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to the domestic economy, habits, ways once as identical with what we have of thinking, costume, and social tradi- known in the households or social cirtions of the people, they revive, with cles of Florence. Mr. Trollope, in all singular freshness, to the mind of one this, is a Flemish artist, and, as much who has sojourned in Italy, every par- of the interest of his pictures depends ticular of his experience,- not only the on their truthfulness, perhaps they are corso, the opera, and the carnival, but really appreciated only by those who the meals, the phraseology, the house have enjoyed adequate opportunities hold arrangements, - all that is most of becoming intimate with the original individual in a district, with all that is scenes, situations, and personages demost general as nationally representa picted. In the fidelity of his art he tive. Indeed, not a fact or trait of mod- abstains from all attempts at brilliancy, ern Tuscan life seems to have escaped and ignores the intense and highly drathe author's vigilant observation and matic, finding enough of wholesome inpatient record; the life of the effete terest in the real life around him, and noble, the frugal citizen, the shrewd well satisfied to reproduce it with canbroker, the pampered ecclesiastic, the dor and sympathy; now and then inpeasant, and the artist is revealed with dulging in a philosophical suggestion the most precise and graphic detail. or a judicious comment, and thus gradWe are taken to the promenade and ually, but securely, winning the grateful the caffè, to the piazza and the church, recognition of his reader. to the farm-house and the palazzo; and “La Beata” as completely takes there we see and hear the actual every- those familiar with its scene into the day intercourse of the people. The life and moral atmosphere of Florence, Tuscan character is drawn to the life, as does “The Vicar of Wakefield" into without exaggeration, and even in its the rural life of England before the days more evanescent, as well as normal of railways and cheap journalism. The traits ; its urbanity, gossip, thrift, geni- streets, the dwellings, the people and ality, self-indulgence, and latent cour incidents are so truly described, the age are admirably delineated; its supe- perspective is so correct, and the forerior refinement, sobriety, love of show, ground so elaborate, that, with the faithand class peculiarities are truly given; ful local coloring and naïve truth of the the old feudal manners that linger in characters, we seem, as we read, to be modern civilization are accounted for lost in a retrospective dream, the more and illustrated, especially in the rela. so as there is an utter absence of the tion of dependants “occupying every sensational and rhetorical in the style, shade of gradation between a common which is that of direct and unpretendservant and a bosom friend." The au- ing narrative. The heroine is a saintly thor's ecclesiastic portraits are as exact, model, though at the same time a according to our observation, as his thoroughly human girl, --such a one brother's. Each class of Italian priests as the artistic, superstitious, frugal, and is portrayed with discrimination, and no simple experience of her class and of writer has better exemplified the para- the place could alone have fostered ; lyzing and perverting influence of Ro- the artist-hero is no less characterismanism upon the integrity of domestic tic, - a selfish, clever, amiable, ambilife, and the purity and power of political tious, and superficial Italian ; while the aspirations. The women, too, are typ- old wax-candle manufacturer, with his ical, - remarkably free from fanciful em- domicile, daughter, and church relabellishment, eloquent of race, instinct tions, is a genuine Florentine of his with nature. Their limited culture, so- kind. The life of the studio, then and cial prejudices, artless charms, frugal there, is drawn from reality. The pelives, naïve or reticent characters, as culiar and traditional customs, social modified by town and country, patrician experience, church ceremonials, popuor popular influences, we recognize at lar fêtes, home and heart life, have a

VOL. XX. — NO. 120.

