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scattered forces of the apanages to make head | Instantly they emerged from the forest which against the common enemy. The two armies, had concealed them from the enemy, and fell each 150,000 strong, met at Koulikoff, on the with the utmost fury on the Moguls. The yth September, 1378, on which day, four hun-effect of this unforeseen attack was decisive. dred and thirty-four years afterwards, Napoleon Astonished at the vehement onset, by troops and Kutasoff commenced the dreadful strug- fresh and in the best order, the Tartars fled, gle at Borodino.

and their chief, Mamia, who, from an elevated “On the 6th September, the army approached spot beheld the rout of his host, exclaimed, the Don, and the princes and boyards delib-The God of the Christian is powerful!' and erated whether they should retire across the joined in the general flight. The Russians river, so as to place it between them and the pursued the Moguls to the Metcha, in endea-enemy, or await them where they stood, in vouring to cross which vast numbers were order to cut off all retreat from the cowardly, slain or drowned, and the camp, with an imand compel them to conquer or die. Dmitri mense booty, fell into the hands of the victhen ascended a mound, from which he could tors.”-Vol. v. pp. 79--82. survey his vast army. The hour of God, This great victory, however, did not decide said he, ‘has sounded. In truth no one could the contest, and nearly a hundred years contemplate that prodigious multitude of “men elapsed before the independence of Russia and horses; those innumerable battalions from the Tartars was finally established. Not ranged in the finest order; the thousands of long after this triumph, as after Boradino, banners, and tens of thousands of arms glitter- Moscow was taken and burnt by the Moguls; ing in the sun, and hear the cry repeated by a the account of which must, for the present, hundred and fifty thousand voices,-'Great close our extracts. God, give us the victory over our enemies, “No sooner were the walls of Moscow eswithout having some confidence in the result. caląded by the Tartars, than the whole inhaSuch was the emotion of the prince, that his bitants, men, women, and children, became eyes filled with tears; and dismounting, he the prey of the cruel conquerors. Knowing knelt down, and stretching out his arm to the that great numbers had taken refuge in the . black standard, on which was represented our stone churches, which would not burn, they Saviour's figure, he prayed fervently for the cut down the gates with hatchets, and found salvation of Russia. Then mounting his horse, immense treasures, brought into these asyhe said to those around, My well-beloved lums from the adjoining country. Satiated brothers and companions in arms, it is by with carnage and spoil, the Tartars next set your exploits this day, that you will live in fire to the town, and drove a weeping crowd the memory of man, or obtain the crown of of captives, whom they had selected for slaves, immortality'

from the massacre into the fields around. “Soon the Tartar squadrons were seen What terms,' say the contemporary annalists, slowly advancing, and ere long they covered can paint the deplorable state in which Mosthe whole country to the eastward, as far as cow was then left? That populous capital, the eye could reach. Great as was the host resplendent with riches and glory, was deof the Russians, they were outnumbered con- stroyed in a single day! Nothing remained siderably by the Moguls. His, generals be- but a mass of ruins and ashes; the earth sought Dmitri to retire, alleging the duty of a covered with burning remains and drenched commander-in-chief to direct the movements, with blood, corpses half burnt, and churches not hazard his person like a private soldier; wrapt in flames. The awful silence was but he replied, "No, you will suffer wherever interrupted only by the groans of the unhappy you are: if I live, follow me, if I die avenge wretches, who, crushed beneath the falling me. Shortly after the battle commenced, and houses, called aloud for some one to put a was the most desperate ever fought between period to their sufferings."-Vol. v. p. 101. the Russians and the Tartars. Over an ex- Such was Russia at its lowest point of detent of ten wersts, (seven miles,) the earth was pression in 1378. The steps by which it stained with the blood of the Christians and regained its independence and became again Infidels. In some quarters the Russians great and powerful, will furnish abundant broke the Moguls; in others they yielded to subject for another article on Karamsin's Motheir redoubtable antagonists. In the centre dern History. some young battalions gave way, and spread We know not what impression these ex the cry that all was lost: the enemy rushed in tracts may have made on our readers, but or at the opening this afforded, and forced their ourselves they have produced one of the most way nearly to the standard of the Grand profound description. Nothing can be so Prince, which was only preserved by the de- interesting as to trace the infancy and provoted heroism of his guard. Meanwhile gressive growth of a great nation as of a Prince Vladimir Andreiwitch, who was placed great individual. In both we can discover the with a chosen body of troops in ambuscade, slow and gradual training of the mind to its was furious at being the passive spectator of ultimate destiny, and the salutary influence of so desperate a conflict in which he was not adversity upon both in strengthening the permitted to bear a part. At length, at eight character, and calling forth the energies. It at night, the Prince of Volhynia, who observed is by the slowest possible degrees that nations with an experienced eye the movements of the are trained to the heroic character, the patri two armies, exclaimed, My friends, our time otic spirit, the sustained effort, which is ne. nas come ! and let the whole loose upon the cessary to durable elevation. Extraordinary enemy, now somewhat disordered by success. but fleeting enthusiasm, the genius of a sin

