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formation is the only criterion of the worth of the completed scientific course. The selection of materials for presentation at any particular stage depends upon pedagogical insight which takes into account both the goal to be reached and the peculiarities of the learner. The way in which children learn determines the method of approach to any subject, but it sets no standard of worth upon the acquisition. The only criterion of excellence is to be found within the subject itself in its relations to human needs. How the child learns that 2x2=4 is a problem in psychology; whether 2x2 is actually 4, what relations it bears to other mathematical facts, and whether it is worth learning at all, are problems reaching far beyond childpsychology. In classifying the information within a given field, we establish standards by which we judge the relative worth of component parts and discriminate between what is essential or characteristic, and what is accidental or accessory. Such categories we have in the humanities and the sciences, and they control the trend of instruction thruout the school

We need such a guide to the industries in order that every step from the kindergarten on to the technical school may fit into our plan for industrial education.

Much confusion in the work of manual training has come from a failure to distinguish between the psychological guide to methods of teaching and organizing subject-matter, and the logical guide to the sequence of topics and the value of the component parts. The need of food, clothing, and shelter, for example, is easily brought home to a child. The psychical reaction to the suggestion that he satisfy these needs for himself is an excellent starting-point for the study of primitive life; it gives a splendid clue to ways of approaching certain fundamental industrial processes, and for that purpose may often be used advantageously in teaching. But to set up this principle as a guide for making courses of study is to confound means and ends. Everything worth having in this life has a place in the gratification of human wants—language and literature, science and fine arts, politics, law, and religion, no less than food, clothing, and shelter. What is suitable food, how it is produced, distributed, and prepared for eating, and what be

comes of it in nutrition is a subject for study quite apart from the satisfaction of hunger. The need of sustaining life may make the study of great importance, but it suggests no classification of the knowledge abounding in the scientific and industrial processes. Likewise the need of speech for the interchange of ideas gives no clue to the systematic structure of language, to say nothing of the vocabulary and the grammatical characteristics of any particular language. The conclusion, therefore, is that the method of rediscovery of ways and means of satisfying human needs is no sufficient guide either to what children should learn or to the sequence of materials employed in instruction.

The industrial processes by which man acquires his material possessions and shapes them according to his desires, are directed to the transformation of natural resources. Raw materials are produced and worked over; they are distributed and put to use. Each step, if properly taken, adds to their value. What constitutes value and what means are employed to effect the change should be made the subject of instruction. True, the amount of human labor involved is immeasurable, the variety of human occupation almost inconceivable, and the range of productive activity wellnigh beyond our understanding, but the fundamental processes are limited and relatively simple in their operation.

For pedagogical purposes, the materials of most significance in the industries are (1) foods, (2) textiles, (3) woods, (4) metals, and (5) clays and other allied earth materials. Fuels, supplying great industries in themselves, occupy a middle ground between industrial materials and the motive power employed in the industrial arts. Commerce is that industry which uses the products of all other industries in making things available for human consumption. This classification has the advantage of fixing attention on the stuffs out of which things are made and upon which human ingenuity brings to bear its most lavish expenditure of industrial effort. The next step is to single out the dominant processes in the successive stages of production, manufacture, and distribution, and their interrelations, peculiar to each class of materials. The facts concerning these processes constitute the subject matter of instruction in the industries. The technical skill required in the operation of any industrial process is the object of vocational training.

A well organized course of study in the industries must be the joint work of technical and pedagogical experts. The scientist will be called upon to contribute his share, and his contribution will be no inconsiderable amount. At one stage of the course emphasis may be placed upon the processes of production; at another stage the stress may be upon manufacture, distribution, or consumption. Nature study, agriculture, the fisheries, forestry, and mining will furnish indispensable information. Geography, biology, physics, and chemistry will each add their quota of knowledge. Facilities for transportation, the production and transmission of power, and the agencies of trade and commerce will have a bearing on the problem. But the chief consideration in the course of study is the ordering of the industrial processes by which raw materials are transformed into things of greater value for the satisfaction of human needs.

