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imagination which arise from the actual view and moment with something that is nex.
We are survey of outward objects : and these, I think, all quickly tired with looking upon hilis and valleys, proceed from the sight of what is great, uncommon, where every thing continues fixed and settled in the or beautiful. There may, indeed, be something so same place and posture, but find our thoughts a terrible or offensive, that the horror or loathsoine- little agitated and relieved at the sight of such obhess of an object may overbear the pleasure which jects as are ever in motion, and sliding away from results from its greatness, novelty, or beauty; but beneath the eye of the beholder. still there will be such a mixture of delight in the But there is nothing that makes its way more very disgust it gives us, as any of these three quali directly to the soul than beauty, which immediately lications are most conspicuous and prevailing. diffuses a secret satisfaction and complacency through
By greatness, I do not only mean the bulk of any the imagination, and gives a finishing to any thing single object, but the largness of a whole view, con- that is great or uncommon. The very first discovery sidered as one entire piece. Such are the prospects of it strikes the mind with an inward joy, and or an open champaign country, a vast uncultivated spreads a cheerfulness and delight through all its desert, of huge heaps of mountains, bigh rocks and faculties. There is not perhaps any real beauty or precipices, or a wide expanse of waters, where we deformity more in one piece of matter than another, are not struck with the novelty or beauty of the because we might have been so made, that whatsosight, but with that rude kind of magnificence which ever now appears loathsome to us might have shown appears in many of these stupendous works of na- itself agreeable; but we find by experience that ture. Our imagination loves to be filled with an there are several modifications of matter, whica the object, or to grasp at any thing that is too big for mind, without any previous consideration, proits capacity. We are lung into a pleasing astonish-nounces at first sight beautiful or deformed. Thus menit at such unbounded views, and feel a delightful we see that every different species of sensible creastiilness and amazement in the soul at the appre- tures has its different notions of beauty, and that hension of thein. The mind of man naturally hatos each of them is inost affected with the beauties of every thing that looks like a restraint upon it, and its own kind. This is no where more reinarkable is apt to favey itself under a sort of confinement, than in birds of the same shape and proportiov, when the sight is pent up in a narrow compass, and where we often see the male determined in his shortened ou every side by the neighbourhood of courtship by the single grain or tincture of a feather, walls or mountains. On the contrary, a spacious and never discovering any charms but in the colour horizon is an image of liberty, where the eye has uf its species. room to range abroad, to expatiate at large on the
Seit thalamo servare fidem, sanctasque veretur immensity of its views, and to lose itself amidst the
Connubri leges : non illum in pectore candor variety of objects that offer themselves to its observa- Solicitat miveus; neque pravum accendit amoreta tron. Such wide and undetermined prospects are
Splendida lanugo, vel honesta in vernice crista, as pleasing to the fancy as the speculations of eter
Purpureusve nor pennarum; ast agmina late
Fæminea explorat cautus, maculasque requirt nily or infinitude are to the understanding. But if Cogmatas, paribusque interlita corpora gutis: there be a beauty or uncommonness joined with this Ni faceret, pictis sylvam circum undique rnonstris grandeur, as in a troubled ocean, a heaven adorned
Consusam aspiceres vulgo partusque biformes.
Et genus ambiguum, et veneris monumenta nefande. with stars and meteors, or a spacious landscape cut Hinc merula in nigro se oblectat nigra marito; out into rivers, woods, rocks, and meadows, the Ilinc socium lasciva petit Philomela canorum, pleasure still grows upon us, as it arises frou more Agnoscitque pares sonitus; hinc noctua tetram ihan a single principle.
Capitieni alarum, et glaucos miratur ocelloa.
