« AnteriorContinuar »
Conde ceived him in; and a peace ensoed soon after. His CONDILLAC, ETIENNE BONNOT DE, an eminent Condile
batred of the cardinal, bowever, made him quit Pa- French writer on metaphysics. See SUPPLEMENT. Condeuser. ris, and take refuge among the Spaniards, who made CONDITION, in the civil law, a cause of obliga. Condorce
him generalissimo of their forces; and he took Ro- tion stipulated as an article of a treaty or a contract; croi.
The peace of the Pyrenees restored bim to or in a donation of a testament, legacy, &c. in which his country; and he again signalized himself at the last case a donee does not lose his donative if it be cbar. head of the king's armies. Being afflicted with the ged with any dishonest or impossible conditions, gout, he refused the command of the army in 1676, CONDITIONAL, something not absolute, but and retired to Chantilly, where he was as much subject to conditions. esteemed for the virtues of peace, as he had been be- ConditioNAL Conjunctions, in Grammar, are those fore for his military talents. He died in 1686, at Fon- which serve to make propositions conditional; as if
unless, provided, &c.
CONDE, a town of the French Netherlands, in the ConditionAL Propositions, in Logic, such as consist
department of the North, with the title of a principalis of two parts connected together by a conditional par-
iy, and has 5000 inhabitants. It is one of the strong- ticle.
est towns in this country, and seated near the con- ConditioNAL Syllogism, a syllogism where the ma-
fluence of the rivers Haisne and Scheldt. It was ta- jor is a conditional proposition. Thus,
ken by the allies in 1793, and retaken by the French
If there is a God, he ought to be worshipped.
in 1794. Its name by the convention was changed to
Nord Libre. E. Long. 3. 39. N. Lat. 50. 27.
But there is a God;
CONDE, a town of France, in the department of
Therefore he ought to be worshipped.
Calvados, which carries on a considerable trade; seat- CONDIVICNUM, in Ancient Geography, the ca-
ed on the river Nereau, 15 miles west of Paris. W. pital of the Namnetes, in Armorica. Now Nantes in
Long. O. 37. N. Lat. 48. 50.
Brittany, on the Loire, from its name Civitas Namne-
CONDEMNATION, the act of giving judgment, tum. W. Long. 1. 30. Lat. 47. 15.
passing or pronouncing sentence against a person, who CONDOM, a town of Gascony in France, capital
is thus subjected to some penalty or punishment, either of the Condomois, with a bishop's see. It is bat a
in respect of life, reputation, or fortune.
poor place, and the trade is very small. It is seatCONDENSATION, the act whereby a body is ed on the river Gelisse, in E. Long. o. 22. N. Lat. rendered more dense, compact, and heavy. The word 44. is commonly applied to the conversion of vapour
CONDOR, or CONTOR. See VULTURE, ORNITHOwater, by distillation, or naturally in the clouds. The LOGY Index. way in which vapour commonly condenses, is by the CONDORCET, JOHN-ANTONY NICHOLAS CARIapplication of some cold substance. On touching it, TAT, marquis of, a French writer, and political cha. the vapour parts with its heat which it had before ab racter of considerable eminence, descended from an 20sorbed ; and on doing so, it immediately loses the pro- cient family from the principality of Orange, and born per characteristics of vapour, and becomes water. But at Ribemont in Picardy, in 1743. He received his though this is the most common and usual way in which education at the college of Navarre, where he was we observe vapour to be condensed, nature certainly pro- distinguished at an early period of life for his strong ceeds after another method; since we often observe the attachment to the study of physics and mathematics. vapours most plentifully condensed when the weather On bis entrance into public life, he established a friendis really warmer than at other times. See the articles ly intercourse with Voltaire, D'Alembert, and other CLOUD, EVAPORATION, &c.
