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ter, as drawn by himself, is that of a man who did no injury to any one, but, on the contrary, gave all the aid in his power to all who might require it. For these things he calls God to witness.

PEUTINGER (CONRAD), a celebrated scholar, was born at Augsburg in 1465, and studied successfully in the principal cities of Italy. When he returned home he was appointed secretary to the senate of Augsburg, and employed by that body in the diets of the empire, and in the various courts of Europe. In his private character he conferred bappiness on an excellent and learned wife; and, in his public, was always rendering essential services to his country. This excellent citizen died at eighty-two, in 1574, having lost his faculties for some time before. He is most known by an ancient itinerary, which from him is called “ Tabula Peutingeriana." It is a curious cbart found in a nonastery in Germany, and communicated to Peutinger by one Conrad Celtes. It was formed under the reign of Theodosius the Great, and marks the roads by which the Roman armies passed at that time to the greater part of the empire. It is not a geographical work, and seems to have been made by a Roman soldier, who thought of nothing, or perhaps knew nothing, but what respected the roads, and the places for encampment. A magnificent but now very scarce edition of it was published by F. C. Scheib at Vienna in 1753, fol. Peutinger's own works are, 1.“Sermones convivales," in the collection of Schardius; Jena, 1683, 8vo. 2. “ De inclinatione Romani imperii, et gentium commigrationibus," subjoined to the former, and to Procopius. 3.“ De rebus Gothorum," Bale, 1531, fol. 4.“ Romanæ Vetustatis fragmenta, in Augusta Vindelicorum,” Mayence, 1528, fol.

PEYER (John Conrad), a native of Schaffhausen in Switzerland, is famous for having first given an accurate account of the intestinal glands, which, in a state of health, separate a fluid, for the lubrication of the intestines, and which in diarrhæas, or upon taking a purge, supply the extraordinary discharge that happens upon these occasions. His works are, “Exercitatio Anatomico-Medica, de Glandulis Intestinorum, Schaffhausæ, 1677," Amstelod. 1682. This is in the Biblioth. Anatom. of Mangetus and Le Clerc.

1 Chaufepie.-Niceron, vol. XXVI.-Blount's Censura. 2 Chaufepie.-Niceron, volş. XIII, and XX.

“ Pæonis & Pythagoræ Exercitationes Anatomicæ,” Basil, 1682; “ Methodus Historiarum Anatomico-Medicarum,” &c. 1679; “ Parerga Anatomica & Medica," Amstel 1682; “ Experimenta nova circa Pancreas, extant in the Biblioth. Anatom. of Le Clerc and Mangetus."

PEYRERA (ISAAC LA), a French protestant, born at Bourdeaux in 1592, entered into the service of the prince of Condé, whom he pleased by the singularity of his humour. Peyrera believed himself to bave discovered from St. Paul, that Adam was not the first man; and to prove this, he published in Holland, 1655, a book in 4to and 8vo with this title: “ Præadamitæ; sive exercitatio super versibus 12, 13, 14, capitis xv. Epistolæ Pauli ad Romanos.” This work was condemned to the flames, and the author imprisoned at Brussels ; but, getting his liberty through the interest of the prince of Condé, he went to Rome in 1656, and abjured Calvinism and Præadamitism before Alexander VII. He was not, however, thought sincere, for, returning to Paris, in spite of all the means this pope used to detain him at Rome, he became librarian to the prince of Condé, and some time after retired to the seminary des Vertus, where he died in 1676, aged 84. He submitted to receive the sacraments, yet was not believed to be attached to any religion. Besides the piece above mentioned, he wrote “Une Relation du Groenland,” in 8vo; and “ Une Relation d'Islande,” in 8vo; both reckoned curious and interesting: and a very singular tract entitled “Rappel des Juifs," in which his object was to prove. that two Messiahs were intended; the first Jesus Christ, who, according to his notion, came only for the Christians; and the second, he whom the Jews have so long expected, and who is to be a great temporal prince and render them lords of the earth. This was printed in 1643, 8vo, a circumstance which the translator of his life in the Gentleman's Magazine (vol. LXXXII. p. 431.) positively denies, yet we find mention of this edition in every French biography. It probably, however, attracted no great degree of attention, and Brunet places it among rare books; but being known to some of the adherents of Buonaparte it was reprinted, when it became his pleasure to assemble a Jewish Sanhedrim in Paris in 1806. It was then supposed that the Jews might be made to believe that the great tem

| Eloy, Dict. Hist. de Medicine,


poral prince that was to restore them, was no other than the ruler of the French nation. In the authority just quoted are many curious particulars of Peyreyra, from father Simon.

PEYRONIE (FRANCIS DE LA), first surgeon to the king, was distinguished above all the eminent surgeons who have appeared in France, by his ardent zeal for the progress and improvement of surgery, and the sums he expended for that purpose. He was born in 1678, and died April 24, 1747. Among the important services be rendered his country, we find that he procured the establishment of the

Royal Academy of Surgery" at Paris in 1731; and left his library, and estate of Marigny, to the company of surgeons in that city, who sold them to his majesty for 200,000 livres; he also appointing the same company universal legatees to two-thirds of his property. M. de la Peyronie bequeathed to the surgeon's company of Montpellier, two houses situated there, with 100,000 livres, for the erection of an amphitheatre for surgery; and also left the said company universal legatees to the third part of his property. Every clause in his will tended to the public good, and the encouragement and improvement of surgery, by which, as well as by his talents, this celebrated surgeon rendered his name immortal in France. ?