gie man, the conquests of a single nation, may | ablest leaders, acting and receding upon each often elevate a power like that of Alexander, other through a long course of ages. It was in ancient, or Napoleon in modern times, to almost wholly unknown to the ancient Greeks; the very highest pitch of worldly greatness. it was first struck out, at a period when the But no reliance can be placed on the stability recollections of past freedom contrasted with of such empires; they invariably sink as fast the realities of present' servitude, by the as they had risen, and leave behind them no- mighty genius of Tacitus, and the sagacity of thing but a brilliant, and, generally, awful Machiavelli, the depth of Bacon, the philosoimpression on the minds of succeeding ages.phy of Hume, the glance of Robertson, and If we would seek for the only sure foundations the wisdom of Guizot, have been necessary to of lasting greatness, we shall find them in the bring the science even to the degree of matupersevering energy of national character; in rity which it has as yet attained. But in the industry with which wealth has been ac- brilliancy of description, animation of style, cumulated, and the fortitude with which suf- and fervour of eloquence, Karamsin is not exfering has been endured through a long course ceeded by any historian in modern times. The of ages; and, above all, in the steady and con- pictures he has given of the successive tinued influence of strong religious impres- changes in Russian manners, institutions, and sions, which, by influencing, men in every government, though hardly so frequent as important crisis by a sense of duty, has ren- could have been wished, prove that he has in dered them superior to all the storms of for him the spirit of philosophy; while in the. tune. And the influence of these principles is animation of his descriptions of every impor. nowhere more clearly to be traced than in the tant event, is to be seen the clearest indication steady progress and present exalted position that he is gifted with the eye of poetic genius. of the Russian empire.

Russia may well be proud of such a work, Of Karamsin's merits as an author, a con- and it is disgraceful to the literature of this ception may be formed from the extracts we country that no English translation of it has have already given. We must not expect in yet appeared. We must, in conclusion, add, the historian of a despotic empire, even when that the elevated sentiments with which it recording the most distant events, the just dis- abounds, as well as the spirit of manly piety crimination, the enlightened views, the fearless and fervent patriotism in which it is conopinions, which arise, or can be hazarded only ceived, diminish our surprise at the continued in a free country. The philosophy of history progress of an empire which was capable of is the slow growth of the opinions of all differ- producing such a writer. ent classes of men, each directed by their

EFFECTS OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION OF 1830. *

Ever since the late French Revolution broke time, or foresight; that this new constitution out, and at a time when it carried with it the was announced to the provinces by the telewishes, and deluded the judgment, of a large graph, before they were even aware that a and respectable portion of the British public, civil war had broken out; that the Citizen we have never ceased to combat the then pre- King was thus not elected by France, but imvailing opinion on the subject. We asserted posed upon its inhabitants by the mob of Paris; from the very outset that it was calculated to that this convulsion prostrated the few remaindo incredible mischief to the cause of real ing bulwarks of order and liberty which the freedom; that it would throw back for a very prior revolution had left standing, and nothing long period the march of tranquil liberty ; that remained to oppose the march of revolution, it restored at once the rule of the strongest; and the devouring spirit of Jacobinism, but and, breaking down the superiority of intellect the force of military despotism. That in his and knowledge by the mere force of numbers, way no chance existed of liberty being ultiwould inevitably and rapidly lead, through a mately established in France, because that inbitter period of suffering, to the despotism of estimable blessing depended on the fusion of the sword.