literary characters, who professed opinions analogous to CONDENSER, a pneumatic engine, or syringe, bis own, and formed a very powerful party among the with which a greater quantity of air may be crowded French literati, whose united efforts to propagate their into a given space ; so that sometimes ten atmospheres, ideas of religion and politics, have been applauded or or ten times as much air as there is at the same time in condemned, according to the principles of their difthe same space, under the usual pressure, may be thrown ferent judges. Condorcet first attracted the attention in by means of it, and its egress prevented by valves of the public as a mathematician, obtaining their approperly disposed.
probation for bis treatise on integral calculations, It consists of a brass cylinder, wherein is a moveable which he composed at the age of 22. In the year piston ; which being drawn out, the air rushes into the 1767, his solution of the problem of the Three Bodies cylinder through a bole provided on purpose ; and made its appearance, and in the following year the when the piston is again forced into the cylinder, the first part of his “ Essays on Analysis.” In the year air is driven into the receiver through an orifice, fur- 1769 he was received a member of the Academy of Scinished with a valve to hinder its getting out.
ences, the memoirs of which were greatly enriched by The receiver or vessel containing the condensed air, bim with different papers on the most abstruse branches should be made very strong, to bear the force of the air's of mathematical science. His justly merited reputation spring thus increased; for which reason they are general- pointed him out as a fit person to co-operate with ly made of brass ; its orifice is fitted with a female screw D'Alembert and Bossut, in assisting M. T'urgot, that to receive the male screw at the end of the condenser. celebrated minister and able financier, with arithmeti
Condenser of Electricity, an apparatus for collect- cal calculations. In the mean time he laboured indeing small quantities of the electric fluid. This instru- fatigably in the study of politics and metaphysics, and ment was invented by Volta, and is described in the 22d defended, in an anonymous publication, the sect of vol. of the Phil. Trans. See ELECTRICITY.
philosophers to which he had attached himself, from
Condorcet. an attack made upon them in the Trois Siecles ; and in it. He was chosen a representative for Paris when Condorcet.
replied to M. Necker's essay on Corn Laws. He was the constituent assembly was dissolved, and followed the
appointed secretary to the Academy of Sciences in the general political course of the Brissotine party. A
year 1773, when he employed much of his time in plan for public instruction was now to exercise his abi-
writing eulogies on such of its deceased members as lities, which he finished in two elaborate memoirs, al-
Fontenelle had passed over in silence. Like D'Alem- lowed to contain some exalted and enlarged ideas, but
bert and some others, Condorcet having united in him- perhaps rather extensive to be reduced to practice.
self the characters of an elegant writer and a man of He was likewise author of the manifesto addressed to
profound research, was admitted into the French aca- the European powers by the people of France, on the
demy in 1783, when he pronounced an oration on the approach of a war. He wrote a letter of expostulation
influence of philosophy, which was ordered to be print- to the king while be was president of the assembly,
ed. From the time of D'Alembert's death, which which some bave considered as by far too severe, and
happened this year, he filled the station of secretary to destitute of that ceremony to which the sovereign was
that academy, rendering his name conspicuous by the entitled. When the king was insulted by the popu-
publication of eulogies on different eminent characters. lace at the Thuilleries, in being offered the red cap, it
His panegyric on D'Alembert, to whom he was most is said that he vindicated their proceedings. We are
sincerely attached, is a very elaborate performance, not- also informed, that while he was degrading royalty in
withstanding of which it is esteemed by judges as a this manper, he was secretly soliciting the office of tutor
candid account of the genuine merits of that great phim to the dauphin ; a proposition which the king utterly
Josopher. His encomium bestowed on that very able rejected, on account of his avowed infidelity. Attempts
mathematician Euler, furnished him with a favourable have been made to fix upon his character the most
opportunity of giving a circumstantial account of the abominable ingratitude, by making him accessory to
specific improvements and inventions conferred on a the murder of the duke de la Rochefoucault, to whom
peculiar branch of science by the labours of an indivi- he was under the strongest obligations, and from whose
dual; a talent in a biographical writer which Condor- family he had received a most accomplished wife with
cet appears to have possessed in an eminent degree. a fortune ; but we sincerely hope that this calumny
His eulogy on the minister Turgot was read with avi- entirely originated from the malevolence of party
dity, and admired by all those who approved of Tur- spirit. When the trial of the king came to be agitated, ,
got's plans of government and system of finance. In Condorcet gave it as bis opinion that he could not be
the year 1787 he gave the public his “ Life of Vol- brought to judgment in a legal manner; yet it must
taire,” which was highly elaborate, and replete with be confessed that his conduct in regard to the sentence,
lofty panegyric, on the merite of which mankind were was rather of an ambiguous nature, and betrayed that
consequently much divided, according to their senti- timidity and want of resolution which formed the most
ments of that author's philosophy. The last of his bio- prominent features of his political career. The judge.
