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this to have been, had perished utterly conquest of that country, until in the from the memory of the world, and reign of Mahmoud of Ghazni, an old the lethe-waters of time had washed chronicle was discovered (compiled every vestige of it away. But such by the order of Yezdjird, the last king is not the case : the national poem of of Persia), which preserved these Persia does really preserve it, and ballads in a prose form, as the annals with wonderful exactness, if we only of Pictor and Cincius preserved those consider for a moment the vicissitudes of ancient Rome. Firdusi was emto which it has been exposed. Every ployed to remodel them into a poetic trace of the old ballad-literature of form, and this he has done in his Persia was believed to have been de- Shahnameh, from which we now prostroyed by the Mahometans after their ceed to extract the story which tells


The King of Rúm cast about in his mind,
That, since his daughter was now of age,
Since she was now tall of stature and ripe for marriage,
It was time that he gave her away to a husband.
He resolved that he would gather an assemhly at his palace
Of all his wise nobles and counsellors;
There should meet together all his friends and chiefs,
And all his mighty men, proved in war.
In her father's palace that moon-faced maiden
Was to come forth to that assembly, seeking a husband,
And her maidens were to stand round her on every side,
So that no man might see her face.
Now in the chambers of this mighty king
Lived three daughters, all like roses in Spring;
Fair in stature, and countenance, and manners,
Fair, too, in judgment, and modesty, and virtue.
And the eldest of the three was Kitaiyun,
And wise was she, and glad-hearted, and happy.
And one night Kitaiyun had seen a dream,
She had seen in her sleep a land of sunshine,
And a band of chieftains were gathered there
In a bright cluster, like the Pleiades ;
And amongst them all was a stranger,
A wanderer, all desolate and alone,
His stature like a cypress, and his face like the moon,
And he sat on the ground like a king on his throne.
And she dreamed that she gave him a garland
And he gave her another, full of colours and scents, in return.-
And in the morning, when the sun came forth,
The nobles all awoke from their sleep,
And the king called a great assembly together,
Of all who were valiant and illustrious ;
And with joy did they hasten to the assembly,
And they called the fairy-faced princess in.
Kitaiyun came with her sixty attendants,
And she held a bunch of fresh narcissuses in her hand.
And she walked along, and sadness crept over her,
For not in that assembly was the man of her choice.
And she turned away from the hall and went back to her chamber,
Walking slowly and weeping, with a longing heart.
Night came, and tbe ground grew dark like a raven's wing,
Till once more the sun lifted his head from the mountains;
Then the king commanded that all the youths in his kingdom,
High and low, should meet at bis palace,
That all should come in assembly there,
Till his daughter found a husband to her heart.
And when the news spread through the city,
To the nobles, and the high and the low,
All turned their faces to the palace of the king,