Nempe sibi semper constat, crescitque quotannis Every thing that is new or uncommon raises a Lucila progenies, castos confessa parentes; pleasure in the imagination, because it fills the soul Dum virides inter saltus Jucosqne sonoros with an agreeable surprise, gratifies its curiosity,
Vere novo exultat, plumasque decora juventus and gives it an idea of which it was not before pos
Explicat ad solem patrisque coloribus ardel. sessed. We are indeed so often conversant with
The feather'd husband, to his partner true,
Preserves connubial rites inviolate. one set of objects, and tired out with so many re
With cold indifference every charm he sees, peated shows of the same things, that whatever is
The imlky wbiteness of the stately neck, new or uncommon contributes a little to vary human The shining down, proud crest, and purple wings: life, and to divert our minds for a while with the
But cautious with a searching eye explores
The female tribes, bis proper mate to find, strangeness of its appearance. It serves us for a
With kindred colours mark.d; did he not so, kind of refreshment, and takes off from that satiety we The grove with painted monsters would abouod; are apt to complain of, in our usual and ordinary
Th* ambiguous product of unnaturnd love.
The blackbird hence selects ber sooty spouse : entertainments. It is this that bestows cbarins on
The nightingale her musical compeer. a monster, and makes even the imperfections of Lurid by the well-known voice, ire bird of night, nature please us. It is this that recommends va. Smit with his dusky wings and greenish eyes, riety, where the mind is every instant called off to
Woos his dun paramour. The beauteous race
Speak the chaste loves of their progenitors; something new, and the attention pot suffered to
When, by the Spring invited, they exult dwell too long, and waste itself on any particular In woods and fields, and to the stin unfold object. It is this, likewise, that improves what is
Their plunes, that with paternal colours glow. great or beautiful, and makes it afford the mind a There is a second kind of beauty that we find in double entertainment. Groves, tields, and meadows, the several products of art and nature, which does are at any season of the year pleasant to look upon, not work in the imagination with tbat warmth and but never so much as in the openiog of the spring, and violence as the beauty that appears in our prowhen they are all new and fresh, with their first per species, but is apt however to raise in us a segloss upon them, and not yet too much accustomed cret delight
, and a kind of fondness for the places and familiar to the eye. For this reason there is or objects in which we discover it. This consists nothing that more enlivens a prospect than rivers, jetteaus, or fails of water, where the scene is per
* It would seem, from his manner of introducing then, that petually shifting, und entertaining the sight every | Mr. Addison was himself the author of these fine verzes,
either in the gaiety or variety of colours, in the occasion of admiring the goodness and wisdom of the symmetry and proportion of parts, in the arrange- tirst Contriver. ment and disposition of bodies, or in a just mixture One of the final canses of our delight in any thing and concurrence of all together. Among these that is great may be this. The Supreme Author of several kinds of beauty the eye takes most delight our being has so formed the soul of man, that no. in colours. We no where meet with a more glorious thing but Himself can be its last, adequate, and or pleasing show in nature, than what appears in proper happiness. Because, therefore, a great part the heavens at the rising and setting of the sun, of our happiness must arise from the contemplation which is wholly made up of those different stains of of his being, that he might give our souls a just relight that show themselves in clouds of a different lish for such a contemplation, he has made thein situation. For this reason we find the poets, who naturally delight in the apprehension of what is are always addressing themselves to the imagina-great or unlimited. Our admiration, which is a very tian, borrowing more of their epithets from colours, pleasing motion of the mind, immediately rises at than from any other topic.
the consideration of any object that takes up a great As the fancy delights in every thing that is great, deal of room in the fancy, and, by consequence, will strange, or beautiful, and is still more pleased the improve into the highest pitch of astonishment and more it finds of these perfections in the same object, devotion when we contemplate his nature, that is so it is capable of receiving a new satisfaction by neither circumscribed by time nor place, nor to be the assistance of another sense. Thus, any con- comprehended by the largest capacity of a created tinued sound, as the music of birds, or a fall of being. water, awakens every moment the mind of the be- He has annexed a secret pleasure to the idea of holder, and makes him more attentive to the several any thing that is new or uncommon, that he might beauties of the place that lie before him. Thus, if encourage us in the pursuit after knowledge, and there arises a fragrancy of smells or perfumes, they engage us to search into the wonders of his creaheigbten the pleasures of the imagination, and make tion; for every new idea brings such a pleasure with even the colours and verdure of the landscape ap- it
, as rewards any pains we have taken in its acquipear more agreeable; for the ideas of both senses sition, and consequently serves as a motive to put recommend each other, and are pleasanter together us upon fresh discoveries. than when they enter the mind separately: as the He has made every thing that is beautiful in our different colours of a picture, when they are well own species pleasani, that all creatures might be disposed, set off one another, and receive an ad-tempted to multiply their kind, and fill the world ditional beauty from the advantage of their situa- with inhabitants; for it is very remarkable, that tion.-0.