graphical works was an eulogy on the celebrated ment of Madame Roland concerning the moral consti-
Dr Franklin, published in 1790, all of which will be tution of this wonderful man has all the air of impar-
read with some degree of prejudice by those who tiality. “ The genius of Condorcet,” says that lady,
are inimical to the school of philosophy to which he “ is equal to the comprehension of the greatest truths ;
but he has no other characteristic besides fear. It may
The memorable event of the French revolution, be said of his voderstanding, combined with his person,
which the writings of Condorcet and his associates un- that it is a fine essence absorbed in cotton. The timin.
questionably accelerated, naturally interested his feel- dity which forms the basis of bis character, and which
ings, and called forth his exertions. But the conduct he displays even in company, does not result from
of the political parties and their leaders, during this his frame alone, but seems to be inherent in bis soul,
tumultuous period, is painted in colours so diametrically and his talents furnish bim with no means of subduing
opposite to each other, that a proper estimate of it is it. Thus, after having deduced a principle or demon.
scarcely possible. In this part of Condorcet's life, strated a fact in the assembly, he would give a vote .
therefore, we must confine ourselves to such facts as decidedly opposite, overawed by the thunder of the tri-
are universally acknowledged, leaving it to our readers bunes, armed with insults, and lavish of menaces. The
to draw inferences for themselves.
properest place for him was the secretaryship of the At an early period he employed his talents to pro. academy. Such men should be employed to write, mote these reforms, (for such they appeared in his but never permitted to act." The Gironde party, judgment) which were to pave the way to a new after the execution of the king, employed him to frame order of things. A work entitled La Bibliotheque a new constitution, the plan of which was presented to de l'Homme Public, to contain an analysis of the the convention, and obtained their approbation. It writings of the most eminent politicians, was chiefly was not thus esteemed by the people at large ; and it conducted by him, as was also a newspaper called has, perhaps not wit out reason, been considered as · La Chronique de Paris, filled with declamation against “a mass of metaphysical absurdities.” During the royalty. He had likewise a share in the Journal de violent struggle between the Gironde and Mountain Paris, a paper conducted on similar principles. About parties, Condorcet took no decided part with either, the time when the unfortunate king fled to Varennes which seems to have been owing to the native timidity. he proposed a paper called Le Republicain, the ob- of his mind, and his abhorrence of the state of public. vious intention of which is clearly deducible from its affairs. He was not comprehended among tbe number. title. He was an indefatigable member of the Jaco. of those who were sacrificed with their leader Brissot ;. bia club, and spoke frequently, though not forcibly, but having employed his pen against the victorious par.
Condorcet. ty, he fell under the invincible displeasure of that in. just cause, for which the sincere votaries of Christianity Condorcet human, blood-thirsty tyrant Robespierre, who issued have ever been conspicuous.
a decree of accusation against him in July 1793. He CONDORMIENTES, in chorch history, religious
found means to effect his escape from the arrest, and sectaries, who take their name from lying all together,
during nine months concealed himself in Paris. Dread. men and women, young and old. They arose in the
ing at length that the tyrant would order a domiciliary 13th century, near Cologne, where they are said to
visit for the purpose of discovering the place of his re- bave worshipped an image of Lucifer, and to have re-
treat, he passed through the barriers without being ta- ceived answers and oracles from him.