all the interests of society in the fabric of goWe founded our opinion upon the obvious vernment, and the prevention of the encroachfacts, that the Revolution was effected by the ments of each class by the influence of the populace of Paris, by the treachery of the others; and such mutual balancing was imarmy, and the force of the barricades, without possible in a country where the whole middling any appeal to the judgment or wishes of the ranks were destroyed, and nothing remained remainder of France; that a constitution was but tumultuous masses of mankind on the one framed, a king chosen, and a government esta- hand, and an indignant soldiery on the other. blished at the Hotel de Ville, by a junto of en- We maintained that the convulsion at Paris thusiastic heads, without either deliberation, was a deplorable catastrophe for the cause of

freedom in all other countries; that by preci * Seize Mois, ou La Revolution et La Revolutionaires, pitating the democratic party everywhere int“. par N. A. Salvandy, auteur de l'Histoire de la Pologne. Paris, i831.--Blackwood's Magazine, June, 1832. revolutionary measures or revolutionary er

cesses, it would inevitably rouse the conserva- revolt? Who has spread famine and desolative interests to defend themselves; that in the tion through its beautiful provinces, and strugglé, real liberty would be equally endan- withered its industry with a blast worse than gered by the fury of its insane friends and the the simoom of the desert; and sown on the hostility of its aroused enemies; and that the theatre of British glory those poisoned teeth, tranquil spread of freedom, which had been so which must spring up in armed battalions, and conspicuous since the fall of Napoleon, would again in the end involve Europe in the whirlbe exchanged for the rude conflicts of military wind of war? The revolutionary leaders; the power with popular ambition.

revolutionary press of France and England; Few, we believe, comparatively speaking, the government of Louis Philippe, and the reof our readers, fully went along with these forming ministers of this country; those who views when they were first brought forward; betrayed the interests of their country in the but how completely have subsequent events pursuit of democratic support; who dismemdemonstrated their justice; and how entirely bered the dominions of a faithful ally, and has the public mind in both countries changed drove him back at the cannon mouth, when on as to the character of this convulsion since it. the point of regaining his own capital; who took place! Freedom has been unknown in surrendered the barrier of Marlborough and France since the days of the Barricades; be-Wellington, and threw open the gates of Eutween the dread of popular excess on the one rope to republican ambition after they had been hand, and the force of military power on the closed by British heroism. Who are answer. other, the independence of the citizens has able to God and man for the present distracted been completely overthrown; Paris has been state of the British empire? Who have susperiodically the scene of confusion, riot, and pended its industry, and shaken its credit, and anarcnv; the revolt of Lyons has only been withered its resources? Who have spread extinguished by Marshal Soult at the head of bitterness and distrust through its immense as large an army as fought the Duke of Wel- population, and filled its poor with expectations lington at Toulouse, and at as great an expense that can never be realized, and its rich with of human life as the revolt of the Barricades; terrors that can never be allayed? Who have the army, increased from 200,000 to 600,000 thrown the torch of discord into the bosom of men, has been found barely adequate to the an united people; and habituated the lower maintenance of the public tranquillity; 40,000 orders to license, and inflated them with arromen, incessantly stationed round the capital, gance, and subjugated thought and wisdom by have, almost every month, answered the cries the force of numbers, and arrayed against the of the people for bread by charges of caval- concentrated education and wealth of the na: ry, and all the severity of military execution; tion the masses of its ignorant and deluded the annual expenditure has increased from inhabitants? The reforming ministers; the 40,000,0001. to 60,000,0001.; fifty millions ster- revolutionary press of England; those who ling of debt has been incurred in eighteen ascended to power amidst the transports of the months; notwithstanding a great increase of Barricades; who incessantly agitated the peotaxation, the revenue has declined a fourth in ple to uphold their falling administration, and its amount, with the universal suffering of the have incurred the lasting execration of manpeople; and a pestilential disorder following kind, by striving to array the numbers of the as usual in the train of human violence and nation against its intelligence, and subjugate misery, has fastened with unerring certainty the powers of the understanding by the fury on the wasted scene of political agitation, and of the passions. swept off twice as many men in a few weeks To demonstrate that these statements are not in Paris alone, as fell under the Russian can- overcharged as to the present condition of non on the field of Borodino.