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All blossoming with the colours and sweet odours of hope,
And the good husbandman* said to Gushtasp,
"Why dost thou sit in obscurity here?
Go, thou may'st see the palace and the court,
And, perhaps, thy spirit may lose its load of care there."
And when Gushtasp heard this, he rose and went with him,
And he came in haste to the palace of the king.
And he sat down in a corner apart from the chieftains,
He sat full of sorrow and with a wounded heart.
The attendants came forth with cheerful looks,
And Kitaiyun, and her rose-cheeked handmaidens;
And she slowly walked around the hall,
With the counsellors behind her, and her maidens before.
And, when she beheld Gushtasp at a distance,
She exclaimed, "My dream has returned out of darkness!!!
And she called the young man before her,
And placed her crown on his happy head.
When the wise vizier beheld what was done,
He turned and hastened at once to the king,
And cried, "She has chosen a man from the crowd,
In stature like a tall cypress in the garden,
With a cheek like the rose, and broad shoulders ;
All who look on him behold him with wonder:
You would say that he was a son of heaven ;
But I know him not, nor who he is.”
The king replied, "God forbid that my daughter
Should bring disgrace on her noble race.
If I give my daughter to an unknown fellow like this
My head will lie down low in dishonour !
Go, take her and him whom she hath chosen, too,
And strike off their heads in the palace.''
The vizier replied, " This must never be done,
For too many of the nobles were present before thee.
Thou badest thy daughter choose her husband,
Thou saidest not that she was to choose a king.
She sought for one who might please her heart;
For the sake of heaven strike not off her head.
Such has been the custom of thy ancestors,
The custom of those mighty and pure-hearted heroes ;
Through this bath thy kingdom been established,
Seek not to break thine oath, nor wander in an unknown path of error."
When the king heard these words he changed his purpose,
And he gave his peerless daughter to Gushtasp;
But be said to her, “Go with him such as thou art,
Never shalt thou have treasure, or throne, or sceptre from me.''
When Gushtasp beheld this, he marvelled greatly,
And he prayed in heart to the Maker of the world.
And he turned and said to the maiden,
"Oh thou, who hast been brought up in softness and luxury,
With a rank so lofty and a crown thine own,
Why hast thou made choice of such a wretch as I?
Thou hast chosen an outcast, and, if thou livest with him,
Thou wilt find no treasure, but a life of woe.
O seek one of thy equals, amongst these noblemen,
That thy father's face may look brightly on thee once more."
Kitaiyun answered, “ Thou knowest me not,
Repine not at the decrees of heaven ;
If I am contented to share thy lot,
Why should'st thou talk of a crown or throne ?"

Gushtasp had fled from his father's kinglum, who had continually shewn a great partiality for his children by another wife ; and Gushtasp and his brother Zarir (Hystaspes and Zariadres) had received a great many proofs of it; the former therefore left the country and fled to Rúm, and lodged there with a poor husbandman.

Slowly then walked out of her father's hall
Kitaiyun and Gushtasp, with many a sigh,
And they came to the house of the husbandman,

And sat them down there, unseen and unknown. Such is a literal translation of this was preserved in the prose chronicle beautiful story, the last vestige of that of king Yezdljird, and resuscitated legend, which was so often sculptured from oblivion under the auspices of (Chares tells us) in the temples and Mahmoud ; and it then met with a palaces of ancient Persia ; the fair poet whose genius was worthy of it, Odatis and her love lie embalmed in and he has given it a place in his imthe records of her husband's country, mortal Shahnameh. Some thirteen or and time has had but little power to fourteen centuries had passed since efface the lineaments of her history. that ballad was first sung, and it had The ancient ballad, which was so failed away from the nation's memory often sung at the royal banquets, * and was forgotten ; but, as Keats says, and became such a national favourite,

A thing of beauty is a joy for ever,
Its loveliness increases, it will never
Pass into nothingness, but still will keep
A bower quiet for us, and a sleep,
Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing.

Firdusi found the materials as fresh astray by the similarity of the name and living as ever; and he hus, as and of some of the incidents recorded usual, entered into all the spirit of the of both. To all who study the Shahlegend. The story is preserved in all nameh, and compare it with other its essential particulars; thus the national collections of legends, I think dream is the same in both, and so too it will be evident that Gushtasp, as is the whole history of the princess. he appears there, is compounded of The brothers are changed, and the several heroes who have been merged Persians make Gushtasp the hero in into one; and the actions of each (as stead of Zariadres; but this can easily be we see in the foregoing legend, which accounted for, as Gushtasp, or Hystasa certainly does not belong to Darius,) pes, is the favourite hero of Persian are now so mingled together, that it romance, and the actions of the various is impossible to divide them. A writer persons who bore that name, appear in the April number of the Quarterly to be all ascribed to him, just as was (on the inscriptions which Major Rawdone by the Greeks to their Hercules, linson has so successfully deciphered and by the Ilincius to their Ráma. in Behistan) remarks, -- " The great It is he that is recorded to have up. objection to the common theory of held Zoroaster, and to have propagated Ilyde, Prideaux, &c. which makes the doctrines of the far-famed Zend. Darius llystaspes the Gushtasp of avesta by the sword. Many of his Persian religious fable, is, az has been actions, as related in the Shahnameh, observed (Milman's Gibbon) the seem to belong to the Darius llys. silence of Herodotus; and here again taspes of Grecian history, others per we find the inscriptions, as far as they haps belong to his father llystaspes, † have yet been interpreted, maintaina whom we read so much of in He- ing the same total silence." rodotus. Much of this hero's history But, although it be untrue that certainly does not belong to Darius Gushtasp is entirely Darius, it is on Hystaspes; and Ilyde, and those who the other hand certain that much of have followed him, have been led their history is identical. Fiction is