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minute fidelity which renders the pic- tions of the poet. Herein the author ture vivid and winsome to one who well has shown an insight as honest and knows and wisely loves the Tuscan suggestive as his keen and patient obcapital. An English family delineated servation and candid record thereof. without the least exaggeration, and “Marietta " is the genuine embodiwith the striking contrasts such visitors ment of that local attachment and analways present to the native scene and cestral pride so remarkable in the people of Italy, adds to and emphasizes mediæval Florentines, and still manithe salient traits of the story. Among fest in an exceptional class of their dethe subjects described and illustrated scendants. The modern life of a dewith remarkable tact and truth is that cayed branch of the Tuscan nobility in most interesting charitable fraternity, the nineteenth century, the process and the Misericordia, of which every stran- method of its decadence, the charm of ger in Florence has caught impressive “a local habitation and a name," once glimpses, but of whose social influence identified with the vital power of the and real significance few are aware. old republic, and the sad, effeminate, Add to this the description of Ca- yet not unromantic sentiment incident maldoli, with its famous pines, its Dan- to its passing away, through the prostesque associations, and its remorseful perous encroachments of new men, convent, and we have a scope and detail with whom money is the power once in the scene and spirit of this little local only attached to birth, are most aptly romance which concentrate the points described. The thrifty farmer of the of interest in Florentine life and bring Apennine, and his slow and handsome into view all that is most familiar and son, are capital types of the frugal and characteristic in the place and people. shrewd fattore and rustic proprietor We see the gay boats on St. John's of Tuscany; and his more astute and eve from the bridges of the Arno, the polished brother is equally typical of procession of the black Madonna, the the old money-lender and goldsmith of interior of the studios, the ceremonies, the Ponte Vecchio. Simon Boccanera the saintly traffic and social subterfuge well represents the tasteful artificer and naïve manners, - the tradesman, of Florence, and the Gobbo the feudal painter, devotee, priest, pride, piety, devotee, whose political faith has been and passion, whereof even the casual expanded by French ideas. In the observation of a traveller's sojourn had bon vivant, the amateur musician, the given us so curious or attractive an idea, amiable and easy Canonico Lunardi, that, thus expanded and defined, they what a true portrait of the priestly seem like a personal experience. There epicure, the self-indulgent but kindly is singular pathos in the character and churchman of the most urbane of Italian career of La Beata, as there is in the communities, and in the Canon of San expression of Santa Filomena for which Lorenzo, how faithful a picture of the she was the recognized and inspired elegant and unscrupulous aspirant and model. The integrity of her sentiment intriguer! The two girls of the story is as Southern - European as is her are veritable specimens, in looks, dress, lover's falsehood and voluntary expia- talk, domestic aspect and aptitudes, not tion. That absolute ignorance of the only of Italian maidenhood, but of that world and childlike trust, which we of the state and city of their birth, rarely meet except in Shakespeare's such maidens as are only encountered women, is a moral fact of which the on the banks of the Arno. This pleasstranger in Italy, who has grown inti- ant story takes us into one of those inate with families of the middle class, massive old Florentine palaces, with its is cognizant, and which he is apt to lofty loggia overlooking mountain, river, recall as one of those elemental and olive orchard and vineyard, dome and primitive phases of human nature which tower, --its adjacent church with the justify the most pure and plaintive crea- family chapel and ancestral effigies,

its several floors let out as lodgings, - slight exaggerations of what many of its heavy portal, stone staircase, faded us have witnessed and wondered at. frescos, barred windows, paved court- Provincial and conventual life in Italy yard, moss-grown statues, and damp is photographed in this story ; fresh green garden. We recognize the fa- forms and phases of the ecclesiastical miliar elements of the local life, – the element are incarnated from careful frugal dinner, the wine flask, the coal- observation; and the political feeling, brazier, the antique lamp, the violin, faith, and transitions of the period are the snuff-box, the ample coarse cloak, vividly illustrated. Carlo, the young the frugality, bonhommie, shrewdness, noble, is a true portrait of the kindly, proverbs, greetings, grace, cheerfulness, genial, but shallow and pleasure-seekchat, rural and city traits, prejudices, ing Florentine youth of the day, such pride, and pleasantness of Tuscan life as we have loitered with on the promand character. These all appear in enade and chatted beside at the Caffè suggestive contrast, and with accurate Doney, without convictions, playful, detail, woven into a tale which breathes always half in love, with a little stock the very atmosphere of the place. of philosophy and a lesser one of re

