, on the 28th of January 1776, at very different from the natural appearance of quicksil- eight in the moruing, made an experiment to try how ver. Next morning, about eleven o'clock, I found tbat low he could bring the thermometer by artificial cold, the larger hemisphere began to melt, perhaps because the temperature of the atmospliere being then +2°: it was most exposed to the air, and not so near as the He could not however, bring it lower than -94°, at others to the sal-ammoniac mixture which lay be which point it stood immoveable; and on breaking neath. In this state it resembled an amalgam, sinking tbe thermometer, part of the quicksilver was found to on that side to which the glass was inclined: but with bave lost its fluidity, and was thickened to the iconout quitting the surface of the glass, to which it was sistence of an amalgam. It fell out of the tube in yet firmly congealed; the five other pieces bad not little bits, which bore to be flattened by pressure, with. yet undergone any alteration, but remained frozen hard. out running into globules like the inner fluid part. Toward eight o'clock the cylindrical piece began to The experiment was repeated next day, when the soften in the same manner, and the other four soon thermometer stood at +8°, but the mercury would not followed. About eight they fell from the surface of then descend below —80°; and as the thermometer the glass, and divided into many fluid shining globules, was not broken, it could not be known whether the which were soon lost in the interstices of the frozen

mercury had congealed or not. All that could be iamixture, and reunited in part at the bottom, being ferred from these experiments therefore was, that the now exactly like common quicksilver.” At the time congealing point of mercury was not below -940 of this experiment was made, the thermometer stood at Fahrenheit's thermometer. The other who attempt-10° in the

open
air.

ed the congelation of this fuid was the late Dr AnThe circumstances attending this experiment are still thony Fothergill; but it could not be determined

whetber

tion.

5

Congela- whether he succeeded or not. An account of bis ex sensibly below it. The diameter of the bulb of the Congela-
tion. periments is inserted in the Philosophical Transactions, thermometer was rather less than a quarter of an inch,
vol. Ixvi.

that of the swelled part of the cylinder two-thirds ;
No other attempts were made to congeal quicksilver and as it was easy to keep the thermometer constantly
until the year 1781, when Mr Hutchins resumed the in the middle of the cylinder, the thickness of quick-
subject with great success, insomuch that from bis ex silver betwixt it and the glass conld never be much less
periments the freezing point of mercury is now almost than the sixth part of an ioch. The bulb of the ther-
as well settled as that of water. Preceding philoso- mometer was purposely made as small as it conveniently
phers, indeed, had not been altogether inattentive to could, in order to leave a suflicient space between it and
this subject. Professor Braun himself had taken great the cylinder, without making the swelled part larger
pains to investigate it; but for want of paying the re than necessary, which would have caused more difficulty
quisite attention to the difference betwixt the contrac in freezing the mercury in it.
tion of the fluid mercury by cold, and that of the The first experiment with this apparatus was made
congealing nietal by freezing, he could determine no on the 15th of December 1781 ; the thermometer had
thing certain concerning it.

Others declared it as stood the evening before at -18°. A bottle of spiri-
their opinion, that nothing certain could be determi tus nitri fortis was put on the bouse-top, in order to
ned by merely freezing mercury in a thermometer cool it to the same temperature. The thermome.
filled with that fluid. Mr Cavendish and Dr Black ters made use of had been hung up in the open air for

first suggested the proper method of obviating the dif three weeks to compare their scales. On the mornDe Black's ficulties on this subject. Dr Black, in a letter to Mring of the experiment they were about 23° below directions Hutchins, dated October 5. 1779, gave the following 0.-In making it, the thermometer of the appafor making directions for making the experiment with accuracy: ratus was suspended in the bulb of the cylinder by the experi- « Provide a few wide and short tubes of thin glass, means of some red worsted wound about the upper ment.

sealed at one end and open at the other : the wideness part of its stem, to a sufficient thickness to fill the up-
of these tubes may be from half to three quarters of per part of its orifice; and a space of near half an
an inch, and the length of them about three inches. inch was left empty between the quicksilver and worst-
Put an inch or an inch and a half depth of mercury ed.
into one of these tubes, and plunging the bulb of the The apparatus was placed in the open air, on the top
thermometer into the mercury, set the tube with the of the fort, with only a few deer skins sewed together
mercury and the thermometer in it into a freezing mix- for a shelter; the snow lay 18 inches deep on the
ture, which should be made for this purpose in a com works, and the apparatus was stuck into the snow, in
mon tumbler or water glass : and, N. B. in making a order to bring it the sooner to the temperature of the
freezing mixture with snow and nitric acid, the quan air. The instruments were afterwards placed in three
tity of the acid should never be so great as to dissolve fresh freezing mixtures, in hopes of being able by their
the whole of the snow, and only enough to reduce means to produce a greater degree of cold, but with-
it to the consistence of panada. When the mer out effect; nor was any greater cold produced by add-
cury in the wide tube is thus set in the freezing ing more nitric acid. The mercury, however, was very
mixture, it must be stirred gently and frequently with completely frozen, that in the thermometer descending
the bulb of the thermometer; and if the cold be suf to 448o. On plunging the mercury into the freezing
ficiently strong, it will congeal by becoming thick mixture, it descended in less than one minute to 40°
like an amalgam. As soon as this is observed, the

below o.
thermometer should be examined without lifting it out The second experiment was made the day follow-
of the congealing mercury; and I have no doubt that ing; and the same quantity of quicksilver employed
in every experiment thus made, with the same mer that had been used in the former. As too small a
cury, the instrument will always point to the same quantity of the freezing mixture, however, had been
degree, provided it bas been made and graduated with originally made, it was necessary to add more during
accuracy.

the operation of congelation ; by which means the Apparatas The apparatus recommended by Mr Cavendish, and spirit of nitre, in pouring it upon the snow, sometimes

which Mr Hutchins made use of, consisted of a small touched the bulb of the thermometer, and instantly
mended by
Mr Garen-

mercurial thermometer, the bulb of which reaches raised it much higher; por did the mercury ever de-
about 2 inches below the scale, and was inclosed in scend below 206°, which was not half as far as it had
a glass cylinder swelled at the bottom into a ball, which done the day before, though the temperature of the
when used was filled with quicksilver, so that the bulb atmosphere had been this day at -34° before the
of the thermometer was entirely covered with it. If commencement of the operation. That in the appa-
this cylinder be immersed in a freezing mixture till ratus, bowever, sunk to -95. The apparatus was
great part of the quicksilver in it is frozen, it is evi. taken out of the mixture for half a minute, in order
dent that the degree shown at that time by the inclo to examine whether the mercury was perfectly congeal-
sed thermometer

is the precise point at which mercury ed or not, and during that time, it showed no sign of
freezes; for as in this case the ball of the thermome- liquefaction.
ter must be surrounded for some time with quicksilver, - The third experiment was made the same day, and
part of which is actually frozen, it seems impossible with the freezing mixture used in the last. By it the
that the thermometer should be sensibly above that point of congelation was determined to be not below
point; and while any of the quicksilver in the cylin- 40°.
der remains fluid, it is impossible that it should sink The fourth experiment was made January 7th 1782;

and

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