ken notice of, and went to the house of a person in CONDRIEU, a town of Lyonnois in France, re-
whom he could confide, on the plain of Mont-Rouge, markable for its excellent wines. It is seated at the
who unfortunately for Condorcet was at that time in foot of a hill near the river Rhone. E. Long. 4. 33
the metropolis. He was of consequence under the ne-
N. Lat. 45. 28.
cessity of passing two dreary nights in the open fields, CONDŘUSII, in Ancient Geography, a people of
a melancholy prey to hunger and cold. On the third Belgica, originally Germans, dwelling about the
day he obtained an interview with his friend, who un. Maese. Their country is now called Condrotx, in
happily durst not venture to afford him shelter under the bishopric of Liege, between Luxemburgh and the
his roof, so that he was once more compelled to wander Maese.
in the fields. Worn out at length by hunger and fa- CONDUCTOR, in Surgery, an instrument which
tigue, and life being no longer supportable without serves to conduct the knife in the operation of cut-
sustenance, he applied at a public house for an ome. ting for the stone, and in laying up sinuses and fistu-
lette, which he devoured with greediness. His cada. las.
verous appearance and uncommonly keen appetite, CONDUCTORS, in electrical experiments, are those
roused the suspicion of a municipal officer who happen- bodies that receive and communicate electricity; and
ed to be present, and by whom he was interrogated. those that repel it are called non-conductors. See E.
The ambiguity and hesitation which characterized bis LECTRICITY.
answers, made the officer conclude that it would be CONDUIT, a canal or pipe for the conveyance of
proper to apprehend him. He was accordingly con- water, or other fluid.
signed to a dungeon, to be next day conducted to There are several subterraneous conduits through
Paris, but his melancholy fate rendered such a measure which the waters pass that form springs. Artificial
unnecessary. He was found dead in the morning; and conduits for water are made of lead, stone, cast-iron,
as it was generally understood that he constantly car- potter's earth, timber, &c.
ried with him a dose of poison, to this cause bis melan- CONDYLOID and CORONOID processes. See
choly exit was very properly ascribed. Thus termina- ANATOMY Index.
ted the career of Condorcet on the 28th of March, CONDYLONA, in Medicine, a tubercle, or cal-
many years sustained a brilliant and bo- lous eminence, which arises in the folds of the anus; or
nourable reputation in the republic of letters. His man- rather a swelling or hardening of the wrinkles of that
ners were replete with urbanity, and as well qualified part.
to please in company as could be expected in a man CONDYLUS, a name given by anatomists to a
who was conceived as destitute of a beart.
knot in any of the joints, formed by the epiphysis of a
certainly blessed with domestic felicity, and had one bone.
daughter by bis wife. Soon after his death appeared his CONE, in Geometry, a solid figure, baving a circle
“ Sketch of a Historical Draught of the Progress of for its base, and its top terminated in a point or vertex.
the Human Mind," a methodical performance, and See Conic SECTIONS.
evincing the profoundest research, in which he strongly Melting Cons, in Chemistry, is a hollow cone form-
recommends his favourite idea of gradually bringing ed of copper or brass, with a handle, and with a flat
human nature to a state of perfection, by considering bottom adjoining to the apex of the cone, upon which
what man has been, now is, and may be. This treatise it is intended to rest. Its use is to receive a mass of
will no doubt be viewed by some as rather fanciful; but one or more metals melted together, and cast into it.
it is clearly the effort of a very superior genius, and This mass, when cold, may be easily shaken out of the
must be peculiarly interesting to the feeling man, when vessel, from its figure. Also, if a melted mass consiste
it is known that it was composed while its author was ing of two or more metals, or other substances not com-
in circumstances of danger and distress. The idea bined together, be poored into this vessel, the conical
of man's progressive advancement towards perfection figure facilitates the separation of these substances ac-
and happiness, inspired bim with consolation under bis cording to their respective densities. The cone ought
complicated misfortunes. Besides the works which we to be well beated before the melted mass is thrown
have enumerated in this sketch of his life, he published into it; that it may not contain any moisture, which
“ Letters to the King of Prussia,” with whom he kept would occasion a dangerous explosion. It ought also
up a correspondence, as well as with Catherine em- to be greased internally with tallow, to prevent
press of Russia. A treatise on calculation, and an ele- hesion of the fluid matter.
