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noon, Saturday Sept. 21, 1745. The rebels entered tris house before he was carried off from the field, and plundered it. His remains were interred on the Tuesday following, Sept. 24, at the parish church of Tranent. Even his enemies spoke honourably of him, and seemed to join in.lamenting the fall of so brave and so worthy a man. Nor was it for bravery only that colonel Gardiner was distinguished. He was perhaps one of the most pious men of his age and country. He was, says his biographer, in the inost amazing manner, without any religious opportunity, or peculiar advantage, deliverance, or affliction, reclaimed on a sudden, in the vigour of life and health, from a life of licentiousness, not only to a steady course of regularity and virtue, but to high devotion, and strict, though unaffected sanctity of manners. All this is amply illustrated in Dr. Doddridge's well-known life of this gallant hero, whose death was as much a loss, as the cause of it, the battle of Preston-pans, was a disgrace to his country.

In July 1726, Col. Gardiner married lady Frances Erskine, daughter to David fourth earl of Buchan, by whom he had thirteen children, five only of which survived their father, two sons and three daughters.'

GARDINER (RICHARD), an English divine, a native of Hereford, where he was born in 1591, was educated at the school there, and became a student of Christ-church, Oxford, about 1607. After taking his degrees in arts, he entered into holy orders, and was noted for a quaint singularity in his manner of preaching. King James I. being much pleased with a speech wbich he had delivered before him in the Scotch tone, when he was deputy-orator, gave him the reversion of the next canonry of Christ-church; into which he was installed, on the death of Dr. Thomas Thornton, in 1629; and taking his degrees in divinity the following year, he was made one of the chaplains in ordinary to king Charles I. In 1648 he was ejected from his canonry by the parliamentary visitors, and lived obscurely in Oxford, until the restoration, when he was re-instated in his stall, and from that time devoted the profits of it to charitable uses, with some benefactions to his relations, and to Christ-church. He published several sermons, pare ticularly a volume containing sixteen, Lond. 1659, 8vo. 2. “ Specimen Oratorium," Lond. 1653, containing some

Doddridge's Life of Colonel Gardiner, and Funeral Sermon on bim.

of his university orations. This was reprinted in 1657, and in 1662, with additional orations and letters. There were subsequent editions printed at Oxford in 1668 and 1675, &c. yet the book is very scarce. He died Dec. 20, 1670, and was buried in Christ-church cathedral, with an elegant Latin epitaph, written at the desire of his executors, by Dr. South, who succeeded him in his canonry.'

GARDINER (STEPHEN), bishop of Winchester, and chancellor of England, was the illegitimate son of Dr. Lionel Woodvill or Wydville, dean of Exeter, and bishop of Salisbury, brother to Elizabeth, queen consort to Edward IV.* He was born in 1483, at Bury St. Edmonds, in Suffolk, and took his name from bis reputed fathert, whom his mother married, though in a menial situation, to conceal the incontinence of the bishop. After a proper education at school, he was sent to Trinity-ball, in Cambridge; where pursuing his studies with diligence, he soon obtained reputation by the quickness of his parts, and was particularly distinguished for his elegance in writing and speaking Latin, as well as for his uncommon skill in the Greek language I. In the former he made Cicero his pattern, and became so absolute a master of his style, as to be charged with affectation in that respect. With these attainments in classical learning, he applied himself to the civil and canon law; and took his doctor's degree in the first of these, in 1'520; in the latter, 'the following year; and it is said, was the same year elected master of his college.

But his views were far from being confined to the university He had 'some time before been taken into the family of the duke of Norfolk, and thence into that of

* Mr. Lodge says, that one of Raw-' Suffolk, with a distinction of a border ; linson's MSS. in the Bodleian library, and at last they were impaled with the with more probability makes himna arms of the see of Winchester without younger sow of sir Thomas Gardiner, the distinction. Strype's Memorials, knt. the representative of a very an- vol. III. Before that time he usually cient family in Lancashire, Lodge's went by the naine of Stephens. Illustrations, vol. 1. p. 102. Biit this Leland compliments him on this contradicts all former accounts, and account, in a poem addressed to hiari leaves us at a loss to conjecture why by the name of Stephen Gardiner, in he was in tarly life often called Dr. the close of which he foretels him, that Stephens.

his brow would be honoured with a # Viz. Gardiner ; birt this was not mitre; a proof that bis surname was doue 'till after he became bishop of at least given him by others before he Winchester, when he also assumed the was a bishop. Leland's Encom. Illustr. arms of the Gardiners of Glemsford, in Viror. p. 49.

Ath. Ox. vol. II.-- Biog. Brit. vol. VI. p. 3765.