France, and the practical consequence of the Externally, have the effects of the three glo- Revolution of the Barricades, we subjoin the rious days been less deplorable? Let Poland following extract from an able and independanswer; let Belgium answer; let the British ent reforming journal. empire answer. Who precipitated a gallant “If a government is to be judged of by the nation on a gigantic foe; and roused their hot condition of the people, as a tree by its fruits, blood by the promises of sympathy and sup- the present government of France must be port, and stirred up by their emissaries the re- deemed to be extremely deficient in those quavolutionary spirit in the walls of Warsaw ? | lities of statesmanship which are calculated to Who is answerable to God and man for having inspire public confidence and make a people occasioned its fatal revolt, and buoyed its happy-for public discontent, misery, commotion, chiefs with hopes of assistance, and stimu- and bloodshed, have been the melancholy chalated them to refuse all offers of accommoda- racteristics of its sway. If the ministry of tion, and delivered them up, unaided, unbe- Louis Philippe were positively devoted to the friended, to an infuriated conqueror? The interests of the ex-royal family, they could not revolutionary leaders; the revolutionary press take more effective steps than they have hitherto of France and England; the government of done to make the vices of the family be forLouis Philippe, and the reforming ministers gotten, and to reinforce the ranks of the party of England; those, who, knowing that they which labours incessantly for their recall. could render them no assistance, allowed their "With short intervals of repose, Paris has journals, uncontradicted, to stimulate them to been a scene of emeutes and disturbances which resistance, and delude them to the last with would disgrace a semi-civilized country, and the hopes of foreign intervention. Who is to this sort of intermittent turbulence it has answerable to God and man for the Belgian | been doomed ever since Louis Philippe ascended the

up

throne, but more especially since Casimir Perier porters and the crown, who, although it long was intrusted with the reins of responsible go- refused them its arms, often lent them its vernment. It is a melancholy fact that, under shield. The revolutionary spirit has also a the revolutionized government of France, more powerful ally, which communicates to it force blood has been shed in conflicts between the from its inherent energy. This ally is the depeople and the military, than during the fifteen mocracy which now reigns as a despot over France; years of the Restoration, if we except the three that is, without moderation, without wisdom, days of resistance to the ordinances in Paris, without perceiving that it reigns only for the which ended in the dethronement of Charles behoof of the spirit of disorder—that terrible the Tenth.

ally which causes it to increase its own power, “Yet we do not know if we ought to except and will terminate by destroying it. It is time the carnage of those three days, for we recol- to speak to the one and the other a firm lanlect having seen a communication from Lyons, guage; to recall to both principles as old as soon after the commotions in that city, in the world, which have never yet been violated which it was stated that a greater number of with impunity by nations, and which succes. persons, both citizens and soldiers, fell in the sively disappear from the midst of us, stifled conflict between the workmen and the military, under the instinct of gross desires, rash pasthan were slain during the memorable three sions, pusillanimous concessions, and subverdays of Paris. Let us add to this the slaughter sive laws. Matters are come to such a point, at Grenoble, where the people were again that no small courage is now required to unvictorious, and the sabrings and shootings fold these sacred principles; and yet all the which have taken place in minor conflicts in objects of the social union, the bare progress several towns and departments, and it will be of nations, the dignity of the human race, the found that the present government maintains cause of freedom itself, is at stake. That its power at a greater cost of French blood liberty is to be seen engraven at the gate of all than that which it has superseded.” -Morning our cities, emblazoned on all our monuments, Herald.