* Athenæus gives an interesting account of these feasts in the fourth book of his Deipnosophists. He says they were called Tycta in the old Persian language. Τούνυμα δε τώ δείπνο Περσιστί μεν τυκτα, Ελληνιστί δε τέλειον.

+ Hystaspes was not an uncommon name. Thus Zuinger in bis Theatrum Vitæ mentions, though I know not on what authority, “ Hystaspes, antiquissimus Medorum res et vates, cujus vaticiniis Medi usi sunt.'

onicle itated

continually interwoven with it, and the history of that country. Many valuactions of other heroes are borrowed able incidents relating to Darius have to swell the glory of the favourite ; been already rescued from oblivion ; but enough of truth is left to dispel any and we may reasonably trust that, as doubts that might otherwise arise in these investigations proceed, and as our minds. Nor are we without the fresh materials are collected, and fresh hope of ere loug obtaining further in aids to their being used are discovered, formation on this subject. The dis many of the difficulties in the ancient covery of the cuneiform alphabet, and annals of Persia will be explained, and the success of Major Rawlinson and its national legends no longer seem irothers in reading the ancient monu reconcileable with the accounts which mental inscriptions in Persia, will throw we find preserved in the Greek hisan unexpected light on the legendary torians.

E. B. C.

- of it, nis iineen or ince

had mory



name orded Shahother think ip, as Bed of terged

vhich rius) at it riter terly Rawered reat

own hand.

FROM this source, through recent fortunately a Greek translation was discoveries, some information is made found on the outside of the same available for Roman history beyond temple, concealed by buildings, which what was before possessed, and some has been given to the public by W. J. for that of Britain. Suetonius informs Hamilton, Esq., Secretary of the Geous that Augustus left his testamentary logical Society, about five years since, papers in five parts or divisions. The though a considerable part remains two first of these were properly his still concealed by a thick wall, and will, in which he appointed his heirs, another part would appear not to have and distributed various legacies. The been copied, from having been too remaining parts were in three rolls, of much defaced. On the whole, enough which the first roll contained direc- has been recovered not only to be of tions for his funeral ; the second was a much use to the antiquary, but also surumary of his public acts during the to form a literary fragment of great whole of his reigu, ordered to be value, it being written in the purest engraved on brass tablets and set up style of the purest era of Latin combefore his mausoleum; and the third position, as we may state with confiwas a statistical account of his empire, dence, the inscription expressing that detailing the amount of public re it was written by the emperor with his venue, the number of soldiers in pay, arrears duc, names of collectors, and Transcripts, though imperfect, of the like.

this ancient relic were obtained as Ilow long the engraved brass tablets long ago as the year 1554. It may at Rome existed we are not informed. be right to trace the gradual comIf they escaped other revolutions, they munication of it to the world from were doubtlessly melted down by the that time down to the date of Mr. Goths, as not a line from them seems Hamilton's discoveries, and to endeato have been preserved. Copies of vour to elucidate the various former them, however, were made for the accounts of it, which will enable us provinces, and such a copy was en more correctly to understand some graved for a temple at Ancyra, now particulars. Augora, the former capital of Asia The celebrated Busequius and his linor, dedi

to Augustus and to friends seem first to have obtained a Rome. The major part of this re- kuowledge of it. Ile thus describes mains still extant, and was published it in his Letters or Travels, edition very faithfully by Chishull, in his 1660, p. 87 (translation): “Here we Antiquitates Ásiaticæ, above a cen saw a very good inscription, being a tury ago. It was, however, much copy of those brass tablets, containing disconnected by chasms, and therefore a summary of his acts, which Augustus its value considerably impaired; but caused to be engraved. We took care

