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1 -1818.) Duboi's Description of the Character, Sc. of the People of India. 425

crists eren in the code of Bindoo super- in order to obtain a speedy, termina-' stitions.

tion to the Pahrahdam, aud to induce “ The Pabvahdam is a ceremony of the great multitude to go to their the most serious kind, since il demands homes. no less than the sacrifice of a human “ The chiefs, when satisfied, repair victim, and its resuscitation afterwards. to the tent to conclude the ceremony,

" As soon as it is publicly known wbich is effected by restoring to life that any one bas given occasion for the pretended dead man, who lies the Pahvandam, by any of the crimes stretched out before them. For this that bare bees mentioned, or by any purpose they chuse one of their puiddeep insult cast upon the sect, the vo- ber, and, making an incision in his taries crowd from all quarters to the thigh, they collect the blood which place where the colprit resides, and runs from it and sprinkle the body of baring assembled to the number some- the sbam corpse, which being restored times of more than two thousand, each by the efficacy of this simple ceremony, bringing his sounding plate of brass, is delivered over alive io those who and his sank ba or great shell, they pro. assist at it, and who have no doubt ceed to the ceremony. The first step whatever of the reality of the resuris to arrest the person who is the cause reclion." of their assembling, and then they spread Respecting the various superstitions a tent at a small distance, wbich is which prevailed amongst these degraded immediately encompassed with several beings, Mr. Dubois has been copious ranks of partisans 'assembled for the and curious in his communications. occasion.

With the exception of some imposing " The chiefs having selected from the dogmas, which are only known by a multitude a fit person who consents to few speculative sages, their religion become the victim for sacrifice, exhibit consists of the grossest polytheism, him to the crowd of people collected exhibited in a series of institutions acfrom all parts to witness the sight. commodated to ignorance and imbeA small incision is then made on his cility, depraved habits, and licentious belly, deep enough for the blood to manners. Compared with the creeds Low: upon which the pretended vic. and fables of the Hindoo divinities, the tio sbams a fainting fit, tumbles on mythology of Greece was chaste and the ground, and counterfeits death. sublime, and the worship of ScandiHe is then carried into the tent which is pávia rational and humane. It is not fitted to receive him, and is there laid uncommon to find their most sacred

pagodas polluted by scenes of horrible “Of the great concourse of people licentiousness, which are alone equalled gathered together, part watches' night by the dissolute orgies of Olaheite. and day round the tent, which nobody lo common with the ancient Egyp. is sufered to approach ; while another tians, they offer adoration to birds, division surrounds the house of the jo. snakes, and even vegetables : but their dividual who has given occasion for the idolatry is often more mischievous. Ceremony. Both parties raise continual M. Dubois obtained sufficient testicies and frightful bowlings, wbich be. mony, that in ancient and modern times ing mixed with the clanking sound of they have offered buman sacrifices. ibe brazen plates and the shrill squeak lo a curious analysis of the Atbar. of the sankha, produce a confusion and vapa Veda, M. Dubois informs us, that uproar, in the midst of wbich it is al. inagical rites were sometimes consumo most impossible to exist. This over. maled by the immolation of a young whelming disorder continues without girl. interruption till the person who was " Jodeed, we may easily convince ibe cause of it pays the fine imposed

ourselves that no oation can have less apon bim, which generally exceeds his repugnance to buman sacrifices than the

Hindus, if we examine the conduct which "In the mean time, the inhabitants they exbibit at the present time. In of the village and of the neighbourhood, many provioces, the natives still can Eoding it impossible to live in the midst trace, and actually point out to the of the confusion and disorder occasioned curious traveller, the ground and situaby the fanatical crowd, come to terips tion where their Rajas sacrificed to with the chief, and pay at least a part of their idols the prisoners whom they had what has been required of the culprit, taken in war. The bject of the awful Europ. Mag. Vol. LXXIII. May, 1818.

3 I

put as a corpse.




ite was to render their divinities more have taken place, onder some petty placable, and to obtain their favourable native princes, who bave preserved a aid in battle. I have visited some of precarious independence up to the prethose abominable places, which are com. sent day. Neither would i like to risk monly in the mountains or other unfre. the falling into their hands, as an enemy quented parts; as if tbose awful beings or prisoner of war. What I have heard who delighted to see their altars moist. of some of the pelly Mahratta princes, ened with human gore, and their sane- confirms my suspicions that buman sa. tuaries strewed with the carcasses, were crifices are not yet wholly renounced." themselves conscious of the enormity of The courts of justice are not much the crime, and therefore desired to veil more pure than the worship of their the horrid spectacle from the eyes of pagodas. The oppression exercised by