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cardinal Wolsey, who made him his secretary. This post he now held, and it proved the foundation of bis rise at court. The cardinal having projected the treaty of alliance with Francis I. in 1525, employed his secretary to draw up the plan, and the king coming to his house at Morepark, in Hertfordshire, found Gardiner busy at this work, He looked at it, liked the performance extremely well, the performer's conversation better, and his fertility in the invention of expedients best of all; and from this time Gardiner was admitted into the secret of affairs, and entirely confided in, both by the king and his first minister. He received a public mark of that confidence in 1527, when he was sent to Rome, in order to negociate the arduous business of Henry's divorce from queen Katharine. Edward Fox, provost of King's-college, in Cambridge, went with him on this embassy; but Gardiner was the chief, being esteemed the best civilian in England at this time; and having been admitted into the king's cabinetcouncil for this affair, he is styled in the cardinal's credential letters to the pope, "primary secretary of the most secret counsels." He was now in such favour with the cardinal, that, in these very letters, be called Gardiner the half of himself, “ Dimidium sui,” than whom none was dearer to him. He wrote that Gardiner should unlock his (the cardinal's] breast to the pope; who, in hearing bim speak, he might think he heard the cardinal himself. The successful issue of this embassy in obtaining a new commission, directed to the cardinals Wolsey and Campejus, as well as Gardiner's address in the negociation, may be seen in the general histories of England. We shall only notice one particular not mentioned there, which is his success in disposing Campejus to make a tour to England. This requiring some extraordinary management, Gardiner took it upon himself; and having put every thing requisite to set the affair in a proper light at home, into the hands of his colleague Fox, dispatched him to carry the account to the king, who joined with Anne Boleyn in applauding * the ingenuity, intrepidity, and industry of the new minister.

* There is a letter from this lady to you for my letter, wherein 1 perceive our negociator in the Paper-office, sup- the willing and faithful mind you have posed to be written on this occasion, to do me pleasure," &c. See the which begins, “ Mr. Stephens, I thank wbole in Biog. Brit.

But the loudest in his praises was the cardinal, in whose private business Gardiner had reconciled the pope to the endowment of his two colleges at Oxford and Ipswich *, out of the revenues of the dissolved lesser monasteries. This added to the rest, made such an impression upon the cardinal's mind, that crying out, “ O inestimable treasure and jewel of this realm!” he desired Fox to remark those words, and insert them in his letter. There was still another instance of Gardiner's abilities and attachment to Wolsey, which had its share in exciting this burst of admiration. During the course of this embassy, the pope falling dangerously ill, the cardinal set all his engines to work, to secure the keys provisionally to himself, in case of a new election, and the suffrages of one-third part of the cardinals were procured for him. He dispatched orders immediately to provide that those cardinals should be withdrawn to a place of safety, and should there declare him pope, though the majority should appear against him; assuring his own party, that they should be vigorously sustained by king Henry and his allies. This scheme, however, was rendered abortive by the recovery of Clement VII. but the pains taken in it by the cardinal's agents, among whom Gardiner had at least an equal share, could not fail to be highly pleasing to him. In the event, indeed, the king had most reason to be satisfied with his minister, who gave his opinion that all solicitations at Rome would be lost time; the pope, in his judgment, being immoveable in the resolution to do nothing himself; though he might not improbably be brought to confirm such a sentence as his majesty could draw from the legates t. Henry, fully persuaded in the issue of the sincerity and judgment of this advice, recalled Gardiner, resolving to make use of his abilities in managing the legantine court I.

During his residence at Rome, he had among other things obtained some favours at that court for bishop Nix of Norwich, who on his return rewarded him with the archdeaconry of Norfolk, in 1529; and this probably was the first preferment he obtained in the church. In truth, it must be owned that his merit as a divine did not entitle him to any extraordinary expectations that way, but as he made his first entrance into business in a civil capacity, so he continued to exercise and improve his talents in state affairs, which gave him an opportunity of rendering himself useful, and in a manner necessary to the king; who soon after his arrival, took him from Wolsey, and declared him secretary of state. Thus introduced into the ministry at home, besides the ordinary business of his office, and the large share he is said to have had in the administration of affairs in general, he was particularly advised with by the king in that point which lay nearest to his heart; and when cardinal Campejus declared that the cause of the divorce was evoked to Rome, Gardiner, in conjunction with Fox the almoner, found out Cranmer, and discovering his opinion, introduced him to his majesty, whom they thus enabled to extricate himself out of a difficulty then considered as insuperable.

* Gardiner and Fox were the per- others written at the saine time, or sons on whom the cardinal chiefly re- even later. lied for laying the plan of these mag- The king did not suffer the pronificent foundations. Strype.

ceedings to be begun before the car. + The whole letter is inserted in the dinals till Gardiper's return. Burnel's Biog. Brit. as an instance of Gardi. Hist. of Reform. vol. II, ner's elegant style in English, above

As this step proved the ruin of Wolsey, in his distress he applied to his old servant the secretary, who on this occasion is said by the writer of his life in the Biog. Britannica, to have afforded an eminent proof of his gratitude, in soliciting bis pardon ; which was followed in three days by his restoration to his archbishopric, and 60001. sent him, besides plate and furniture for his house and chapel. It is certain, however, that Gardiner did not interpose before Wolsey had supplicated him more than once in the most bumble manner, to intercede for him, and it is equally certain that Gardiner did not risk much in applying to the king, who for some time entertained a considerable regard for the fallen Wolsey. Gardiner also, at the cardinal's recommendation, in 1530, introduced the provost of Be. verly to the king, who received him graciously, and shewed him that he was his good and gracious lord, and admitted and accepted him as his orator and scholar. These were matters of easy management. But the year had not expired, when the king's service called the secretary to a task of another nature, which was to procure from the university of Cambridge their declaration in favour of his majesty's cause, after Cranmer's book should appear in support of it. In this most difficult point his old colleague Fox was joined with him; and they spared no pains, address, or artifice in accomplishing it. To make amends

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