"Giulio Malatesta," on the other ligion, yet alert to do a kindness, full hand, opens with distinctive glimpses of tact, charming in manner, tasteful of an old Italian university town; ini- and tolerant, with no higher aim than tiates us into the prolonged and patient being agreeable and ignoring care, — political conspiracies of Romagna and impatient of duty, fond of pastime, utthe ideal hopes of Gioberti's disciples. terly incapable of giving pain or atIts hero is a student at Pisa, and one tempting hard work. His friend Giuof the brave champions of Italy who lio Malatesta, on the other hand, adeled the Tuscan volunteers to patriotic quately personifies the earnest, thoughtmartyrdom, in 1848, at Curtone. No- ful, and patriotic Italian, to whom where have we read so graceful and Viva | Italia ! means something, graphic a picture of that noble epi- who is ready to suffer for his counsode in the history of Tuscany, which try, and who knows her poets by redeemed her character and proved heart, believes in her unity, and has the latent manliness of her children. boundless faith in her future. FranThere is a touching similarity be- cesca Varini is described with an extween the description of the march actitude which defines her peculiar of the Corpo Universitario from Pisa charms and traits to any reader who to the Mincio, - the fight at the mill, has fondly noted the modifications of and the death of the generous and female beauty and character incident lovely boy, Enrico Palmieri, -and re- to race and locality in Italy; and old cent scenes in our own civil war, Marta Varini is such a stoical, acute, wherein appeared the same youthful and persistent woman as signalized the enthusiasm and utter inexperience, the days of the Carbonari ; while Stella same hardships and fortitude, valor and Madalina are local heroines with and faith. In striking contrast with characteristic national traits. these scenes of battle and self-sacrifice, In - Beppo the Conscript” we are including the tragic incidents attend- transported to “the narrow strip of ing the third anniversary of the Tus- territory shut in between the Apencan martyrs in the church of Santa nines and the Adriatic, to the south Croce at Florence, three years later, are of Bologna and the north of Ancona,” the episodes of fashionable and carni- where European civilization once cenval life in that delightful capital. The tred, Tasso sung and raved, and the Cascine and the Pergola are repro- Dukes of Urbino flourished. But not duced with all their gay life and license; to revive their past glories are we the Contessa Zenobia and her cavalier beguiled to the decayed old city of servente, so comical, yet true, are but Fano, and the umbrageous valleys that nestle amid the surrounding hills; it is æval festa peculiar to Siena, with all its the normal, primitive, agricultural life original features and social phenomena, and economy of the region, and the late is vividly enacted in the elaborate depolitical and social condition of the in- scription of the “ Palio" on the 15th of habitants, which this story illustrates. August; while the insalubrious and picThe means and methods of rural toil, - turesque Maremma is portrayed, from the “ wine, corn, and oil” of Scriptural the Etruscan crypts of the ravines to and Virgilian times; the avarice, the the desolate streets of Savona, by an pride, the love, the industry, and the artistic and philosophic hand. Incisuperstition of the Contadini of the dentally the solidarity of families and Romagna; a household of prosperous the antagonism of contrade, dating from rustics, their ways and traits; and the the Middle Ages, are defined in explasubtle and prevailing agency of priest- nation of modern traits. We pace the craft in its secret opposition to the bastions of the fortress built by Cosmo new and liberal Italian government, de' Medici for “the subjection of his are all exhibited with a quiet zest and newly conquered subjects"; we haunt a graphic fidelity which take us into the the cabinet of a numismatic enthusiheart of the people, and the arcana, as ast, and the forlorn palace-chamber of a well as the spectacle, of daily life as baffled and beautiful scion of the old, there latent and manifest. The domes- fierce Orsini race ; we overhear the peastic, peasant, and provincial scenes and ants talk, and watch the exquisite gradacharacters are drawn with fresh and tions of color at sunset on the adjacent natural colors and faithful outlines. mountains, across the lonely plains, or