floating on all our standards; but, alas! it We have long and anxiously looked for some will float there in vain if the air which we publication from a man of character and lite- breathe is charged with anarchy, as with a rary celebrity of the liberal party in France, mortal contagion, and if that scourge marks which might throw the same light on the con- daily with its black mark some of our maxims, sequences of its late 'revolution as the work of of our laws, of our powers, while it is incesM. Dumont has done on the proceedings of the santly advancing to the destruction of society Constituent Assembly. Such a work is now itself.” before us, from the able and eloquent pen of “What power required the sacrifice of the M. Salvandy, to whose strikingo history of Po- peerage ? Let the minister answer it, he said land we have in a recent number requested it again and again with candour and courage. the attention of our readers. He has always It is to popular prejudice, democratic passion, the been a liberal, opposed in the Chamber of De- intoxication of demagogues, the blind hatred of every puties all the arbitrary acts of the late govern- species of superiority, that this immense sacrifice has ment, and is a decided defender of the Revolu- been offered. I do not fear to assert, that a nation of July. From such a character the tes- tion which has enforced such a sacrifice, on timony borne to its practical effects is of the such altars; a nation which could demand or highest value.

consent to such a sacrifice, has declared itself “ The Restoration,” says he, “bore in its bo- in the face of the world ignorant of freedom, som an enemy, from whose attacks France and perhaps incapable of enjoying it. required incessant protection. That enemy “That was the great battle of our revoluwas the counter revolutionary spirit; in other tionary party. It has gained it. It is no longer words, the passion to deduce without reserve by our institutions that we can be defended all its consequences from the principle of legi- from its enterprises and its folly. The good timacy; the desire to overturn, for the sake of sense of the public is now our last safeguard. the ancient interests, the political system esta- But let us not deceive ourselves. Should the blished by the Revolution, and consecrated by public spirit become deranged, we are undone. the Charter and a thousand oaths. It was the It depends in future on a breath of opinion, cancer which consumed it; the danger was whether anarchy should not rise triumphant pointed out for fifteen years, and at length it in the midst of the powers of government. devoured it.

Mistress of the ministry by the elections, it The Revolution of July also bore in its would speedily become so of the Upper House, entrails another curse: this was the revolu- by the new creations which it would force upon the tionary spirit, evoked from the bloody chaos crown.' The Upper House will run the risk, at of our first Revolution, by the sound of the every quinquennial renewal of its numbers, of rapid victory of the people over the royalty becoming a mere party assemblage: an asThat fatal spirit has weighed upon the desti- sembly elected at second hand by the Chamber of nies of France, since the Revolution of 1830, Deputies and the electoral colleges. The ruling like its evil genius. I write to illustrate its party henceforth, instead of coming to a comeffects; and I feel I should ill accomplish my promise with it, which constitutes the balance task if I did not at the same time combat its of the three powers, and the basis of a constitudoctrines.

tional monarchy, will only require to incorporate “The counter-revolution was no ways for itself with it. At the first shock of parties, the midable, but in consequence of the inevitable revolutionary faction will gain this immense understanding which existed between its sup- I advantage; it will emerge from the bosom of

our institutions as from its eyrie, and reign | have the courage to condemn its premises, or over France with the wings of terror.

to resign yourself to see the terrible logic of “In vain do the opposing parties repeat that party, the austere arms of fortune, deduce its the Revolution of 1830 does not resemble that consequences; otherwise, you plant a tree, and of 1789. That is the very point at issue; and refuse to eat its fruits; you form a volcano, I will indulge in all your hopes, if you are not and expect to sleep in peace by its side. as rash as your predecessors, as ready to de- “With the exception of the Constituent Asstroy, as much disposed to yield to popular sembly, where all understandings were fasciwishes, that is, to the desire of the demagogues who nated, where there reigned a sort of sublime direct them. But can I indulge the hope, that a delirium, all the subsequent legislatures durpeople will not twice in forty years commence ing the Revolution did evil, intending to do the same career of faults and misfortunes, good. The abolition of the monarchy was a when you who have the reins of power, are concession of the Legislative Assembly; the already beginning the same errors? I must head of the king an offering of the Convention. say, the Revolution of 1830 runs the same risk The Girondists in the Legislative Body, in suras its predecessor, if it precipitates its chariot rendering the monarchy, thought they were to the edge of the same precipices. Every- doing the only thing which could save order. where the spirit of 1791 will bear the same Such was their blindness, that they could not see fruits. In heaven as in earth, it can engender that their own acts had destroyed order, and its only the demon of anarchy.

