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It is, in short, the gang that must drive out the gang, thru the boy's perception that the old gang occupations are child's play, and not the work of life—that the gang, in short, is not the real gang, but its kindergarten. It will help in this expulsion if you will offer the instinct other grown-up fulfilments besides the industrial. Admit the young man into your councils; above all, receive him into political alliance. Politics is a direct instinctive manifestation of the gang. It is the best adult game there is, and the one most attractive to the young,-a truth that the professional politicians have long since found out and acted on. Their name of " students " for

" their heelers-in-training shows insight as well as humor.

From birth to adolescence is the purely instinctive age, during which the various constituent impulses assert themselves confidently and unequivocally as masters of the child's growth and education. Each exploit, each achievement, is during this period sufficient to itself. The mud pie is an ultimate and sufficient reason for the cost of making it, the conferring of last tag is its own reward. The rest of infancy is the period of apprenticeship-purely instinctive also in a sense, only that the instinct itself demands a test that is not instinctive. The social element of making good is now an indispensable article in its requirement. The two motives of work and play are thus combined; only they are both really play motives—that is to say, ultimate and self-justifying instincts—in the last analysis.

The conclusion, so far as the boy who goes to work is concerned, is that he should not go to work. At least he should not be permitted to go into any occupation that does not include education toward his ultimate efficiency. The dead-end cccupation into which so large a proportion of our children go, which neither fits the gang impulse in its primal form nor satisfies the gang instinct to make good, combines all possible disadvantages, and is the worst influence to which they are or could be subjected. The seven precious years of instinctive apprenticeship, during which his nature is at the same time plastic and passionately focused toward this very end of becoming an effective member, must not be lost. If the path from soul to utterance, from native power to socially effectual discharge, is not broken out now, it never will be, and his real life will never find its channel.

This also we desire for the sake of culture, not for the sake of industry; not in order that the man shall make more goods, but that the making of the goods may better make the man.

II. FITTING INDUSTRY TO THE WORKER Besides leading the nature of our children to fit our modern industry, we must do far more than we have dreamed of doing to make our industry fit the normal life. Civilization has been so absorbed in producing the means of living that it has forgotten to leave room for life itself. What is the use of having more clothes, or even more beautiful ones, if we have no bodies fit to put them on? I remember reading the remark of an economist, from whose mind the intent to be funny was as far as possible removed, that the happiness of the worker was a good thing, as it tended to increase production. The next lesson set down for our civilization to learn is that the largest dividend from work is in the joy of doing it, and that in this form of return lies the great undeveloped resource of every country. There are two principal methods in which this portion of our moral revenue can be increased: first, by the adoption of Ruskin's advice that industry shall be made more expressive of the creative impulse; and, second, by the greater introduction, thru industrial coöperation, and by responsibility-sharing, of the element of team play. When the worker can feel that the trade mark of the factory is his flag, that he shares the personality embodied in its product, there will come new life both to him and to the industry, and incidentally a degree of material success of which we have not yet dreamed.


But even after we have done our best to train the child's nature in the direction of modern industry, and to correct our industry to conform to eternal human nature as it declares itself in the child, there will still remain in many industries a large part of the worker's nature unfulfilled. There are—and perhaps, do our best, there always will be occupations in which a man can not be even approximately contained, into which we should be loath to find that any of our children could be completely packed. It is rare, indeed, that any occupation, stretch and bend it as we may, fully satisfies a given personality. Our quart of holy spirit will not go into the pint measure we have prepared for it.

The school must accordingly provide an overflow. Not only the grammar school, the high school, and college, but the very trade school itself must make deliberate provision for the development in every boy and girl of some method of expression outside of what their probable occupation can afford.

1. One great means of such expression lies ready to our hand. I remember a Swedish sailor on a yacht I was on, who had once saved money and had owned a little schooner of his own, and lost her, and seemed a broken-hearted man, who went on deck every night after his work was done, and played on a tin pipe some of his native music. I suppose that little pipe was all that kept him alive. The Italians have much to teach us in this respect. The thing most terribly left out of our Anglo-Saxon life is the love of beauty. The first thing one notices on going to Italy is that, however poor the people are, they are never without a true esthetic life. The cabman points out 10 you not only the conventional sights, but the sunset that strikes his fancy, and assumes that you as a man and brother must sympathize. If civilization has balked some of our native instincts of fulfilment in their primal form, it has found in science and art fuller and more lasting satisfaction of them than nature ever gave, or than the savage can conceive. Art is the fulfilment of our creative instincts in richest and most elaborated ways; it twines and multiplies together its interpretations of the sense of form, of rhythm, of balance, of speed and space and mystery, up to a climax of which, without its aid, we never could have dreamed. It invents new blends and combinations, with new and excellent results. Art is play in its intensest, most sublimated form. The great artist is everywhere acknowledged as the great genius—that is to say, the interpreter of the inborn instinct of the race. The satis


factions, in science, of the great human instinct of curiosity are, perhaps, as deep as those of art. Science also is play; and, to many men, in its most fascinating form.

“Not in the ground of need, not in bent and painful toil, but in the deep-centered play-instinct of the world, in the joyous mood of the eternal Being, which is always young, Science has her origin and root; and her spirit, which is the spirit of genius in moments of elevation, is but a sublimated form of play, the austere and lofty analogue of the kitten playing with the entangled skein, or of the eaglet sporting with the mountain winds."

2. Finally, there must be fulfilment provided for the team instinct as it stands, some extra rail laid down to keep the 'train from destruction if, after the best we can do to give it the right list, and to straighten the track, the curve still proves too sharp. Protean as our nature is, much as we shall learn in the way of substituting a newer fulfilment for the old, there will still remain much vital force, committed to expression in the ancient way, and that must find such expression—whether legally or in the form of mischief and law-breaking—or run to waste. Provision for team expression of the ancient physical sort must still be made. Our playgrounds must be kept open at those hours when the younger children do not need them; in the late afternoon, and in the evening, by electric light, for skating and football. There must be places provided where the young men can meet in the evenings, and opportunity for quiet games and for theatricals. Long walks, and hare and hound runs, can do much to satisfy the gang impulse on its raiding side.

Get the child into the job; modify the job to fit the eternal human nature in the child; provide an overflow: these constitute my prescription for mending the dislocation now caused in youthful lives by the side-stepping of civilization from nature's path.

JOSEPH LEE Boston, Mass.

* Mathematics, a pamphlet by Professor Cassius Jackson Keyser of Columbia University. (Columbia University Press, New York, 1907.)





In the October number of the EDUCATIONAL REVIEW we discust the relations of the state to non-urban high schools in Massachusetts and New York. The present paper will describe the local organization and management of high schools in places with a population of less than 8,000.

The local unit in Massachusetts is the town or city, the county having nothing to do with education except to maintain and manage truant schools.

The town meeting determines the size of the appropriation for schools. Their management is by law vested in an elected school committee, which has “ the

general charge and superintendence of all the public schools," and may even exceed the appropriation. The actual administration, however, is delegated to the superintendent of schools, who has no specific powers except such as are given him by the school committee.

In New York the local unit for education is either the common school district, the union free school district, or the chartered city. Altho common school districts sometimes open high schools, they seem to have no legal authority to do so; hence it is with the union free school district that we are especially concerned in the study of non-urban high schools. As far as possible the people manage the school affairs in primary assemblages; but because of the growth of population and of school business, the board of education of necessity has greater powers than the trustees of a common school district. The board of education consists of from three to nine members, one-third of whom are elected each year. It employs duly licensed teachers and fixes their salaries; makes rules of

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