wherever nature is crossed in the production of a monster (the result of any unnatural mixture), the
breed is incapable of propagating its likeness, and No. 413.] TUESDAY, JUNE 24, 1712. of founding a new order of creatures: so that, unless
all animals were allured by the beauty of their own
species, generation would be at an end, and the ON THĘ PLEASURES OF THE IMAGINATION.
In the last place, he has made every thing that is CONTENTS
beautiful in all other objects pleasant, or rather has Why the necessary cause of our being pleased with what is render the whole creation more gay and delightful.
made so many objects appear beautiful, that he might great, new, or beautiful, unknown. Why the final cause more known and more useful. The final cause of our being He has given almost every thing about us the power pleased with what is great. The final cause of our being of raising an agreeable idea in the imagination : 80 pleased with what is new.. The final cause of our being that it is impossible for us to behold his works with pleased with what is beautiful in our own species. The final cause of our being pleased with what is beautiful in coldness or indifference, and to survey so many general.
beauties without a secret satisfaction and compla-Causa lalet, vis est notissima — OVID, Met. ix. 207. cency, Things would make but a poor appearance The cause is secret, but the effect is known.-ADDISON
to the eye, if we saw them only in their proper
figures and motions : and what reason can we assign Though in yesterday's paper we considered how for their exciting in us many of those ideas which every thing that is great, new, or beautiful is apt to are different from any thing that exists in the objects affect the imagination with pleasure, we must own themselves (for such are light and colours), were it that it is impossible for us to assign the necessary not to add supernumerary ornaments to the universe, cause of this pleasure, because we know neither the and make it more agreeable to the imagination ? nature of an idea, nor the substance of a human We are every where entertained with pleasing shows soul, which might help us to discover the confor- and apparitions: we discover imaginary glories in mity or disagreeableness of the one to the other; the heavens and in the earth, and see some of this and therefore, for want of such a light, all that we visionary beauty poured out upon the whole creacan do in speculations of this kind, is to reflect on tion: but what a rough unsightly sketch of nature those operations of the soul that are most agreeable, should we be entertained with, did all her colouring ard to range, under their proper heads, what is disappear, and the several distinctions of light and pleasing or displeasing to the mind, without being shade vanish? In short, our souls are at present able to trace out the several necessary and efficient delightfully lost and bewildered in a pleasing delu. causes from whence the pleasure or displeasure sion, and we walk about like the enchanted hero of arises.
a romance, who sees beautiful castles, woods, and Final canses lic more bare and open to our ob- meadows; and, at the same time, hears the warbling sérvation, as there are often a greater variety that of birds, and the purling of streams ; but upon belong to the same effect; and these, though they the finishing of some socret spell the fantastic scena are not altogether so satisfactory, are generally breaks up, and the disconsolate knight finds him on more useful than the other, as they give us greater a barren Leath, or id a solitary desert. It is not
Hur. Ars Poet. 8. 410
improbable thai something like this may be the state gives me hopes of your favour to it, and that is soat of the soul after its first separation, in respect of Tully arivises, to yıt, ibat the benefit is made as the images it will receive from matter; though in- diffusive as possiule. Erery one that has half a deed the ideas of colours are so pleasing and beau- guinea is put into the possibility, from that small tiful in the imagination, that it is possible the sum, to raise himself an easy fortune : when these soul will not be deprived of them, but perhaps little parcels of wealth are, as it were, thus thrown find them escited by sonie other occasional cause, as back into the redonation of Providence, we are to they are at present by the different impressions of expect that some who live under hardships or obthe subtle matter on the organ of sight.