The simplest industrial processes are often the most primitive. This fact suggests the desirability of sometimes approaching the study in the primary classes from the historical standpoint. To make the study of primitive life, however, the dominant purpose of instruction leads to the introduction of much superfluous material which tends to crowd the curriculum and overburden the child. Wherever the approach can be made advantageously by way of primitive life or by plays and games which express children's emotions, that method may be employed. The impetus gained in this way should be directed to the apprehension of the systematic knowledge contained in the field under consideration. When textile processes, for example, are to be studied, the need of clothing may be emphasized and means suggested for gratifying the want. Projects for carding, spinning, and weaving may be carried out in simple ways and illustrated by reference to actual operations in bygone times or by the practises of contemporaneous primitive people. But to rediscover every step in the original development of these arts is to miss the purpose of industrial education; it may be good industrial history, but it is not good industrial training. The industrial aspects of the study, as distinguished from the historical, require that the child should acquire in some way and at some time-presumably in many ways and at widely separated times—a fairly well-rounded conception of textile processes and become familiar with the most important types of textile products. It is not enough to acquire a knowledge of the primitive process of spinning, even spinning on a wheel, and then to pass on to the weaving of a simple rug. Spinning is an important industry in modern life; it means yarns for all manner of fabrics made from a great variety of raw materials; it means thread of all kinds; it means cordage. How many of our school children, how many adults, have any adequate conception of the extent of these industries or their bearing on everyday life? And yet the processes are simple, and, by actual demonstration, supplemented by illustrations cut from current magazines or by visits to neighboring factories, the lesson can be taught in such a way as to make the learning a delight and the knowledge a permanent possession. On leaving the elementary school, every child should know, it seems to me, the characteristics of cotton, wool, silk, and linen, both in the spun and woven forms, and have some notion of their value as determined by the processes to which they have been subjected. A proper combination of handwork, the application of design and the giving of information should produce the desired results without strain and with constantly increasing interest in the study. At the end of a high school course, possibly at the end of the grammar school, a girl should be able not only to make many articles of clothing, but also to discriminate in the choice of fabrics by reference to what she has learned in school concerning the nature of the several materials and the processes of manufacture. If she doesn't get this knowledge in school, when and where will she ever get it? And isn't it something which she has a right to know? How much time will it take, I ask, to give her a vastly better equipment in this field than ninety per cent. of adults have today? It is less a problem of instruction or school administration, than it is a point of view and selection of materials for instruction. Once accept my proposition that this is worth doing, and the time can easily be found, and some day we shall have teachers prepared to do the work.

Again, let me illustrate from another field—from the clay industries. Children like to make mud pies. The kindergarten turns this aptitude to good use in fashioning things by hand molding. Of late, primary teachers have adopted clay as a convenient medium for expressing art forms. The result is thirty plaques, thirty ink wells, or thirty vases—all very pretty, decorated and glazed, when put in a row on exhibition day. So far I have no criticism. My complaint is that they stop right there. The chief processes in the clay industries are very few; hand molding, turning on the potter's wheel, pressing into set forms, and building up in permanent shape, as in cement and concrete construction. Why not, then, pass from hand molding, which can be approached thru primitive types, to the use of the potter's wheel? A single demonstration of this machine, with the use of illustrations which may be had in abundance, will give the clue to the entire round of the pottery industries. A few samples, varying from unglazed earthenware to fine china, will complete the teaching equipment. Next come brick and terra-cotta. But who has ever heard of brick-making in school? I should like to hear of it because it is an immense industry, the products of which are visible on every hand-soft brick, hard brick, fire brick, red brick, yellow brick, ornamental brick, terra cotta. Why should not our children know more about these things than we do? I venture to say that ten hours of instruction judiciously spread over two or three years, and properly correlated with nature study and geography, will give to sixth grade children a better appreciation of one of the staple building materials than ninety out of every hundred adults have today. Is it worth the time? If so, the time can be found.

I might illustrate my point by any of the staple foods, by glass, by woods, or by metals. The working up of these materials, the getting them ready for use, does not involve many processes. The combination of processes is most intricate

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