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rental legacy' to a much-loved son, under the title of “ Medical Ethics, or a Code of Institutes and Precepts, adapted to the professional conduct of physicians and surgeons, published in 1803, is a monument of his professional integrity, in which, while he depicted those excellencies of the medical character which he approved in theory, he unconsciously drew the portrait of himself, and described those which he every day exemplified in practice."
PERCY (THOMAS), a late learned prelate, a descendant of the ancient earls of Northumberland, was born at Bridgenorth in Shropshire, in 1728, and educated at Christ church, Oxford. 11. July 1753 he took the degree of M.A.; and in 1756 he was presented by that college to the vicarage of Easton Mauduit, in Northamptonshire, which he held with the rectory of Wilbye, in the same county, given him by the earl of Sussex. In 1761 he began his literary career, by publishing “ Han Kiou Chouan, a translation from the Chinese; which was followed, in 1762, by a collection of “Chinese Miscellanies," and in 1763 by “Five Pieces of Runic Poetry,” translated from the Icelandic language. In 1764 he published a new version of the “ Song of Solomon,” with a commentary and annotations. The year following he published the “ Reliques of Antient English Poetry," a work which constitutes an æra in the history of English literature in the eighteenth century. Perhaps the perusal of a folio volume of ancient manuscripts given to the bishop by a friend in early life (from which he afterwards made large extracts in the “ Reliques,”') led his mind to those studies in which he so eminently distinguished himself. It appears likewise that Shenstone encouraged him in publishing the “ Reliques.” The same year he published " A Key to the New Testament,” a concise manual for Students of Sacred Literature, which has been adopted in the universities, and often reprinted. After the publication of the “Reliques," he was invited by the late duke and duchess of Northumberland to reside with them as their domestic chaplain. In 1769 he published “A Sermon preached before the Sons of the Clergy at St. Paul's." In 1770 he conducted “ The Northumberland Household Book” through the press; the same year he published “The Hermit of Warkworth," and a translation
1 Life prefixed to his Works, --Gent. Mag. 1804.
of Mallet's “ Northern Antiquities," with notes. A second edition of the “Reliques of Ancient Poetry” was published in 1775, a third in 1794, and a fourth in 1814. In 1769 he was nominated chaplain in ordinary to bis majesty ; in 1778 he was promoted to the deanery of Carlisle ; and in 1782 to the bishopric of Dromore in Ireland, where he constantly resided, promoting the instruction and comfort of the poor with unremitting attention, and superintending the sacred and civil interests of the diocese, with vigilance and assiduity; revered and beloved for his piety, liberality, benevolence, and hospitality, by persons of every rank and religious denomination. Under the loss of sight, of which he was gradually deprived some years before his death, he steadily maintained his habitual cheerfulness ; and in his last painful illness he displayed such fortitude and strength of mind, such patience and resignation to the divine will, and expressed such heartfelt thankfulness for the goodness and mercy shewn to him in the course of a long and happy life, as were truly impressive and worthy of that pure Christian spirit, in bim so eminently conspi
His only son died in 1783. Two daughters survive him; the eldest is married to Samuel Isted, esq. of Ecton, in Northamptonshire; and the youngest to the hon. and rev. Pierce Meade, archdeacon of Dromore. In 1777 the rev. John Bowle addressed a printed letter to Dr. Percy, announcing a new and classical edition of “ Don Quixote." In 1780 Mr. Nichols was indebted to bim for many useful communications for the “ Select Collection of Miscellany Poems.” When elevated to the mitre, Mr. Nichols was also under further obligations in the “ History of Hinckley," 1782. In 1786 the edition of the Tatler, in six volumes, small 8vo, was benefited by the hints suggested by bishop Percy to the rev. Dr. Calder, the learned and industrious annotator and editor of those volumes. The subsequent editions of the Spectator and Guardian were also improved by some of his lordship's notes. Between 1760 and 1764, Dr. Percy bad proceeded very far at the press with an admirable edition of “Surrey's Poems," and also with a good edition of the Works of Villiers duke of Buckingham ; both which, from a variety of causes, remained many years unfinished in the warehouse of Mr. Tonson in the Savoy; but were resumed in 1795, and nearly brought to a conclusion, when the whole impression of both works was unfortunately consumed by the fire in Red Lion Passage in 1808. His lordship died at his episcopal palace, Dromore, on Sept. 30, 1811, in his eighty-third year. So much of his life had passed in the literary world, strictly so called, that authentic memoirs of his life would form an interesting addition to our literary history, but nothing has yet appeared from the parties most able to contribute such information. The preceding particulars we believe to be correct, as far as they go, but we cannot offer them as satisfactory."
PEREFIXE (HARDOUIN DE BEAUMONT DE), a celebrated archbishop of Paris, and master of the Sorbonne, was son of a steward of the household to cardinal Richelieu, who took care of his education. He distinguished himself as a student, was admitted doctor of the house and society of the Sorbonne, preached with great applause, and was appointed preceptor to Louis XIV. and afterwards bishop of Rhodes, but resigned this bishopric because he could not reside in his diocese. In 1664, M. de Perefixe was made archbishop of Paris ; and, soon after, by the advice of father Annat, a Jesuit, published a mandate for the pure and simple signature of the formulary of Alexander VJI. His distinction between divine faith and human faith, made much noise, and was attacked by the celebrated Nicole. His attempt also to make the nuns of Port-Royal sign the formulary, met with great resistance, which occasioned many publications against him; but his natural disposition was extremely mild, and it was with the utmost reluctance that he forced himself to proceed against these celebrated nuns.