scurity may be produced to the world in the figure I have here supposed that my reader is acquainted they deserve by this means. I doubt not but this with that great modern discovery, which is at pre- last argument will have force with you; and I caosent universally acknowledged by all the inquirers pot add another to it, but what your severity will, I into natural philosophy: namely, that light and fear, very little regard, which is, that I am, colours, as apprehended by the imagination, are only
" Sir, your greatest Admirer, ideas in the mind, and not qualities that have any
RICHARD STELLE." existence in matter. As this is a truth which has been proved incontestably by many modern philosuphers, and is indeed one of the finest speculations No. 414.] WEDNESDAY, JUNE 25, 1712. in that science, if the English reader would see the notion explaired at large, he may find it in the eighth chapter of the second book of Mr. Locke's Essay on ON THE PLEASURES OF THE IMAGINATION. Human Understanding.-0.
CONTENTS. The following letter of Steele to Addison is reprinted The worlas of nature more pleasant to the imagination than here from the original edilion of the Spectator in folio.
those of art. The works of nature still more pleasant, the
more they resenible those of art. The works of art more “Mr. SPECTATOR,
June 24, 1712. pleasanı, the more they resemble those of nature. . Our ku“ I would not divert the course of your discourses,
usisi plantations and purdens considered in the foregi tuz
light when you seem bent upon obliging the world with a train of thinking, which, rightly attended to, may Altera poscit opem res, et conjurat amice. "render the life of every one that reads it more easy and happy for the future. The pleasures of the But mutually they need each other's heh.-Roseusxes. imagination are what bewilder life, when reason and
Ir we consider the works of nature and art as they judginent do not interpose; it is therefore a worthy action in you to look carefully into the powers of are qualified to entertain the imagination, we shan fancy, that other men, from the knowledge of them, find the last very défective, in comparison of the may improve their joys, and allay their griefs, by a beautiful or strange, they can have nothing in them
former; for though they may sometimes appear as just use of that faculty. I say, Sir, I would not in: 1 of that vastness and immensity, which afford su terrupt you in the progress of this discourse; but if you will do me the favour of inserting this letter in great an entertainment to the mind of the beholder. your next paper, you will do some service to the The one inay be as polite and delicate as the other,
but can never show berself so august and maguifipublic, though not in so noble a way of obligiog, as that of improving their minds. Allow me, Sir, to
cent in the design. There is something more boid acquaint you with a design (of which I am partly and masterly ju the rough careless strokes of nature, author), though it tends to no greater a gond thau than in the nice touches and embellishments of art. that of getting money. I should not hope for the The beauties of the most stately garden or palace favour of a philosopher in this matter, if it were not
lie in a narrow compass; the imagigation immediattempted under the restrictions which you sages gratify her; but in the wide fields of nature, the
ately runs them over, and requires something else to put upon private acquisitions. The first purpose sight wanders up and down without confinement, and which every good man is to propose to himself, is the service of his prince and country: after that is is fed with an infinite rariety of images, withou any done, he cannot add to himself, but he must also be certain stint or number. For this reason we always beneficial to them. This scheme of gain is not
tind the poet in love with the country life, where only consistent with that end, but has its very being nishes out all those scenes that are most apt to de.
nature appears in the greatest perfection, aud furs in subordination to it; for no man can be a gainer here but at the same time he himself, or some other, light the imagination. must succeed in their dealings with the government.
Scriptorum chorus omnis amat nemus, et fugit urbes. It is called “The Multiplication Table, and is so
Hor 2 Ep uit.