In the secret places where these ibe Hindu priuces and their vicegerents detestable sacrifices were performed of is universal. The Hindus have no real old, a little temple of inean appearance property. Their estates are always reis generally found, and sometimes but a sumable at the pleasure of their sove. simple niche, in which the idol is prc- reign, who is not only the supreme lord, served, to obtain whose favour so hor. but sole proprietor. The sanctity of an rid a price is paid. The victim was oath is not respected- the Bralimaus in immolated by decapitation, and the particular are addicted to perjury and head was left exposed for a time ia the falsehood. Hencc arises the frequent presence of the idol.

practice of having recourse to ordeals " I have been conducted to see seve. of guilt, most of which are not less ral of those sad charnel dens, in various inbunnan thau absurd. districts. One of them is not far from M. Dubois has not communicated Seringapatam, on the hill near which much that is new respecting the poetry the fort of Mysore is built. On the of the Hindus. The Hindu Tales be top of that mountain, the pagoda may has selected are curious specimens of still be observed, where the Rajas were their humorous powers, and strikingly accustomed to sacrifice their prisoners display the manners and customs of this of war, or state delinquents.

ambiguous people, who cannot be classed “ Sometimes they were satisfied with wilb civilized or barbarous nations; who mutilating their victims, by cutting off cling to ignorance like the savage, with. their hands, nose, and ears; wbich they out eniulating his courage or his fide offered up, fresh and bloody, at the lity; and without the least tincture of shrine of the idol, or hung them up, retinerent, submit to live in habits of exposed on the gate of the temple. volupluous indulgence.

it But I have also conversed with several old men, who have entered familiarly into the object and circum

The Annual Obituary and Biography, stances of these sacrifices, and spoke

for 1918. of them to me as events of their own This volume, like its predecessor, days, and as publiciy known.

offers many valuable and interesting * It appears, indeed, that this prace memorials of lapsed talents and de tice of sacrificing prisoners taken in parted greatness.' We have read with war, amongst the pagan princes, was peculiar interest the memoirs of Sir not in opposition to our notions of Herbert Croft, distinguished as the the law of nations, being reciprocal, intiinate friend of Young, and the and acknowledged as the legitimate learned coadjutor of Johnson. The reprisals of one sovereign upon another. life of David Williams, the eccentric, The people look on, without horror, or bui benevolent, founder of the literary even surprise. They still speak of it, fund, is also replete with incident and without emotion, as a thing just and entertainment: born a Methodist, he regular, and as being filly appropriate commenced his public career as a Minis. to the state of war.

ter of the Gospel, but first attracled “ Of late, the intercourse of the Hin- notice by his original system of educa. dus, with the Europeans and Musalmans, tion; and it is remarkable, that in soide and the just horror which these invaders of his novelties he anticipated the prin: have expressed of such atrocious crimes, ciples, and almost exempli ged the prachave nearly effected their total aboli. tice of Belland Lancaster: alter this he tion : nearly, I say, because I cannot acquired notoriety as the author of a auswer with confidence for what may new religious creed, which engaged no


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disciples-many of his schemes were rochial schools, which at an almost no. trpian: the most beneficial labour minal expense offer all the advantages of his life was the catablishment of the of a liberal education. Here his juve. Literary Purd, which toally afforded pile talents altracted notice, and he an asulum to his declining age.

was afterwards transferred to a superior Pa-siaz oser the statesmen and sena- establishment; he was removed to the tors, amongst whom we find the bril. grammar-school of Pertb ; and, finally, liant Curran--the regretled Ponsonby in his sixteenth year, entered tbe uni. -be seerated Horger-the accom-versity of St. Andrew's, where it was plised Herry Erskine-we turn to the his fortune to be associated with the meruors of Dr. Thomson, who, during celebrated Thomas Erskine, the ingefifty years, pursued the laborious pro- nious Moncrief, the sagacious Fergufessios of an author, and whose daring son, and the scientific Playfair. Here enterprize and resolute perseverance he obtained the patronage of Lord Kin. might have furnished some curious moul, who received him into his own hiats to Mr. D'Israeli, in his portraiture family in the capacity of librarian. At of the literary character.

the persuasion of this nobleman he stu.' This is one of the most extra- died theology, was declared a member ordinary men of letters of the pre- of the kirk, and, finally, assumed the sent age. His name, with an excep- clerical functions at Monivaird, near tion to poetry, is counected with al. the valley of Strathero. But this situa.' most every species of composition, and tion was uncongenial to his taste, as he it would be impossible to write the his- appears to have imbibed little of pres. tory of the literature of the reign of byterian strictness and asperity. George III. without assigning bim a The presbytery of Auchterarder, to place, if not very elevated, al least which the parish of Monivaird belonged, somewhat coospicuous among the au. was remarkable for religious gloom and thors of that period.