PEZAY (Masson, marquis of), was born at Paris, with a natural turn for literature, but entered into the military line, and was captain of dragoons, in which situation he had the honour to be the instructor of Louis XVI. in the art of tactics. Being appointed inspector-general of the coasts, he executed his office with considerable attention; but having made enemies, by a degree of haughtiness in his manner, complaints were lodged against him, which caused him to be banished to his own estate. In this situ. ation he died soon after, in 1778. He cultivated the Muses a good deal, and was intimate with Dorat, whose style he imitated. His poems have an elegance which makes amends for a certain degree of negligence. Sạch as, 1.“ Zelie au bain, poem

in six cantos. 2. A Letter from Ovid to Julia. 3. Several fugitive pieces, published in the Almanach des Muses. 4. An indifferent translation of Catullus. 5. “Les Soirées Helvétiennes, Alsa



• 1 Niceron, vols. XII and XX.-Gen. Dict.-Moreri.-Gent. Mag. LXXXII. and LXXXIII.

9 Eloy, Dict. Hist. de Medicine.

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ciennes, & Franc-Comtoises," 1770, 8vo, a work agreeably varied, but not sufficiently correct in style. 6. “La Rosiere de Salency," a pastoral, in three acts, which was approved. 7. “ Les Campagnes de Maillebois,” 3 vols. 4to, printed in 1775, and now rare and of great value in France. 8. There is said also to be extant a manuscript work entitled “Les Soirées Provençales," not inferior to his “ Soirées Helvetiennes.'

PEZENAS (ESPRIT), a learned Jesuit, born at Avig. non in 1692, where he died some little time after 1770, was for a long time professor of physics and hydrography at Marseilles. His works and translations on these and similar subjects are very numerous : 1. « Elemens du Pilotages,” 1737, 12mo. 2. A translation of Maclaurin's Fluxions, 1749, 2 vols. 4to. 3. “ Pratique du pilotage,” 1749, 8vo. 4. “ Theory and practice of gauging," 8vo. 5. “ Maclaurin's Algebra translated," 1750, 8vo. He translated also the Course of Experimental Philosophy by Desaguliers, Dycbe's Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, which was supplanted by Prevot's “Manuel Lexique,” Ward's Young Mathematician's Guide, and Smith's Optics. From the German he translated Baker's Treatise of the Microscope, 1754. His ideas and language were clear, and he was esteemed for the mildness and agreeableness of his character, as well as for his talents.

PEZRON (Paul), a learned and ingenious Frenchman, was born at Hennebon in Bretagne, in 1639; and admitted of the order of Cistercians in 1660. He made the scriptures the principal object of his study: aware of the assiste ance to be derived from profane history, he read with attention the ancient Greek and Latin historians. His judgment, however, did not improve with his erudition, as appeared by a new system, which he communicated to the public, in a work printed at Paris in 1687, 4to, and called “L'Antiquité des temps retablie," &c. that is, “ The Antiquity of Time restored, and defended, against the Jews and modern Chronologers.” His design here is to prove, upon the authorities of the septuagint and profane history, that the world is more ancient than modern chronologers have supposed ; and that, instead of 4000 years between the creation of the world and the birth of Christ, there were almost 6000. The great principle on which this sup

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1 Dict. Hist.

2 Ibid.



position is built is, that the Hebrew text has been corrupted, since the destruction of Jerusalem by the Jews, who otherwise must have been forced to acknowledge, upon their own principles, that the Messiah was actually

Pezron's book was extremely admired for the ingenuity and learning of it; yet created, as was natural, no small alarm among the religious. Martianay, a Benedictine, and Le Quien, a Dominican, wrote against this new system, and undertook the defence of the Hebrew text; Martianay with great zeal and heat, Le Quien with more judgment and knowledge. Pezron published, “Defense de l'Antiquité des temps," in 1691, 4to; which, like the work itself, abounded with curious and learned researches. Le Quien replied, but Martianay brought the affair into another court; and, in 1693, laid the books and principles of Pezron before M. de Harlai, archbishop of Paris. Harlai communicated the representation of this adversary to Pezron; who defended himself with so much ingenuity as to render the accusation of no effect.

Pezron was the author of other curious and learned works, as, “Antiquité de la Nation & de la Langue de Celtes,” in 1703, 8vo; “ Dissertation touchant l'ancienne demeure des Cananeens," printed in the Memoires de Trevoux, for July 1703; and “Dissertation sur les anciennes & veritables bornes de la Terre Promise," in the same Memoires, for June 1705; “ Essai d'un Commen- . taire litteral & historique sur les Prophetes," 1693, 12mo; and “Histoire Evangelique confirmeé par la Judaïque & la Romaine," 1696, in 2 vols. 8vo.

This ingenious and learned man died October 10, 1706, aged 67; having gone through several promotions, the last of which was the abbey of Charmoye, to which he was nominated by the king, in 1697.'

PFAFF (JOHN CHRISTOPHER), an eminent Lutheran divine, was born May 28, 1651, at Pfullingen, in the duchy of Wirtemberg. He taught theology with reputation at Tubingen, and died there February 6, 1720, leaving “A collection of Controversies ;" “ A dissertation on the passages of the Old Testament that are quoted in the New;" and other works in Latin, which are esteemed. CHRISTOPHER MATTHEW Pfaff, one of his sons, was professor

Niceron, vol. 1.-Moreri.--See Remarks on some of his opinions, Archæo. logia, vol. I.

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