The scene of the last-published do- gaze down upon St. Catherine's house mestic novel * of the series is laid at in the dyers' quarter, and muse in deSiena ; and, although the story is based serted church, urban garden, and preupon one of those impassioned trage- cipitous street, consciously alive the dies of love and jealousy which can while to the aspect and atmosphere, not only be found in the family chronicles only of the Siena we have visited or of Italy, the still-life, social phases, and imagined, but of mediæval Tuscany, and local traits of the romance are delin- its language and life of to-day, as they eated with the same quiet simplicity are incidentally reflected in the experiand graphic truth which constitute the ence of a few distinctly individualized authenticity of the author's previous de- and harmoniously developed characlineations of modern Italian life. The ters, - true to race, period, and locality, grave, conservative, and old-fashioned and far more complete and authentic, Tuscan city reappears, with its medi- as a record and revelation, than dry æval aspect and traditional customs. annals on the one hand, or superficial Convent education, the homes of the travel-sketches on the other. patrician and the citizen, the little gig The justice which these writings disof the fattore, with the small, wiry po- play, in revealing the latent goodness nies of the region, the local antiquarian in things evil, the instinctive and spiritand doctor, the letter-carrier, family ual graces as well as the social perverservant, lady-superior, pharmacist, the sions of the Italian character, is quite noble and plebeian, the costumes, phra- as refreshing as the correct observation ses, and natural language character of external traits and the true record of istic of that non-commercial and iso- historical causes. A generous and inlated Tuscan city before the days of telligent sympathy imparts “a precious railroads and annexation, are drawn seeing to the eye” of the agreeable with emphasis and significant detail story-teller, who has thus patiently and Shades and causes of character are fondly explored the past, delineated the finely discriminated; the old medi- present, and hailed the future of Italy, * Gevima, A Novel in three volumes. London:

in a spirit of liberal wisdom and true Chapman and Hall. 1866.



NICHOLAS SAID, at the time of to the civilized nations of Europe and T his enlistment in the army of the America. Union, during the third year of the Soodan has several kingdoms, the great Rebellion, was about twenty-eight country of the Fellatahs and Bornoo beyears of age, of medium height, some ing the most powerful,- the territorial what slenderly built, with pleasing fea, extent of the latter being some 810,000 tures, not of the extreme negro type, square miles. complexion perfectly black, and quiet These nations are strict Mohammeand unassuming address

dans, having been converted some two He became known to the writer while or three centuries ago by the Bedouin serving in one of our colored regiments; Arabs and those from Morocco, who, and attention was first directed to his pushed by want of riches, came to Soocase by the tattooing on his face, and dan to acquire them. Different lanby the entry in the company descrip- guages are found in each nation, some tive book, which gave “ Africa" as his written and some not; but the Arabic birthplace.

is very much in use among the higher Inquiry showed that he was more or class of people, as the Latin is used by less acquainted with seven different the Catholic priests. Especially the languages, in addition to his native Koran is written in Arabic, and in my tongue ; that he had travelled exten- country no one is allowed to handle the sively in Africa and Europe, and that Sacred Book unless he can read it and his life had been one of such varied ex- explain its contents. perience as to render it interesting both Bornoo, my native country, is the on that account and also on account of most civilized part of Soodan, on acthe mystery which surrounds, notwith- count of the great commerce carried on standing recent explorations, the coun- between it and the Barbary States of try of his birth.

Fezzan, Tunis, and Tripoli. They exAt the request of those who had port all kinds of European articles to been from time to time entertained by Central Africa, and take gold-dust, ivothe recital of portions of his history, he ry, &c., in return. was induced to put it in writing. The Bornoo has had a romantic history for narrative which follows is condensed the last one hundred years. The whole from bis manuscript, and his own lan- of Soodan, more than two thousand guage has been retained as far as pos miles in extent, was once under the sible.

Mais of Bornoo; but by dissensions

and civil wars nearly all the tributaries Reader, you must excuse me for north of Lake Tchad were lost. In 1809 the mistakes which this article will a shepherd arose from the country of contain, as you will bear in mind that the Fellatahs and assumed the title of this language in which I am now try- Prophet. He said to the ignorant poring to write is not my mother tongue; tion of his countrymen, that Allah had on the other hand, I never had a teach- given him orders to make war with the er, nor ever was at school for the pur- whole of Soodan, and had promised him pose of acquiring the English. The victory. They believed his story, and only way I learned what little of the the legitimate king was dethroned and language I know was through French the false prophet, Otman Danfodio, was books.

proclaimed Emperor of the Fellatahs. I was born in the kingdom of Bor- The impostor went at once to work, noo, in Soodan, in the problematic cen- and in less than two years conquered tral part of Africa, so imperfectly known almost the whole of Soodan, excepting

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