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this to have been, had perished utterly conquest of that country, until in the from the memory of the world, and reign of Mahmoud of Ghazni, an old the lethe-waters of time had washed chronicle was discovered (compiled every vestige of it away. But such by the order of Yezdjird, the last king is not the case : the national poem of of Persia), which preserved these Persia does really preserve it, and ballads in a prose form, as the annals with wonderful exactness, if we only of Pictor and Cincius preserved those consider for a moment the vicissitudes of ancient Rome. Firdusi was emto which it has been exposed. Every ployed to remodel them into a poetic trace of the old ballad-literature of form, and this he has done in his Persia was believed to have been de- Shahnameh, from which we now prostroyed by the Mahometans after their ceed to extract the story which tells
HOW GUSHTASP WOOED HIS BRIDE,
The King of Rúm cast about in his mind,
All blossoming with the colours and sweet odours of hope,
Gushtasp had fled from his father's kinglum, who had continually shewn a great partiality for his children by another wife ; and Gushtasp and his brother Zarir (Hystaspes and Zariadres) had received a great many proofs of it; the former therefore left the country and fled to Rúm, and lodged there with a poor husbandman.
Slowly then walked out of her father's hall
And sat them down there, unseen and unknown. Such is a literal translation of this was preserved in the prose chronicle beautiful story, the last vestige of that of king Yezdljird, and resuscitated legend, which was so often sculptured from oblivion under the auspices of (Chares tells us) in the temples and Mahmoud ; and it then met with a palaces of ancient Persia ; the fair poet whose genius was worthy of it, Odatis and her love lie embalmed in and he has given it a place in his imthe records of her husband's country, mortal Shahnameh. Some thirteen or and time has had but little power to fourteen centuries had passed since efface the lineaments of her history. that ballad was first sung, and it had The ancient ballad, which was so failed away from the nation's memory often sung at the royal banquets, * and was forgotten ; but, as Keats says, and became such a national favourite,
A thing of beauty is a joy for ever,
Firdusi found the materials as fresh astray by the similarity of the name and living as ever; and he hus, as and of some of the incidents recorded usual, entered into all the spirit of the of both. To all who study the Shahlegend. The story is preserved in all nameh, and compare it with other its essential particulars; thus the national collections of legends, I think dream is the same in both, and so too it will be evident that Gushtasp, as is the whole history of the princess. he appears there, is compounded of The brothers are changed, and the several heroes who have been merged Persians make Gushtasp the hero in into one; and the actions of each (as stead of Zariadres; but this can easily be we see in the foregoing legend, which accounted for, as Gushtasp, or Hystasa certainly does not belong to Darius,) pes, is the favourite hero of Persian are now so mingled together, that it romance, and the actions of the various is impossible to divide them. A writer persons who bore that name, appear in the April number of the Quarterly to be all ascribed to him, just as was (on the inscriptions which Major Rawdone by the Greeks to their Hercules, linson has so successfully deciphered and by the Ilincius to their Ráma. in Behistan) remarks, -- " The great It is he that is recorded to have up. objection to the common theory of held Zoroaster, and to have propagated Ilyde, Prideaux, &c. which makes the doctrines of the far-famed Zend. Darius llystaspes the Gushtasp of avesta by the sword. Many of his Persian religious fable, is, az has been actions, as related in the Shahnameh, observed (Milman's Gibbon) the seem to belong to the Darius llys. silence of Herodotus; and here again taspes of Grecian history, others per we find the inscriptions, as far as they haps belong to his father llystaspes, † have yet been interpreted, maintaina whom we read so much of in He- ing the same total silence." rodotus. Much of this hero's history But, although it be untrue that certainly does not belong to Darius Gushtasp is entirely Darius, it is on Hystaspes; and Ilyde, and those who the other hand certain that much of have followed him, have been led their history is identical. Fiction is
* Athenæus gives an interesting account of these feasts in the fourth book of his Deipnosophists. He says they were called Tycta in the old Persian language. Τούνυμα δε τώ δείπνο Περσιστί μεν τυκτα, Ελληνιστί δε τέλειον.
+ Hystaspes was not an uncommon name. Thus Zuinger in bis Theatrum Vitæ mentions, though I know not on what authority, “ Hystaspes, antiquissimus Medorum res et vates, cujus vaticiniis Medi usi sunt.'
continually interwoven with it, and the history of that country. Many valuactions of other heroes are borrowed able incidents relating to Darius have to swell the glory of the favourite ; been already rescued from oblivion ; but enough of truth is left to dispel any and we may reasonably trust that, as doubts that might otherwise arise in these investigations proceed, and as our minds. Nor are we without the fresh materials are collected, and fresh hope of ere loug obtaining further in aids to their being used are discovered, formation on this subject. The dis many of the difficulties in the ancient covery of the cuneiform alphabet, and annals of Persia will be explained, and the success of Major Rawlinson and its national legends no longer seem irothers in reading the ancient monu reconcileable with the accounts which mental inscriptions in Persia, will throw we find preserved in the Greek hisan unexpected light on the legendary torians.