last shadow vanished with the fall of the throne. “The monarchy of the Constituent Assem- The Plain, or middle party in the Convention, by bly, that monarchy which fell almost as soon surrendering Louis to the executioner, thought as it arose, did not perish, as is generally sup- to satiate the people with that noble blood; and posed, from an imperfect equilibrium of power, they were punished for it, by being

compelled a bad definition of the royal prerogative, or the to give their own, and that of all France. It weakness of the throne. No-the vice lay was on the same principle that in our times deeper; it was in its entrails. The old crown the peerage has fallen the victim of deplorable conof England was not adorned with more jewels cessions. May that great concession, which than that ephemeral crown of the King of the embraces more interests, and destroys more French. But the crown of England possesses conservative principles than are generally supin the social, not less than the political state posed, which shakes at once all the pillars of of England, powerful support, of which France the social order, not prepare for those who is totally destitute. A constitution without have occasioned it unavailing regret and deguarantees there reposed on a society which served punishment! was equally destitute of them, which was as “The divine justice has a sure means of movable as the sands of Africa, as easily punishing the exactions, the passions, and the raised by the breaths of whirlwinds. The Re-, weakness which subvert society. It consists in volution which founded that stormy society, allowing the parties who urge on the torrent, to reap founded it on false and destructive principles. the consequences of their actions. Thus they go Not content with levelling to the dust the an-on, withouť disquieting themselves as to the cient hierarchy, the old privileges of the orders, career on which they have entered; without the corporate rights of towns, which time had once looking behind them; thinking only on doomed to destruction, it levelled with the same the next step they have to make in the revolustroke the most legitimate guarantees as the tionary progress, and always believing that it most artificial distinctions. It called the masses will be the last. But the weight of committed of mankind not to equality, but to supremacy.

faults drags them on, and they perish under the “The constitution was established on the rock of Sisyphus. same principles. In defiance of the whole ex- “I will not attempt to conceal my sentiperience of ages, the Assembly disdained every ments; the political and moral state of my intermediate or powerful institution which was country fills me with consternation. When founded on those conservative principles, without you contemplate its population in general, so attention to which no state on earth has ever yet calm, so laborious, so desirous to enjoy in flourished. In a word, it called the masses not peace the blessings which the hand of God has to liberty, but to power.

poured so liberally into the bosom of our beauAfter having done this, no method re- tiful France, you are filled with hope, and conmained to form a counterpoise to this terrible template with the eye of hope the future state power. A torrent had been created without of our country. But if you direct your look to bounds-an ocean without a shore. By the the region where party strife combats; if you eternal laws of nature, it was furious, indomi- contemplate the incessant efforts to excite in table, destructive, changeable; leaving nothing the masses of the population all the bad passtanding but the scaffolds on which royalty sions of the social order; to rouse them afresh and rank, and all that was illustrious in talent when they are becoming dormant; to enrol and virtue, speedily fell; until the people, dis- them in regular array when they are floating; abused by suffering, and worn out by passion, to make, for the sake of contending interests, resigned their fatal sovereignty into the hands one body, and march together to one prey, of a great man. Such it was, such it will be, which they will dispute in blood; how is it to the end of time. The same vices, the same possible to mistake, in that delirium of passcourges, the same punishments.

sion, in that oblivion of the principles of order, “When you do not wish to fall into an abyss, in that forgetfulness of the conditions on which you must avoid the path which leads to it. it depends, the fatal signs which precede the When you condemna principle, you must most violent convulsions! A people in whose

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