fanatical austerity. Ifa minister would “ William Thomson, a native of be popular here, it was necessary for Scotland, was born in the year 1746, him to be rigidly severe in his manners, just after the battle of Culloden, which as well as rigorously adherent to all the concluded the civil war occasioned by horrors of puritanical orthodoxy. Thomthe landing of the Young Chevalier, as son was neither the one nor the other. he was theo teriped, much in the same He associated more with the lairds, who manaer that the ever-inemorable battle are generally free and jovial, than with of Waterloo has terminated the long, the ministers and elders; he amused portentous, and sanguinary strife on himself with hunting and fishing ; nay, the Continent. The place of bis birth he had even the ungodliness to play on was a cottage in the parish of Forteviot, the violin. Indeed, in the presbytery, in Strathero. This obscure spot is si- he acquired the character of a bon vivant fuated six miles from Perth, a place and pleasant companion, rather than which had largely participated in the that of a godly minister. His sermoos then recent disturbances, and about cost hiin little trouble. By meditating a thirty from Edinburgh."

few minutes on the Sunday morning, he "Mattbew Thomson, the fatber, like was able to deliver a discourse replete the generality of his countrymen, was with sense and eloquence.” an industrious and ingenious man, who Notwithstanding his unclerical pro. endeavoured to obtain support for hiin- pensities, be engaged the partiality of self and family by the junction of two bis parishioners, and was equally beor three distinct professions ; for in the loved by his Highland and Lowland first place be united the trade of a car. neighbours. But he was not always penter to that of a builder ; wbile be able to resist or baffle the malice of his occasionally appeared in the character rancorous adversaries; and relinquishof a husbandman, having rented a small ing both his charge and his profession, farm from a neighbouring nobleman, made a bold transition from the valley whose name will be mentioned here. of Strathern to the metropolis of Briafter with no uncommon degree of tain. At this period, he had no other praise

. By means of these various avo. pecuniary fund than an annual pension cations, he contrived to bring up a' of 501. from his patron, Lord Kinnout family of thirteen childreo."

- but on his arrival in London, he beHappily for young Thomson, he was came an author by profession, and with bora in the vicinity of one of those pa. such diligence and success, that, after

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two or three years, hé ceased to claim Aides-de-camp. In this capacity be Lord Kinpoul's benefaction.

accordingly resided in the splendid nuanof Dr. Thomson's niultifarious pro. sion of his patron : and as he was uoductions a long catalogue is produced ; luckily accustomed to keep bad bours, and they certainly justify the following the noble Earl determined to expose remarks of bis biographer, with which the impropriety of such conduct in we dismiss the subject.

the gentlest, but most effectual, way “We are from this moment to consi- possible. Accordingly one evening be der Dr. Thomson as a regular London sent all the servants to bed, and sat author, not indeed like the literary men up himself until four or five in the of Germany, who annually prepare their morning, when this, who happened to works for the express purpose of being be tbe junior officer on his staff, resold at the fair of Frankfort ; but one turned in high spirits from a ball. He always ready and willing to treat for a was not permitted to knock long, for 4to. 8vo. or 12mo. volume, no matter his illustrious commander obeyed the ou what suhject, with any eminent or first summods with the utmost promptiadventurous booksellers of the day. tude, and going down with a couple of He was also not upfrequently employed candles, ceremoniously lighted the astoeither to revise or review the works of vished subaltero to his bed chamber!" living authors; so that be was not inaptly termed by a celebrated lady, whose embrio vovels he was supposed to frame,

THE SERAPH: A Colleclion of Sacred train, and render productive, “ a pro

Music, suitable lo public or private fessional critic.” In short, he opened a

Devotion : consisting of the most kind of literary Bazaar, in which ware

celebrated Psalm and Hymn Tunes, of all sorts and sizes for the library

with Selections from the Works of might be obtained in a finished state."

Handel, Haydn, Mozart, and Pleyel, The memoirs of the amiable traveller

and favourile English and Italian Irwin are peculiarly pleasing; but our

Composers, adapted to Words from Jimits do not allow us to offer extracts

Millon, Young, Walls, Addison, &c. from that article ; and we close our

&c. &c. To which are added many strictures with the following little anec

Original Pieces. Composed, and the dote from a life which exhibits the

Whole arranged for Four Voices, strongest possible contrast to that of

with an Accompaniment for the PianoDr. Thomson, in which brilliant talents

forte, Organ, and Violoncello, by Joha

Whitaker. were surrendered to indolence and peglect, and wit, taste, and learning, pro- When genius directs its attention ta duced no better fruits than expectatiou, so laudable a purpose as the encouragedisappointment, regret, and oblivion, ment of moral and religious feelings, it

