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AMITY And COMMERCE
HIGH MIGHTINESSES THE STATES-GENERAL
O F T H E v.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA;
NEW HAMPSHIRE, MASSACHUSSETTS, RHODE ISLAND AND PROVIDENCE PLANTATIONS, CONNECTICUT, NEW YORK, NEW JERSEY, PENNSYLVANIA, DELAWARE, MARYLAND, VIRGINIA, NORTH CAROLINA, SOUTH CAROLINA, AND GEORGIA.
THEIR High Mightinesses the States-General of the United Netherlands, and the United States of America, to wit, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, desiring to ascertain, in a permanent and equitable manner, the rules to be observed relative to the commerce and correspondence which they intend to establish between their respective States, countries and inhabitants, have judged, that the said end cannot be better obtained, than by establishing the most perfect equality and reciprocity for the basis of their agreement, and by avoiding all those burthensome preferences, which
are are usually the sources of debate, embarrassment and discontent; by leaving also each party at liberty to make, respecting commerce and navigation, such ulterior regulations, as it shall find most convenient to itself; and by founding the advantages of commerce solely upon reciprocal utility, and the just rules of free intercourse; reserving withal to each party, the liberty of admitting, at its pleasure, other nations to a participation of the fame advantages.
On these principles, their said High Mightinesses the States General of the United Netherlands have named for their plenipotentiaries, from the midst of their assembly, Messieurs their Deputies for the foreign affairs; and the said United States of America, on their part, have furnished with full powers, Mr. John Adams, late Commissioner of the United States of America at the court of Versailles, heretofore Delegate in Congress from the State of Massachusetts-Bay, and Chief Justice of the said State, who have agreed and concluded as follows: to wit,
ARTICLE I. There shall be a firm, inviolable, and universal peace and sincere friendship between their High Mightinesses the Lords the States General of the United Netherlands and the United States of America, and between the subjects and inhabitants of the said parties, and between the countries, islands, cities, and places situated under the jurisdiction of the said United Netherlands and the said United States of America, their subjects and inhabitants of every degree, without exception of persons or places.
ARTICLE II. The subjects of the said Stares General of the United Netherlands shall pay in the ports, havens, roads, countries, islands, cities or places of the United States of America, or any of them, no other nor greater duties or imposts, of whatever nature or denomination they may be, than those which the nations the most savoured are or shall be obliged to pay: and they shall enjoy all the rights, liberties, privileges, immunities and exemptions in trade, navigation, and commerce, which the said nations do, or shall enjoy, whether in passing from one port to another in the said States, or in goings from any of those ports to any foreign port of the world, or from any foreign port of the world to any of those ports. '■...'.
ARTICLE III. The subjects and inhabitants of the said United States of America shall pay in the ports, havens,. roads, countries, islands, cities or places of the said United Netherlands, or any of them, no other, nor greater duties or imposts, of whatever nature or. denomination they may-be, than those which the nations the most savoured are or shall be obliged to pay: and they shall enjoy all the rights, liberties, privileges, immunities and exemptions in trade, navigation, and commerce, which the said nations do, or shall enjoy, whether in passing from one port to another in the said States, or from any one towards any one of those ports, from or to any foreign port of the world. And the United States of America, with their subjects and inhabitants, shall leave to those of their High Mightinesses, the peaceable enjoyment of their rights in the countries, islands, and seas, in the East and West Indies, without any hindrance or molestation.
ARTICLE IV. There shall be an entire and perfect liberty of conscience allowed to the subjects and inhabitants of each party, and to their samilies : and no one shall be. molested in regard to his worsliip, provided he submits, as to the public demonstration of it, to the laws"
s of the country. There shall be given moreover liber-" ty, when any subjects or inhabitants of either party shall die in the territory of the other, to bury them in the usual burying-places, or in decent and convenient grounds, to be appointed for that purpose, as occasion shall require. And the dead bodies of those who are buried, shall not in any wise be molested: and the two contracting parties shall provide, each one in his jurisdiction, that their respective subjects and inhabitants may henceforward obtain the requisite certificates, in cafes of deaths, in which they shall be interested.
ARTICLE V. Their High Mightinesses the States General of the United Netherlands, and the United States of America, shall endeavour, by all the means in their power, to defend and protect all vessels and other effects belonging to their subjects and inhabitants respectively, or to any of them, in their ports, roads, havens, internal seas, passes, rivers, and as sar as their jurisdiction extends at sea; and to recover, and cause to be restored to the true proprietors, their agents, or attornies, all such vessels and effects which shall be taken under their jurisdiction: and their vessels of war and convoys, in cafes when they may have a common enemy, shall take under their protection all the vessels belonging to the subjects and inhabitants of either party, which shall not be laden with contraband goods, according to the description which shall be made of them hereafter, for places with which one of the parties is in peace and the other at war, nor destined for any place blocked, and which shall hold the same course, or follow the same route: and they shall defend such vessels, as long as they shall hold the same course, or follow the same route, against all attacksj force, and violence of the common enemy, in the fame manner as they ought to protect and defend