E. B. C.
- of it, nis iineen or ince
INSCRIPTION AT ANGORA, IN ASIA MINOR, ILLUSTRATING ANCIENT BRITISH
HISTORY, AND THE CHRONICLES OF ANCIENT BRITAIN AND ITS COINS.
name orded Shahother think ip, as Bed of terged
vhich rius) at it riter terly Rawered reat
FROM this source, through recent fortunately a Greek translation was discoveries, some information is made found on the outside of the same available for Roman history beyond temple, concealed by buildings, which what was before possessed, and some has been given to the public by W. J. for that of Britain. Suetonius informs Hamilton, Esq., Secretary of the Geous that Augustus left his testamentary logical Society, about five years since, papers in five parts or divisions. The though a considerable part remains two first of these were properly his still concealed by a thick wall, and will, in which he appointed his heirs, another part would appear not to have and distributed various legacies. The been copied, from having been too remaining parts were in three rolls, of much defaced. On the whole, enough which the first roll contained direc- has been recovered not only to be of tions for his funeral ; the second was a much use to the antiquary, but also surumary of his public acts during the to form a literary fragment of great whole of his reigu, ordered to be value, it being written in the purest engraved on brass tablets and set up style of the purest era of Latin combefore his mausoleum; and the third position, as we may state with confiwas a statistical account of his empire, dence, the inscription expressing that detailing the amount of public re it was written by the emperor with his venue, the number of soldiers in pay, arrears duc, names of collectors, and Transcripts, though imperfect, of the like.
this ancient relic were obtained as Ilow long the engraved brass tablets long ago as the year 1554. It may at Rome existed we are not informed. be right to trace the gradual comIf they escaped other revolutions, they munication of it to the world from were doubtlessly melted down by the that time down to the date of Mr. Goths, as not a line from them seems Hamilton's discoveries, and to endeato have been preserved. Copies of vour to elucidate the various former them, however, were made for the accounts of it, which will enable us provinces, and such a copy was en more correctly to understand some graved for a temple at Ancyra, now particulars. Augora, the former capital of Asia The celebrated Busequius and his linor, dedi
to Augustus and to friends seem first to have obtained a Rome. The major part of this re- kuowledge of it. Ile thus describes mains still extant, and was published it in his Letters or Travels, edition very faithfully by Chishull, in his 1660, p. 87 (translation): “Here we Antiquitates Ásiaticæ, above a cen saw a very good inscription, being a tury ago. It was, however, much copy of those brass tablets, containing disconnected by chasms, and therefore a summary of his acts, which Augustus its value considerably impaired; but caused to be engraved. We took care
to have it transcribed by our party, as work entitled “ Memoria Cossoniana," far as it could be read. It is on (the 4to. 1695, and by Pitiscus, in his ediwalls of) a building, perhaps formerly tion of Suetonius, 2 vols. 4to. 1714. a prætorium, built of marble, and in But hitherto the transcripts were so its present condition without a roof. imperfect that scarce more than two Half of it is to the right hand as you or three words were given of the sixth enter, half to the left. The heads (of column, which since has been brought each column) are, for the most part, out in such considerable length. Nor entire; the middle parts have many could it have been guessed from any chasms; whilst the lower parts have of the transcripts that there was the been so knocked about with sticks as least mention or reference made to to be illegible.”
Britain in the original ; but soon afterThe next transcript was that of wards this renowned inscription came Verantius. This person, whose proper under the notice of the eminent men appellation was Antoine Verantui, and who traversed Asia Minor in the who was bishop of Agria, otherwise beginning of the eighteenth century, Erlaw, in Hungary, and ambassador Tournefort, Chishull, and Pocock, when from Ferdinand the Second to the the transcript quickly assumed a new Porte, procured it to be transcribed and improved complexion. when passing through Angora. From Our present more correct Latin him it passed to his nepliew Faustus copy seems due to the celebrated Verantius, who gave it to Clusius, Tournefort, who made it in 1701, and secretary to an embassy to the East, gave it to Chishull, whom he met on and he to Leunclavius. Clusius pro- his travels in Asia Minor. Chishull cured it to be verified by two German published it in his Antiquitates Asitravellers, who went to Angora, and aticæ, folio, 1728. This transcript who copied it themselves. On com seems so superior that, though many paring their copies, he could only copies have been taken since, none detect two mistakes in that of Ve- have been printed subsequent to his rantius, and otherwise found his copy time. A french merchant, named the most perfect. The substance of Le Havre, also made a copy, which Clusius' letter on the subject is given had great reputation for correctness, in the second edition of Gruter, in a as Chishull mentions, p. 171 ; but note to Inscription cexxxii., in which whether this last came to his hands, Clusius adds that, in his opinion, there and is incorporated in his copy, he was no probability a better copy would does not clearly inform us. ever be made, the original being wan We have seen that, one hundred tonly injured every day by the bar- and fifty years before, Busequius had barism of the Turks, which was the described the face of the wall on case when the two Germans were which the inscription is engraved as making their copy. It is very sin- being in a ruinous state. In Tournegular that we are not now able to fort's time it must of course have been distinguish the transcript of Busequius still more so. Besides the letters effrom that of Verantius; and Chishull, faced, he says that the whole surface in his Antiquitates Asiatica, p. 170, was full of great holes, like those made pronounces them the same.
by cannon shot. His words are,– The inscription first appeared in “Outre les lettres effacées, tout est print in the edition of Aurelius Victor, plein de grands trous, semblables à by Andreas Schottus, and was com ceux qu'auroient pu faire des boulets mented on by Justus Lipsius. It was de canon.” Voyage du Levant, vol. ii. also printed by Gravius, in his edition p. 447. What was actually removed of Suetonius, 4to. 1691.
of course could not be transcribed, but After Verantius, Daniel Cosson, a of the relics he has made us a full and Dutch merchant, resident at Smyrna, excellent copy. What increases the of cultivated mind and great probity, value is his assurance that the entire who was afterwards murdered, while lines in his transcript correspond with taking a walk near the above place, those of the original, the mutilations by two Algerines, made, in 1689, a to the mutilations, and the chasms to much better copy, published, with the chasms, which is generally true, notes, by James Gronovius, in his though it is not true that the spaces