mentary treatise on arithmetic, were left behind him Cone of Rays, in Optics, includes all the several rays
in manuscript. Although he was an enemy to reveal- which fall from any radiant point upon the surface of a
ed religion, he was certainly a man of virtue and inte- glass.
grity; yet all his philosophy could never inspire bim CONE. See Conus, Botany Index.
with that heroic fortitude and contempt of death in a CONE-Shell. See Conus, CONCHOLOGY Inder.
CONESSI, a sort of bark of a tree, which grows on any proof. A person is not admitted to accuse him. Confession 8 the Coromandel coast in the East Indies. It is recom- self
, according to that rule in law, Non auditur perire 0 Confession. mended in a letter to Dr Monro, in the Medical Es- volens, See ARRAIGNMENT.
Confirinasays, as a specific in diarrbæas. It is to be finely pnl- CONFESSION, among divines, the verbal acknowverized, and made into an electuary with syrup of ledgment which a Christian makes of his sins. oranges. The bark should be fresli, and the electuary Among the Jews was the custom, on the annual new made every day, or second day, otherwise it loses feast of expiation, for the high-priest to make confesits austere and grateful bitterness on the palate, and its sion of sins to God in the name of the whole people : proper effects on the intestines.
besides this general confession, the Jews were enjoined,
CONFARREATION, a ceremony among the an- if their sins were a breach of the first table of the law,
cient Romans, used in the marriage of persons whose to make confession of them to God; but violations of
children were destined for the honour of the priest- the second table were to be acknowledged to their bre-
thren, The confessions of the primitive Christians
Confarreation was the most sacred of the three were all voluntary, and not imposed on them by any
modes of contracting marriage among that people ; laws of the church; yet private confession was not only
and consisted, according to Servius, in this, that the allowed, but encouraged.
pontifex maximus and flumen dialis joined and con- The Romish church requires confession not only as a
tracted the man and woman, by making them eat of the duty, but has advanced it to the dignity of a sacra-
same cake of salted bread; whence the term fur, sig- ment: this confession is made to the priest, and is pri-
nifying meal or flour.
vate and auricular; and the priest is not to reveal
Ulpian says, it consisted in the offering up of some them under pain of the highest punishment.
pure wheaten bread; rehearsing withal à certain CONFEssion of Faith, a list of the several articles
formula, in presence of ten witnesses. Dionysius Hali- of belief in any church.
carnasseus adds, that the husband and wife did eat of CONFESSIONAL, or CONFESSIONARY, a place in
the same wheaten bread, and threw part on the victims. churches under the great altar, where the bodies of de-
CONFECTION, in Pharmacy, signifes, in gene- ceased saints, martyrs, and confessors, were deposited. .
ral, any thing prepared with sugar; in particular it This word is also used by the Romanists for a desk in
imports something preserved, especially dry substances. the church where the confessor takes the confessions of
It also signifies a liquid or soft electuary, of which the penitents.
there are various sorts directed in dispensatories. See CONFESSOR, a Christian who has made a solemn
and resolute profession of the faith, and has endured tor-
CONFECTOR, among the ancient Romans, a sort ments in its defence. A mere saint is called a covfes.
of gladiator, hired to fight in the amphitheatre against sor, to distinguish bim from the roll of dignified saints;
beasts; thence also denominated bestiarius.
such as apostles, martyrs, &c. In ecclesiastical history, The confectores were thus called à conficiendis bestiis, we frequently find the word confessors used for marfrom their despatching and killing beasts.
tyrs : in after-times it was confined to those who, after The Greeks called them rupa@ono., q. d. daring, having been tormented by the tyrants, were permitted rash, desperate ; whence the Latins borrowed the ap- to live and die in peace. And at last it was also used pellations parabolani and parabolarii. The Christians for those who, after having lived a good life, died were sometimes condemned to this sort of combat. under an opinion of sanctity. According to St Cy.
