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to incite the conductors of those works, the natural history of the minute in. by every method which unlimited sect froin which those ipmenie compower and confummate policy could mercial benefits are derived, together call into operation, to pay a itrict at. with the ancient hiilory of the lucia. tention to the revival or extention of tive trafic founded upon its produce : their several concerns, particularly the · and in doing this, while we in the Manufacture of Silks; whicha, he knew, first inltante conder its various pro. was a prolific fource of national wealth, perties, and with aitouithmet refi-et and consequently formed the fubitanti: that the film, the golíune', the thread, basis of an immense fyltem of national ten, nay firty, tiues finer than a hair, aggrandizement. What luas lately the exuvia of a worm, thould, thruugn been the language of the contidential the inedium of human ingenuity, be. paper of the Gallic adainitation ? come an article of the hiyheit inport. Unquestionably ruch as tended to the ance in the gueral syltem ; we may, fame purpole; language which ferves to in the second, view it as the means of how in a frong point of view the im- existence to millions, and consequently portant light in which, on the other the fource of incalcuble revenue to fide of the Channel, they confider, the kingdoms and states. That Man, subject. And la'lly, what has already though in many countries, particubeen done by then to carry this, their larly this, obliged to tbe Shee. tor favourite measure, into eifel? What? great fiscal advantiges, and, in many but by an exertion of the only effo ts others, individually indebted to su ior in their rower that could have cifected warm clothing and numberleis arti. it, they have endeavoured to repreis cles of domeilic comfort and conve. the spirit of our Merchants, and paralyse venience, thould also to an intect, the arms of our Manufacturers; the which in the scale of creation feems former of whom were preparing to
lower than even a caterpiliar, owe procure the means that might enable many of the elegances of lite ; that the latter who, alter their art hid fo from its covering the throne tould be long languitbed, congratulating them- decorated, the robe of dignity formed, selves upon the approach of better the attractions of beauty itill rendered times, were anxious to take advantage o more fafcina ing, the arts and sciences of the revolution of public taie promoted, and with the n the elegan. which, guided by good sense and at- cies of life, and consequenily civilitracted by the superior elegance of Zation extended; are circumita.ices that their fabricks, seenied to have decided muit Itrike us with amazeinent, and in their favour ; though without injury render us anxious to be intormed
; to the Cotton branches which, I have whether the productions of a creature observext, and which the fourithing so useful have been improved by transstate of the trade proves, are ou firmly plantation? Or whether it is not more establithed to be nuterially affected by likely that its quality, as is the case any circumítances extraneous or dus with every other animal and vegetable Ineftic.
fubitance, is in a till higher itate of Calculating the dinidvantages with persection in countries to which the respect to our rivals, under which we infect is ind genous ? Jabour, or rather under which we are This, with respect to Silk, I hope I Supposed to labour; for it will be the hall be able to prove, in favour of that business of the le speculations to thow of Indottan ; at the same time I hall that the evils we dread are in a great fuggeit, that if there is any difference meafure ideal; it will be necellary to for broad work betwixt this wild the contemplate a little more accurately, Italian ; and that tbere is, I ain, upon
(Paris, Nov. 5.) After a series of pretty liberal or rather illiheral abuse on a Nation, which is linguiarly encugh termed the enemies of Europe, for doing what Dever entered into che inagination of the molt sanguine Anti-jacobin, this paper (the Morite..) goes on with an exclamation, and concludes a dull paragraph in this way:--" By thele urans they (the English) would have the very peculias advantage of difturbing the excellent manuacture of Lyons, which is reviving bio'n sls ruins, and which wretches an iron hand over the balance of Commerce, in order t'mke it incline in tavour of French indultry.” The ingenivus edicor leems on this and many other oçcations prendre la lune avec les dents, and to ebink that we loo aim at impolibilities. Mmm 2
the authority of every Manufacturer and Telemachus in Spárta, among other with whom I have conversed, willing articles for her employment, to concede ; it is owing to the superior « The Silken fleece, impurpled for the mode of twisting or throwing the article
loom, into Organzine, practised in Italy, &c. Rivallid the hyacinth in vernal bloomt." over that of Bengal, which mode I have no doubt, as it may easily, will The reins of the horses which drew soon be adopted both in the Eait and in the Chariot of Naulicaa were of the this country:
fame substance : I have already observed, that the
“ Now mounting the gay seat, the sil. Silk worm, was originally brought to ken reins Athens and Rome from the land of
Shine in her hand 1." the Seres, a large track of Asia betwixt Mount Imaus and China *; the people So, as we find by the Iliad, was the of wisich, in the time of Strabo, and veft of Helen : indeed for ages before, were famous “ 'The Goddess softly shook her Silken for the manufacture of Silk. From
vetll." this place, which abounded with Mul
As was also her veil: berry plantations, for the culture of which the foil was peculiarly adapted,
" At this the fairest of her sex obey'd : as was the climate for nurturing the
And veil'd her blushes in a Siiken worm congenial to that tree, it is more
ihade ." than probable that Silk was introduced We also find that Lycophron *deto China, Perfia, to the whole penine fcribes the women that mourned for fula of the Indies, and in fact all over the death of Achilles as having laid the East.