-To grottos and to groves we run, far calculated for the immediate service of her ma
To ease and silence, every Muse's son.-POPL jesty, that the same person who is fortunate in the
Hic secura quies, et nescia fallere vita, lottery of the state may receive yet further advan- Speluncæ, vivique lacus : hic frigida Tempe, tage in this table. And I am sure nothing can be Dives opum variarum : hic lats otin fundis, more pleasing to her gracious teinper than to find
Mugitusque boum, mollesque sub arbore somnt. out additional methods of increasing their good for
Virg. Georg. il. 467. tune who adventure any thing in her service, or lay
Here easy quiet, a secure retreat,
A harmless life that knows not how to cheat, ing occasions for others to become capable of serving With home-bred plenty the rich owner bless, their country who are at present in too low circum- And rural pleasures crown his happiness, stances to exert themselves. The manner of exe
Unvex'd with quarrels, undisturbod with noise,
The country king his peaceful realm enjoys : cuting the desigu is by giving out receipts for half Cool grots and living lakes, the towry pride guineas received, which shall entitle the fortunate of moads, and streams that through the valley glide; bearer to certain sums in the table, as is set forth at
And shady groves that easy sleep invite, large in the proposals printed the 23rd instant.
And, after toilsome days, a sweet ropose at night.-DRID There is another circumsiauce in this design which But though there are several of those wild sebe
that are more delightful than any artificial shows, Writers who have given us an account of China, şet we find the works of nature still more pleasant, tell us the inhabitunts of that country laugh at the The more they resemble those of art: for in this case plantations of our Europeans, which are laid out by our pleasure rises from a double principle; from the the rule and line; because, they say, any person agreeableness of the objects to the eye, and from may place trees in equal rows and uniform figures. their similitude to other objects. We are pleased as They choose rather to show a genius in works of well with comparing their beauties, as with survey. this nature, and therefore always conceal the art by ing them, and can represent them to our minds, which they direct themselves. They have a word, either as copies or originals. Hence it is that we it seems, in their language, by which they expresi take delight in a prospect which is well laid out the particular beauty of a plantation that tbui and diversified with fields and meadows, woods and strikes the imagination at first sight, without disrivers ; in those accidental landscapes of trees, covering what it is that has so agreeable an effect. clouds, and cities, that are sometimes found in the Our British gardeners, on the contrary, instead of veins of marble; in the curious fret-work of rocks humouring nature, love to deviate from it as much and grottos; and, in a word, in any thing that hath as possible. Our trees rise in cones, globes, and pye such a variety or regularity as may seem the effect ramids. We see the marks of the scissars upon every of design in what we call the works of chance. plant and bush. I do not know whether I am sin
If the products of nature rise in value according gular in my opinion, but for my own part, I would as they more or less resemble those of art, we inay rather look upon a tree in all its luxuriancy and difbe sure that artificial works receive a greater ad-fusion of boughs and branches, than when it is thus vantage from their resemblance of such as are na cut and trimmed into a mathematical figure; and tural; because here the similitude is not only plea. cannot fancy that an orchard in flower looks insant, but the pattern more perfect. The prettiest finitely more delightful than all the little labyrinths landscape I ever saw, was one drawn on the walls of the most finished parterre. But, as our great of a dark room, which stood opposite on one side to modellers of gardens have their magazives of plants a navigable river, and ou the other to a park. The to dispose of, it is very natural for them to tear up experiment is very common in optics. Here you all the beautiful plantations of fruit-trees, and conmight discover the waves and fluctuations of the trive a plan that may most turn to their own profit, water in stroag and proper colours, with the picture in taking off their everyreens, and the like moveof a ship entering at one end, anii sailing by degrees able plants, with which their shops are plentifully through the whole piece. On another there ap- stocked.-0. peared the green shadows of trees, waving to and fro with the wind, and herds of deer among them in miniature, leaping about upon the wall. I must
No. 415.] THURSDAY, JUNE 26, 1712. confess the novelty of such a sight may be one occasion of its pleasantņess to the imagination; but certainly its chief reason is its nearest resemblance to pature, as it does not only, like other pictures, give the colour and figure, but the motion of the
Of architecture, as it affects the imagination. Greatness in things it represeuts.