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to have it transcribed by our party, as work entitled “ Memoria Cossoniana," far as it could be read. It is on (the 4to. 1695, and by Pitiscus, in his ediwalls of) a building, perhaps formerly tion of Suetonius, 2 vols. 4to. 1714. a prætorium, built of marble, and in But hitherto the transcripts were so its present condition without a roof. imperfect that scarce more than two Half of it is to the right hand as you or three words were given of the sixth enter, half to the left. The heads (of column, which since has been brought each column) are, for the most part, out in such considerable length. Nor entire; the middle parts have many could it have been guessed from any chasms; whilst the lower parts have of the transcripts that there was the been so knocked about with sticks as least mention or reference made to to be illegible.”

Britain in the original ; but soon afterThe next transcript was that of wards this renowned inscription came Verantius. This person, whose proper under the notice of the eminent men appellation was Antoine Verantui, and who traversed Asia Minor in the who was bishop of Agria, otherwise beginning of the eighteenth century, Erlaw, in Hungary, and ambassador Tournefort, Chishull, and Pocock, when from Ferdinand the Second to the the transcript quickly assumed a new Porte, procured it to be transcribed and improved complexion. when passing through Angora. From Our present more correct Latin him it passed to his nepliew Faustus copy seems due to the celebrated Verantius, who gave it to Clusius, Tournefort, who made it in 1701, and secretary to an embassy to the East, gave it to Chishull, whom he met on and he to Leunclavius. Clusius pro- his travels in Asia Minor. Chishull cured it to be verified by two German published it in his Antiquitates Asitravellers, who went to Angora, and aticæ, folio, 1728. This transcript who copied it themselves. On com seems so superior that, though many paring their copies, he could only copies have been taken since, none detect two mistakes in that of Ve- have been printed subsequent to his rantius, and otherwise found his copy time. A french merchant, named the most perfect. The substance of Le Havre, also made a copy, which Clusius' letter on the subject is given had great reputation for correctness, in the second edition of Gruter, in a as Chishull mentions, p. 171 ; but note to Inscription cexxxii., in which whether this last came to his hands, Clusius adds that, in his opinion, there and is incorporated in his copy, he was no probability a better copy would does not clearly inform us. ever be made, the original being wan We have seen that, one hundred tonly injured every day by the bar- and fifty years before, Busequius had barism of the Turks, which was the described the face of the wall on case when the two Germans were which the inscription is engraved as making their copy. It is very sin- being in a ruinous state. In Tournegular that we are not now able to fort's time it must of course have been distinguish the transcript of Busequius still more so. Besides the letters effrom that of Verantius; and Chishull, faced, he says that the whole surface in his Antiquitates Asiatica, p. 170, was full of great holes, like those made pronounces them the same.

by cannon shot. His words are,– The inscription first appeared in “Outre les lettres effacées, tout est print in the edition of Aurelius Victor, plein de grands trous, semblables à by Andreas Schottus, and was com ceux qu'auroient pu faire des boulets mented on by Justus Lipsius. It was de canon.” Voyage du Levant, vol. ii. also printed by Gravius, in his edition p. 447. What was actually removed of Suetonius, 4to. 1691.

of course could not be transcribed, but After Verantius, Daniel Cosson, a of the relics he has made us a full and Dutch merchant, resident at Smyrna, excellent copy. What increases the of cultivated mind and great probity, value is his assurance that the entire who was afterwards murdered, while lines in his transcript correspond with taking a walk near the above place, those of the original, the mutilations by two Algerines, made, in 1689, a to the mutilations, and the chasms to much better copy, published, with the chasms, which is generally true, notes, by James Gronovius, in his though it is not true that the spaces

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