He died December 31, 1670, at Paris. He had been admitted a member of the French academy in 1654. His works are, an excellent “ Hist. of K. Henry IV.” Amst. 1661, 12mo.
This and the edition of 1664 are scarce and in much request, but that of 1749 is more common. Some writers pretend that Mezerai was the real author of this history, and that M. de Perefixe only adopted it; but they bring no proofs of their assertion. lished also a book, entitled “ Institutio Principis," 1647, 16to, containing a collection of maxims relative to the duties of a king in his minority.”
PERGOLESI (JOHN BAPTIST), one of the most excellent of the Italian composers, was born at Casoria in the
Gent. Mag. vol. LXXXI.-Boswell's Life of Johason. Nichols's Bowyer. % Moreri.Dict. Hist.
He pubkingdom of Naples, in 1704; and was educated at Naples under Gaetano Greco, a very famous musician of that time. The prince of San-Agliano, or Stigliano, becoming acquainted with the talents of young Pergolesi, took him under his protection, and, from 1730 to 1734, procured him employment in the new theatre at Naples, where his operas had prodigious success. He then visited Rome, for which place his “Olympiade" was composed, and there performed, but was by no means applauded as it deserved; after which he returned to Naples, and falling into a consumptive disorder, died in 1737, at the premature age of thirty-three. It is not true, as some authors have asserted, that he was poisoned by some of his rivals, nor indeed was the success of his productions sufficiently great to render him an object of envy. His fame was posthumous. From the style of his composition, the Italians have called him the Domenichino of music. Ease, united with deep knowledge of harmony, and great richness of melody, forms the characteristic of his music. It expresses the passions with the very voice of nature, and speaks to the soul by the natural force of its effects. It has been thought, by some, of too melancholy a cast, which might arise, perhaps, from the depression produced by infirmity of constitution. His principal works are, 1. The “ Stabat Mater,” usually considered as his most perfect work, and much better known than any other, in this country. 2. Another famous mass, beginning, “ Dixit et laudate,” first heard with rapture at Naples, soon after his return from Rome.
3. The mass called “Salve Regina,” the last of his productions, composed at Torre del Greco, a very short time before his death, but as much admired as any of his compositions. 4. His opera of “Olympiade," set to the words of Metastasio.
5. “ La serva Padrona,” a comic opera. 6. His famous cantata of “ Orfeo e Euridice.” The greater part of his other compositions were formed for pieces written in the Neapolitan dialect, and unintelligible to the rest of Italy. Pergolesi's first and principal instrument was the violin. Dr. Burney says, that “ he had, perhaps, more energy of genius, and a finer tact, than any of his predecessors; for though no labour appears in his productions, even for the church, where the parts are thin, and frequently in unison, yet greater and more beautiful effects are often produced in the performance than are promised in the score.”_" The church-music of Pergolesi has been
censured by his countryman, Padre Martini, as well as by some English musical critics, for too much levity of movement, and a dramatic cast, even in some of his slow airs ; while, on the contrary, Eximeno says, that he never heard, and perhaps never shall hear, sacred music accompanied with instruments, so learned and so divine, as the Stabat Mater.” Dr. Burney thinks it very doubtful whether the sonatas ascribed to this author are genuine; but observes, that the progress since made in instrumental music, ought not, 'at all events, to diminish the reputation of Pergolesi, “ which,” he adds, “ was not built on productions of that kind, but on vocal compositions, in which the clearness, simplicity, truth, and sweetness of expression, justly entitle him to supremacy over all his predecessors, and contemporary rivals; and to a niche in the temple of fame, among the great improvers of the art ; as, if not the founder, the principal polisher of a style of composition both for the church and stage, which has been constantly cultivated by his successors; and which, at the distance of half a century from the short period in which he flourished, still reigns throughout Europe.” The learned historian, for this reason, justly considers the works of Pergolesi as forming a great æra in modern music.'
PERIERS, or PERRIERS (BONAVENTURE DES), an old French satirist, was born at Arnay-le-Duc, a small town of Burgundy, about the end of the fifteenth century. He went through his early studies with credit, and was advanced to the place of valet-de-chambre'to the queen of Navarre, sister of Francis I. About this time a considerable freedom of opinion prevailed at court, and the disputes of certain theologians had occasionally furnished subjects for ridicule. Des Periers, who was young and lively, wrote his celebrated work entitled “Cymbalum mundi,” in which the divines of the time found nothing but atheism and impiety, while others considered the satire as general and legitimate. A modern reader will perhaps discover more folly and extravagance than either impiety or wit. : The work, however, was prohibited by an order of council soon after it appeared ; and, according to De Bure and Brunet, but one copy is known to exist of the original edition. Des Periers did not lose his situation at court, but continued in the same favour with the queen of Navarre, and is sup
· Hawkins and Burney's Hist. of Music;--and Burney in Rees's Cyclopædia.