CONFECTS, a denomination given to fruits, flow- prian, be who presented himself to torture, or even to
ers, herbs, roots, &c. when boiled or prepared with martyrdon, without being called to it, was not called
sugar or honey, to dispose them to keep, and render a confessor but a professor: and if any out of a want of
them more agreeable to the taste.
courage abandoned his country, and became a volun-
CONFEDERACY, in Law, is when two or more tary exile for the sake of the faith, he was called ex-
persons combine to do any damage to another, or to tcrris.
commit any unlawful act. Confederacy is punishable, CONFEssor is also a priest in the Romish church,
though nothing be put in execution : but then it must who has a power to hear sinners in the sacrament of
have these four incidents; 1. That it be declared by penance, and to give them absolution. The church
some matter of prosecution, as by making of bonds or calls him in Latin confessarius, to distinguish bim from
promises to one another; 2. That it be malicious, as for confessor, which is a name consecrated to saints. The
unjust revenge; 3. That it be false, i.e. against the inno. confessors of the kings of France, from the time of
cent; and, lastly, That it be out of court voluntary. Henry IV, have been constantly Jesuits : before him
CONFEDERATION of the Rhine, a league formed a- the Dominicans and Cordeliers shared the office be-
mong the smaller German states in 1805, under the tween them. The confessors of the house of Austria
protection of France. See SUPPLEMENT,
have also, ordinarily, been Dominicans and Cordeliers;
CONFERVA. See BOTANY Index.
but the later emperors have all taken Jesuits.
CONFESSION, in a civil sense, a declaration or CONFIGURATION, the outward figure which
acknowledgment of some truth, though against the bounds bodies, and gives them their external appear
interest of the party who makes it; whether it be in ance; being that which, in a great measure, constitutes
a court of justice or out of it. It is a maxim, that the specific difference between bodies.
in civil matters, the confession is never to be divided, CONFIRMATION, in a general sense, the act of
but always taken entire. A criminal is never condemned ratifying or rendering a title, claim, report, or the like,
on bis simple confession, without other collateral proofs; more sure and indisputable.
nor is a voluntary extrajudicial confession admitted as . CONFIRMATION, in Law, a conveyance of an estate,
Confirma. or right in esse, from one man to another, whereby a tion of its matter, by the consumption of its central Confagravoidable estate is made sure and unavoidable, or a par- parts, or by weakening the cohesion of the constitu.
tion cicular estate is increased, or a possession inade perfect. ent part of the mass by the excess or the defect of Connera
CONFIRMATION, in Theology, the ceremony of lay- moisture. Others look for the cause of the conflagra-
ing on of hands, for the conveyance of the Holy tion in the atmosphere, and suppose, that some of the
meteors there engendered in unusual quantities, and
The antiquity of this ceremony is, by all ancient exploded with unusual vehemence, from the concur-
writers, carried as high as the apostles, and founded rence of various circumstances, may effect it, with.
upon their example and practice. In the primitive out seeking any further. The astrologers account for
church, it used to be given the Christians immediately it from a conjunction of all the planets in the sign
after baptism, if the bishop happened to be present at Cancer; as the deluge, say they, was occasioned by
the solemnity. Among the Greeks, and throughout their conjunction in Capricorn. Lastly, others have
the East, it still accompanies baptism; but the Roma- recourse to a still more effectual and flaming machine,
nists make it a distinct independent sacrament. Seven and conclude the world is to undergo its conflagration
years is the stated time for confirmation ; however, , from the near approach of a comet in its return from
they are sometimes confirmed before, and sometimes
after, that age. The person to be confirmed has a CONFLUENT, among physicians, &c. an appella-
godfather and godmother appointed him, as in baptism. tion given to that kind of SMALL-POx wherein the po-
The order of confirmation in the church of England stules run into each other.
does not determine the precise age of the persons to be CONFLUENTES, in Ancient Geography, a place
at the confluence of the Rhine and Moselle, supposed
CONFISCATION, in Law, the adjudication of to be one of the 50 forts erected by Drusus on the
goods or effects to the public treasury; as the bodies Rhine, in Gallia Belgica : Now Coblentz, a town of
and effects of criminals, traitors, &c.