architecture relates either to the bulk or to the wamer. We have before observed, that there is generally Greatness of bulk in the ancient oriental buildings. The in nature something more grand and august than ancient accounts of these buildings confirmed, I. From the what we meet with in the curiosities of art. When,
advantages for raising such works, in the first ages of the
world, and in eastern climates; 2. From several of them therefore, we see this imitated in any mcasure, it
which are still extant. Instances how greatness of manner gives us a nobler and more exalted kind of pleasure affects the imagination. A French author's observations than what we receive from the nicer and more accu- on this subject. Why concave and convex figures give a rate productions of art. On this aecount our Eng.
greatness ul manner to works of architecture. Every thing
that pleases the imagination in architecture, is either great, lish gardens are not so entertaining to the fancy as beautiful, or new those in France and Italy, where we see a large extent of ground covered over with an agreeable inix.
Adde tot egregias urbes, operumque laborem.
Virg. Georg. ii. 153, ture of garden and forest, which represent every
Witness our cities of illustrious name, where an artificial rudeness, much niore charming
Their costly labour, and stupendous frame.-DRYDEN. than that neatoess and elegacy which we meet with in those of our own country. It might indeed Having already shown how the fancy is affected be of ill consequence to the public, as well as un- by the works of nature, and afterwards considered profitable to private persons, to alienate so much in general both the works of nature and of art, how ground from pasturage and the plough, in many they mutually assist and complete each other in parts of a country that is so well peopled, and culti- forming such scenes and prospects as are most apt rated to a far greater advantage. But why may not to delight the mind of the beholder, I shall in this a whole estate be thrown into a kind of garden by paper throw together some reflections on that partifrequent plantations, that may turn as much to the cular art, which has more immediate tendency, than profit as the pleasure of the owner?. A marsh over any other, to produce those primary pleasures of grown with willows, or a mountain shaded with oaks, the imagination which have hitherto been the are not only more beautiful, but wore beneficial, subject of this discourse. The art I mean is that tban when tbey lie bare aud unadorned. Fields of of architecture, which I shall consider only with re. corn make a pleasant prospect; and if the walks gard to the light in which the foregoing speculations were a little taken care of that lie between them, if have placed it, without entering into those rules and the patural embroidery of the meadows were helped maxims which the great masters of architecture and improved by some small additions of art, and have laid down, and explained at large in number the several rows of hedges set off by trees and Awwers less treatises upon that subject. that the soil was capable of receiving, a man might Greatness in the works of orchitecture may be wake a pretty landscape of bis own possessions. considered as relating to the bulk and body of struc.
ON THE PLEASURES OF THE IMAGINATION.
ture, or to the manner in which it is built. As for of manner in architecture, which has such force npon the first, we find the ancients, especially among the the imagination, that a small building, where it apeastern nations of the world, infinitely superior to pears, shall give the mind nobler ideas than one the moderns.