ahide their rich acire, or glittering Silks, The exact period when Silk become ornamented with gold. known in Evrope as an article of
Though Silks are mentioned in deCommerce, is, I fear, too closely en- fcribing ihe natural ttate of Jerusalem*I veloped in the thick veil of antiquity it is uncertain whether they were in to be discovered, were it material for use in the time of Moses, but it is cer. us to be informed of it; which, more tain that they were known to Solomon than merely for the indulgence of who lived about a century antecedent curiosity, it certainly is not: but to the age of Homer, and that they although the original transmision of came to bim, with other costly comit, in a wrought itate, be thus obscure, modities, from the East Indies, the and it is certain that the worn was not trade to which has in all periods been introduced until about the age of a source of riches to those that engaged Auguftus, there are traces that the in it. ule of it, in ancient Greece, Alia, and It was by paying attention to this Africa, is of high antiquity; for we lucrative branch of traffic, that this find in the description of Hclen's en. wile Monarch was enabled to attract dance at the conference of Menelaus to his dominions those inimense trea
118 chief Cities, most of which were manusacturing, were, according !o the ancient Gergarply, Serica, Iffedon, Asmira, Damna, Piada, Outorocard, &c.: it was formerly deered a part of Scythia, of which Serica was considered as the eattern extremity. It may be worthy of obfervation that these countries are in the same latitude with Spain, Italy, France, &c. + Corlic, B. 4, p. 47.
I B. 6, p.
V. 520. of Caliand. V.859, nofirumque ibi commentariuin confuli. Though this poet, from sthe irouble he has given to one learned, of which the judicious annotations upon his bork in this Magazine are a fufficient liecimen, uas terined the mysterious or dark, I think, with segaid to this reference, he has been det med by commentators luthciently clear, at least for the purpose of this quotation. This line, it is a singular circum. liance, I have observed, since the writing the preceding, has been commented on in the last Magazine: page 368.
** Ezekivi, Chap. 16. V 10. The word Mefchi is trandated Silk ; so is the Schericboth (Ilaiah, v.7.), which is underltood to be a very valuable Silk. Solomon, fpeaking cr a virtuous wina, faith "Her cloathing is Silk and purple," Proverbs, C. 31 : V. 22.
finres' * which enabled him to build the of Good Hope, the course of commerce Temple of Jerusalem. David had, by was reverted, and this country, in his conquest of Idumäe, - become common with many neighbouring namaster of Elath and Egongeber, two tions, Mared the benefit of a branch of towns situated on the eattern coait of traffic, in which, hy persevering indus. the Red Sea. From these ports, so try, a fpirit of adventure, and other convenient for cominerce, Solomon concomitant circuinitances, it has risen sent his Heets to Ophir and Tarhfilh, fuperior to any; while thole countries which returned laden with the richeit of Alia and Africa, which had so commodities of Pertia and Indoitan largely profited by the tranlit of coir. When the Syrians regained Idumæc, modities, have declined in the same they enjoyed this traffic for some time, proportion. but by one of thore fluctuations of Thus we have seen that from those human affairs, of which every age has quarters of the globe, which h.ave been almost furnished instances, and to termed the cradles of science and art, which commerce is ever liable, it was not only the knowledge, but materials from then transferred to the Tyrians. for practiling in and improving that
The merchandize of thele, conveyed knowledge, descended to us; leaving by the way of Rhinocolura, was diitri- the mythological fables of antiquity, buted over the Weitern hemisphere, and the myiterious original in which and their returns, though coarse, being their infancy was enveloped, and reuseful to the people of the Eattern, lying only upon the fure guide which gave them the full pofleflion of the the light of the Holy Scriptures has trade, under the favour and protection given us, we all find that God of the Persian Monarchs.' of this, (among other manufactures) had, loon wrought Silks formed a very considere after the deluge, discovered to manable branch, and were, through this kind those of Ipinning wool and flax, Channel, with aromatics, precious and weaving them into Ituffs and lifoncs, &c. diffused over Europe, long nen, and, to name no more, that of dybefore an idea was entertained that ing filks and Ituffs of the naost beautiful the infect might be nurtured in the and vivid colours 1. climates of Greece and Italy.