* Mr. Thomas Sheridan was educated is natural for every well-disposed mind under the immediate ipspection, for he to wish it all tbe success it is peculiarly resided in the family, of the celebrated entitled to; but when the merits of its Dr. Parr; and it is not a little re- endeavours are enhanced by the supemarkable, that this sole surviving mem. rior medium through wbich they are ber of the Grecian (riumviratc (Mr. conveyed, and they become doubly vaPorson, Dr. Burney, and Dr. Parr) Juable, as well on account of the richshould have been the instructor of his ness of the matter as the pious turn of father nearly half a century before, thinking they are calculated to give rise while under. inasier at to, we think it a duty iocumbent on us Young Sheridan next repaired to Cam- to render it as public as we are able. bridge, where he was entered a gentle- aod consequently feel great pleasure in man-commoner. Notwithstanding these adding our feeble testimony to its meinitiatory studies, and the example of rits, recommending it to our readers the elder Mr. Sheridan, who had distin. as a work possessiog great claims to guished bimself both by his writings their notice, as a rare combination of aod his eloquence, young Sheridan's taste, science, and ability, destination proved to be the army, by Indeed, when the talents of its conhis own particular choice. He accord- ductor are considered, we need vot be jog!y obtained a commission; and Lord surprised at the union in one who ha Moira, a friend of the family, happen- already so amply contributed to the jog to be then Commander-in-Chief gratification of the public in apothes in Scotland, appointed bim one of his department and the execution of the

1 1818.) Theatrical Journal.

429 work before us affords an additional ing, when the mind should more imme. proof of bis pre-emigence in a science diately be devoted to the service of the which not only beightens the festive Creator; thus identifying the performmoments of mankind, but is capable of ance of a duty with a most agreeable raising their souls to the contemplation science, and opening to the view of the of bobler subjects.

pious a rich selection from the stores The extent of its use with regard to of the immortal Handel, and many public Forship cannot be rightly esti- other eminent professors—forining as mated ; but we conceive that it complete a collection of sacred music as would tend, with peculiar felicity, to was ever offered to the public notice. grace the recreations of a Sunday even




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PRIL 24. Marlowe's tragedy of The scope for display. Perhaps there is no

act taken altogether, in any of the nu. ing. This we conceive to be a fairer des- merous parts he has already performed, cription of the performance than ap- which exhibit a more favourable and peared in the printed bills, where it was continued specimen of his wonderful called " a play founded on Marlowe's powers. But the succeeding ones are tragedy." In fact, the variatious from by no means equal to the promise of the original plot, if any, are too inconsi- the first, and the catastrophe is so derable to be noticed, and even the text forced and artificial, that we doubt is permitted to stand without much in. whether there is another performer on terference. There may, perhaps, be an the stage wbo could have saved it from odd sentence bere and there, belonging a laugh. Not only did he succeed in to the modern author, but they are doing so, but in communicatiog to it neither numerous nor conspicuous a bigh degree of tragic solemnity. It enough to establish a partnership in would require more time than we can that production, with respect to which devote to it at present, to enumerate he can claim little more than the credit the different instances in which be ma. of baving recommended it, The tra. nifested the perfection of his art, but gedy itself is pretty generally known; to mention only a few, we would select but we doubt however, whether, with his deportmeut before the Senate, ail its merits, it has struck many of its where commanded to surreoder half his Teaders in the present day, as a drama wealth, bis directions lo bis daughter much adapted to our stage. Barabas where bis treasure lay concealed, his the chief character, is powerfully con- soliloquy, descriptive of the prosperity ceived. The events in which he is of bis tribe, his joy on receiving the concerned are various, the motives by money bags, and that spirit of insawhich be is actuated are terrific, but tiable revenge which he kept constantly whether from the recollection of Shakes. before the audience, from the rising peare's Shylock, or from a distaste to until the falling of the curtain. He the simplicity of our antient writers, suog a song in the disguise of a bar. of, as we would rather hope, from a per, which produced a very powerful disinclination to recognize within the effect, and was rapturously encored. limits of probability the multitude of Our readers will readily suppose that atrocities ascribed to the Jew, he does this vocal undertaking was more renot make that impression upon the markable for its taste than its comwhole which was to be expected from pass; and if the piece should become ko great a name. We are now alluding popular, it will owe that popularity to Derely to the Play, for if ever there was Mr. Kean. His is the only character an jostace when the acting was likely worth mentioning, and the applause, to overbear all obstacles in ibe produce which was veheinent in the first act, Lion itsell, it was that of Mr. Kean as became more moderate as the play Berib. Unfortunately for the gene- advanced, until at the end it broke out ral impression of the Tragedy, the first with all its former vehemence.

We act was that in which be bad most had nearly forgotten to mention I those


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