of twenty times the bulk, where the manuer is orNot to mention the tower of Babel, of which an dinary or little. Thus, perhaps, a man would bave old author says, there were the foundations to be been more astonished with the majestic air that apseen in his time, which looked like a spacious moun-peared in one of Lysippus's statues of Alexander, tain ; what could be more noble than the walls of though wo bigger than the life, thaa he might have Babylon, its hanging gardens, and its temple to been with mount Athos, had it been cut into the Jupiter Belus, that rose a mile high by eight several figure of the hero, according to the proposal of stories, each story a furlong in height, and on the Phidias, * with a river in one hand, and a city in top of which was the Babylonian observatory? I the other. might here, likewise, take notice of the huge rock Let any one reflect on the disposition of mind le that was cut into the figure of Semiramis, with the finds in himself at his first entrance into the Pausmaller rocks that lay by it in the shape of tributary theon at Rome, and how his imagination is filled kings; the prodigious basin, or artificial lake, which with something great and amazing; and, at the took in the whole Euphrates, till such time as a new same time, consider how little, in proportion, he is canal was formed for its reception, with the several affected with the inside of a Gothic cathedral, trenches through which that river was conveyed. though it be tive tines larger than the other; which I know there are persons who look upon some of can arise from nothing else but the greatness of these wonders of art as fabulous; but I cannot find the manner in the one, and the meanness in the any grounds for such a suspicion; unless it be that other. we have no such works among us at present. There
I have seen an observation upon this subject in a were, indeed, many greater advantages for building French author, which rery much pleased me. It in those times, and in that part of ihe world, than is in Monsieur Freart's Parallel of the ancient and have been met with ever since. The earth was ex. modern Architecture. I shall give it the reader tremely fruitful; men lived generally on pasturage, with the same terms of art which he has made use which requires a much smaller number of hands of. “I am observing,” says he, “ a thing which, than agriculture. There were few trades to employ in my opinion, is very curious, whence it proceeds, the busy part of mankind, and fewer arts and sciences that in the same quantity of superficies, the one to give work to men of speculative tempers; and, manner seems great and magnificent, and the other what is more than all the rest, the prince was abso-poor and trifling; the reason is tine and uncomioon. lute; so that, when he went to war, he put himself I say, then, that to introduce into architecture this at the head of the whole people; as we find Semi- grandeur of manner, we ought so to proceed, that ramis leading her three millions to the field, and yet the division of the principal members of the order overpowered by the number of her enemies. It is may consist but of few parts, that they be all great, no wonder, therefore, when she was at peace, and and of a bold and ample relievo, and swelling; and turned her thoughts on building, that she could ac- that the eye beholding nothing little and mean, the complish such great works, with such a prodigious imagination may be more vigorously touched and multitude of labourers: besides that in her climate affected with the work that stands before it. For there was small interruption of frosts and winters, example: in a cornice, if the gola or cymatium of which make the northern workmen lie half a year the corona, the coping, the mouillions or dentili, iddle. I might mention, too, among the benefits of make a poble show by their graceful projections, it the climate, what historians say of the earth, that it we see none of that ordinary confusion which is the sweated out a bitumen, or natura! kind of mortar, result of those little carities, quarter rounds of the which is duubtless the same with that mentioned in astragal, and I know not how many other interthe holy writ, as contributing to the structure of mingled particulars, which produce no effect in Babel : “ Sline they used instead of mortar.” great and massy works, and which very unprofitably
Iu Egypt we still see their pyramids, which an- take up place to the prejudice of the principal swer to the descriptions that have been made of member, it is most certain that this manner will apthenı; and I question bot but a traveller might find pear solemn and great; as, on the contrary, thai it out some remains of the labyrinth that covered a will have but a poor and mean effect, where there is whole province, and had a hundred temples dis- a redundancy of those smaller ornaments, which posed ainong its several quarters and divisions. divide and scatter the angles of the sight into such
The wall of China is one of these eastern pieces a multitude of rays, so pressed together that the of magnificence, which makes a figure even in the whole will appear but a confusion." map of the world, although an accout of it would Among all the figures in architecture, there are have been thought fabulous, were not the wall itself none that have a greater air than the concare and still extant.
the convex; and we find in the ancient and matera We are obliged to devotion for the noblest build- architecture, as well in the remote parts of China, ings that have adorned the several countries of the as in countries nearer home, that round pillars and world. It is this which has set men at work on vaulted roofs make a great part of those buildings temples and public places of worship, not only that which are designed for pomp and magnificence. they might, by the magnificence of the building, The reason I take to be, because in these figures we invite the Deity to reside within it, but that such generally see more of the body than in those of stupendous works might, at the same time, open the other kinds. There are, indeed, figures of bodies, mind to vast conceptions, and fit it to converse with where the eye may take in two-thirds of the surface; the divinity of the place. For every thing that is but, as in such bodies, the sight must split upou majestic impriuis an awfulness and reverence on the several angles, it does not take in one uniform idea, mind of the beholder, and strikes in with the natural but several ideas of the same kind. Look upon the greatness of the soul. In the second place we are to consider greatness