From this we may infer that as flax When the Ptolomies made them- was it plant much cultivated in Egypt, selves masters of Egypt t, they, by so was the worm which produces filk building Berenice, and other ports on much nurtured in A62, where, I have the Western coast of the Red Sea, observed, the manufacture of this ar. attracted the Eait Indian trade to ticle has from the earliest periods of them : the emporium for which time been encouraged. It may therethey fixed at Alexandria, which, in fore very naturally and mult necellarily consequence, became the most com- he implied, that in 2 foil fo well adaptmercial city in the world, and for agesed for the culture of the mulberry after continued the grand channel of tree, and in a climate so congenial to traffic; the principal link of that im- the nature of the infect that feeds upon menfe chain, which, extending its con. its leaves, the filk thus produced muit,or nexion from the Pertian gulf to the it would be exceedingly different from mouth of the Nile, bound together every other animal or vegetable fub. nations, cities, ports, and veifels. The ttance, bave fuffered by transplantation. commodities of India, Persia, Arabia, Ic is certain that the climares of the and the Eastern coalt of Africa, when Eat, though lying under the same de by these means collected, were con- grees of latitude, differ very much from veyed over the Ilthinus of Suez on the climates of the West, and yet Silk canals or in caravans, and again set has been produced in inany, nay, most atloat on the Mediterranean. By this of them; the fame inay be fiid of Eu. medium they were dispersed all over rope. Silk has been brought to a Europe, till, by the discovery of the confiderable, though inferior, degree of passage to the East Indies by the Cape perfection, as to its original state, in
* In one voyage the product is stated at 450 talents of gold (2 Chron. 8. 14.), which amounts to three inillions, two hundred and forty thousand pounds, sterling.
+ The immenle importance of which this country was con dered in ancient, at fords an ample field for fpeculation in modern timts. I Rollin's Ancient Hist, Vud. II. p. 468.
Sicily ; in Italy, from the extremity of and consequently to add to the riches, the kingdom of Naples to the extre- of those Colonies. I fear that the anmity of the Dutchy of Savoy ; in Spain, fver would give as little satisfaction to and the fouthern provinces of France; the ingenious and benevolent projector and, what is very extraordinary, Silk of this plan, as the process has to equal to any of these has, according to those that have tried the experiment. the Philosophical Transactions, been, Yet it is hardly to be doubted but that though in a small proportion, produced Silk has been produced equal to the in England.
Italian, though from the manner in That mulberry trees will flourish, which it was twisted or thrown into and the infect that feeds upon them Organzine it may have appeared infewill exist and spin in climates whick, rior, but certainly inferior in its ori though in nearly the same latitude, are ginal texture to that which is the foreign to its natural one, is certain ; growth of Persia and Indottan.
In. but I think it is equally certain, rea- deed upon the art of the throwser, on foning from the analogy attendant upon which I fall have occafion to oblerve the transplantation of other animal and in future, feems in a great degree to vegetable productions from Alia to depend the criterion by which ibe ma. Europe, and vice versa, that these, nufacturer judges of the value of the although removed into a climate nearly article; though I shall with great dif. the same, or made the same by art, de- tidence submit that this criterion ap. cline in their growth, lose their co- pears to me to be a false one, and that lour, flavour, trength, and every other its intrinsic worth can only be apprevaluable property : fo I hall contend ciated froin a comparison of the va. do the Silk worms in Europe, 'whose rious fpecies in a state perfectly raw. produce in its original state is, I have That the Silks of Perna and Indoftan no doubt, far inferior to that of the are, in this fate, superior to those of fame insect in Alia; and the only ad- Italy, may, to continue the analogical vantage the European have over the mode of reasoning, I think be interred, Indottan fiiks, is owing to the fugerior by a comparison of the ther proskill of the first manufacturers. But in ductions of nature, in the Eait and in order to show that this reasoning, the Wett: the various moths and but though analogical, is not merely spe tertiies, for instance, how beautiful is culative, it will be necessary to quote the formation ! how large the lize! an inítance where the attempt to in- how vivid the colours of those insects troduce the cultivaiion of silk in clin in Alia, when placed in a comparative mates as congenial to the nature of the point of view with those of the fame worm and tree, as one would suppose ipecies in Europe! The fame obfer. any part of the European to be, has vation will equally apply to the pluproved abortive.