Triers. E. Long. 7. 15. N. Lat. 50. 30.
CONFLAGRATION, the general burning of a CONFORMATION, 'the particular consistence and
city or other considerable place.
texture of the parts of any body, and their disposition
This word is commonly applied to that grand pe- to compose a whole.
riod or catastrophe of our world, when the face of na- CONFORMATION, in Medicine, that make and con-
ture is to be changed by fire, as formerly it was by Struction of the human body which is peculiar to
water. The ancient Pythagoreans, Platonists, Epi- every individual. Hence a mala conformatio, signifies
cureans, and Stoics, appear to have had a notion of some fault in the first rudiments; whereby a person
the conflagration ; though whence they should derive comes into the world crooked, or with some of the
it, unless from the sacred books, is difficult to con- viscera or cavities unduly framed or proportioned.
ceive ; except, perhaps, from the Phænicians, who Many are subject to incurable asthmas, from a too
themselves had it from the Jews.
Seneca says ex
small capacity of the thorax, and the like vicious con-
pressly, Tempus advenerit quo sidera sideribus incur. formations.
rent, et omni flagrante materia uno igne, quicquid nunc CONFORMITY, in the schools, is the congruency
ex deposito lucet, ardebit. This general dissolution the or relation of agreement between one thing and ano-
Stoics call sxtuguris, ecpyrosis. Mention of the con- ther; as between the measure and the thing measured,
flagration is also made in the books of the Sibyls, So- the object and the understanding, the thing and the
phocles, Hystaspes, Ovid, Lucan, &c. Dr Burnet, division thereof, &c.
after F. Tachard and others, relates that the Siamese CONFRONTATION, the act of bringing two
believe that the earth will at last be parched up with persons in presence of each other, to discover the truth
heat ; the mountains melted down ; the earth's whole of some fact which they relate differently.
surface reduced to a level, and then consumed with The word is chiefly used in criminal matters, where
fire. And the Bramins of Siam do not only hold the witnesses are confronted with the accused, the
that the world shall be destroyed by fire, but also accused with one another, or the witnesses with one
that a new earth shall be made out of the cinders of another.
CONFUCIUS, or CONG-TU-TSE, the most eminent,
Various are the sentiments of authors on the subject and most justly venerated of all the philosophers of
of the conflagration; the cause whence it is to arise, China, a descendant of the imperial family of the dy-
and the effects it is to produce. Divines ordinarily nasty of Chang, was born in the kingdom of Lu, now
account for it metaphysically; and will have it take called the province of Chang-tong, about 550 years
its rise from a miracle, as a fire from heaven. Phi- before the commencement of the Christian era. This
losophers contend for its being produced from natural makes bim to bave been cotemporary with Pythagoras
causes ; and will have it effected according to the laws and Solon, and prior to the days of Socrates. He gave
of mechanics. Some think an eruption of the central striking proofs of very uncommon talents at an early
fire sufficient for the purpose, and add, that this may period of life, which were cultivated and improved
be occasioned several ways, viz. either by having its with great assiduity under the tuition of the ablest
intensity increased; which again may be effected ei- masters. Scarcely bad be attained to the years of
ther by being driven into less space by the encroach- maturity, when he evinced himself acquainted with all
ments of the superficial cold, or by an increase of the the literature of that period, possessing, in particular, a
inflammability of the fuel whereon it is fed; or by comprehensive knowledge of the canonical and classical
having the resistance of the imprisoning earth weak. books, ascribed to the legislators Yao and Chun, which
ened, which may happen either from the diminu- the Chinese emphatically denominate the five volumes