mage of the Eattern birds ; to their It is well known that the Society for fruit, tiowers, and every other producthe Encouragement of Arts, Nanu- tiun which demands the corrid ray, or factures, and Commerce, wieb thitis, by the operation of a tropical lun, luudable zeal and true philanthropy forced into the utmolt extent of exwhich has, ever once their fuit eitab ilence, or the most florid Itate of cul. librent, itimulated them in their en tivation. This must be peculiarly ne. deavours to benefit not only their own cessary for the growth of Silk in large country but mankind in general, more quantities, and iberefore it follows as than thirty years since ottered pre- a confequential deduction, that the mjums for the culture of silk, in thote quality of the Asiatic must be superior provinces of America, where, from the to that of the European. Emilarity of climate to thote in the Old Siiks, as they are indigenous to, leem World, in which it had succeeded, there by the all wite decree of Providence to was a great probability of its being he particularly adapted for, the climate productive.
in which they were first cultivated, More than thirty years have pailed which from its warmth demands a away, and, although the political itate lighter and thinner fabric than could of that country bas changerl, the na- be constructed from wool. The same tural till remains the same ; we might may be laid of cottons, the plant trom therefore aík, what has been the event which they are manufactured being of this philanthsopic attempt to ex alio a native of Pertia anst Indoftan.; tend the Manufactures and Commerce, and I do conceive that it would be as
prefumptuous for a merchant of those not only into the fiscal consequence of countries to attempt to vie with us in the article, and the manner of prethe exhibition of wool, and to put paring it for exportation, both in Bentheir scanty fleeces, which have the gal and Italy, but also into the grounds coarfenets and bad qualities of horfe- upon which merchants and manufaca hair, and are nearly' incapable of be- turers have formed their opinions, and ing, manufactured, into compariton of the neceflity (which has ariseo from with ours, as it is for us to say that, political circunstances, but which may in the lighter and more elegant article prove bighly beneficial to commercial) silk, they are not superior to the Eu. that there now, is for the combating ropean.
and repression of that prejudice. There · If this is granted ; if the superiority points, together wiib the prospect of of the Silks of Indotta, in a raw itate, a furtber extension of the Silk Minuis established; whence, it may be facture, arising froin events in analked, ariles the prejudice againit them other country, to which I have just which has, an! I fear does itill ope alluded; the cogent realons that our rate in the minds of the artificers in Gallic neighhours have to wita for its this country, with respeit to their ca. repression in this kingdom, and a furpability, it properly thrown into Or. ther confideration of the advantage to ganzine, of framing a warp equal to be made of their late prohibition wird the Italian?
respect to the raw and organzined ma: This is a queftion of the utmost im. terial, &c. į will form the subjects of portance in the present itate of the ma- future speculations. Aufacture, and will lead to an inquiry
Turner, in consequence of which he
emitted a Miss BROWN, from the Margate
conliderable quantity of Theatre, appeared for the first blood upon the stage. He, however, time at Drury lane, as Amelia Wildene continued the context for some time in baim, in the play of lovers Vows. She this itate, the appearance of which pro is young and well-proportioned in duced the utmost alarm among the perion, and her manner' was marked audience, who, on the dropping of the by appropriate limplicity.--Cherry, in curtain, infifted upon knowing whethe rhyming Butler, was very divert-ther Mr. Turner wiis seriously hurt. ing.
On this, Mr. C. Kemble came for.
ward, and allayed the general alarm, 27. Mr. Turner, a Barrister, who
by alluring the house that Mr. T. was a few seasons ago made an unsuccessful
but slightly wounded. attempt ar Covent Garden in the character of Macbeib, appeared at Drury
15. Mr. Stephen Kemble closed his lane, as the representative of Richard Jane Theatre, with the performance of
career, for this sealon at least, at Drury, 111. ; and, though we cannot consider Shylock, for his own benefit, and re. it on the whole as a firit-rate perform ceived much applausc. ance, yet it evinced his having dili
After the play, having changed his gently pursued the path of improve; dress for that of Faip?off, Mr. Kemble, ment, and acquired a degree of skill which entitles him to a relpectable ita- sibility, delivered the t»llowing
with a strong expreflion of grateful len tion on the boards of a London theatre.
ADDRESS, He was much applauded.
WRITTEN BY HIMSELF. Mr. Turner repeated his To carry ccal to Newcatie-abfurd I pertormance of Richard IIl. and a real Who has not oft this backney'd adage tragedy was likely to have' resulted ;
heard ? for in the fighting-feene between Yet it implies at least some fare of wit, Richard and Richmond, at the close Thither to go Coal-laden from this Pit. of the play, Charles Kenible, who per. What ! on a London audience Falstaff forged the latter part, accidentally
(cheguer rab! thrutt his foil into the mouth of Mr. Sooner, perhaps, thou might:lt :b Ex.