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abroad. Mr. P. then introduced the following denied consideration, according to the opinion enterresolution :
tained of its consequence and urgency. Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representa
But the numher of communications relative to this tives of the United States of America in Congress as
subject, which, though they have received attention, sembled, two-thirds of both Houses concurring therein, seem to have escaped it, because they have not been That the following amendment to the Constitution definitely acted on, may possibly expose the House to of the United States be proposed to the Legislatures of a censure more serious than that of merely neglecting the several States, which, when ratified by the Legis- the successive recommendation of several Chief Malatures of three-fourths of the said States, shall be valid gistrates—a censure as injurious as unjust, yet not to all intents and purposes, as a part of the said Con- unbecoming that body to prevent, by making, as soon stitution.
as possible, some disposition of a question, that ought For the purpose of choosing Representatives, in the to be determined, on account of its frequent occurCongress of the United States, each state shall be rence, even though it should not otherwise be thought divided by its Legislature into a number of districts particularly interesting. equal to the number of Representatives to which the No room will then be afforded for even supposing State may be entitled.
the National Legislature indifferent to an object, adEach district shall contain as nearly as may bo equal mitted by most persons to be desirable, and by many numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the believed to be now both practicable and expedient; whole number of free persons, including those bound justice will be done to the representatives of the peoto service for a term of years, and excluding Indians ple without detracting anything from Executive merit ; not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons.
That confidence, which is the chief strength of our In each district, the qualified voters shall elect one Government, will be preserved, and public opinion, Representative.
enlightened by discussion, expressing itself at length For the purpose of choosing Electors of President decisively on the proposed measure, will either require and Vice President of the United States, each State its adoption, sanction its rejection, or acquiesce in its shall be divided by its Legislature into a number of postponement, until the necessity becomes more obdistricts equal to the number of Electors to which the vious, or the difficulties that oppose it can be more State may be entitled. Each district shall contain, as easily removed. nearly as may be, equal numbers; which shall be de
Your committee, therefore, have ventured to sugtermined by adding to the whole number of free per gest some of the reasons which recommend the present sons, including those bound to service for a terın of as a favorable time for investigating, and perhaps, also, years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-filths of for adopting the plan they have proposed. all other persons. In each district the persons qualified Among these, the prosperous slate of our finances, to vote for Representatives in the Congress of the leaving a large unappopriated surplus, the probability United States shall choose one Elector. The Legisla- of a long continued peace, the flourishing condition ture of each State shall have power to regulate the of our capital, and the facility with which a portion of manner of holding elections, and making returns of the the public property within it might now be advan. Electors chosen. In case all the Electors shall not tageously disposed of, so as at once to increase the meet at the time and place appointed for giving their convenience of the city, and support the proposed instivotes, a majority of the Electors met shall bave power, tution, may fairly be enumerated. and forth with shall proceed, to supply the vacancy: Besides, the information heretofore collected has
A division of the states into districts, for choosing enabled the committee to report at an early period, Representatives in the Congress of the United States, and it is believed that the present session, though in. and into districts for choosing Electors of President evitably a short one, will not present so many objects and Vice President of the United States, shall take of great difficulty or deep interest, as entirely to explace as soon as conveniently may be after each enu. Iclude others of a more tranquil and less obtrusive chameration and apportionment of Representatives shall racter, to which it is possibly a portion of time might be made; which districts shall remain unaltered until be profitably devoted. after the succeeding enumeration aod apportionment of Representatives.
The acquisition of a scientific and literary reputaThe resolution was read a first and second time, tion, not un worthy of their naval and military renown, and referred to a Committee of the Whole on the the most durable of all glory is that of exalted intellect.
can never be beneath the ambition of a people, since state of the Union.
The world is still a willing captive to the spells of NATIONAL UNIVERSITY.
ancient genius; and the rivalry of modern empires
will be perpetuated by their arts and their learning, Mr. Wilde, of Georgia. from the committee the preservers of that fame which arms alone may in. 10 whom that part of the President's Message deed win, but can never keep. was referred, made the following report:
Any measure which contributes, however remotely, The committee of the House of Representatives, to give American literature a rank and name among to whom was referred so much of the President's Mes- mankind, cannol, therefore, be regarded with indiffer. sage as relates to the subject of a National University, ence by our citizens; and every effort towards that report to the House, as the result of their deliberations, end must be witnessed at the present moment with a bill for the erection and endowment of such an unusual satisfaction, since it will present the interestinstitution.
ing spectacle of a young nation, bending its whole The colomittee, pursuant to usual forms, might strength to the pursuit of true greatness, and anxious perhaps, without impropriety, regard this as a sutfi- to emulate all that is amiable in peace as well as all cient performance of their duty, and, after presenting that is noble in war. the bill, without comment, have left it to find its ap- That the institution contemplated will have a happy propriate place among others, and to receive or be influence on the harmony of our country and the unity
141 Con. 2d S€85.-9
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New York Canals.
of our national character, has been often supposed, and 3. Lecture rooms at the southwest angle, your committee feel inclined to anticipate effects no steward's apartment, &c., 75 feet square 45,000 less happy from its operation on the genius of our 4. Planting and enclosing
20,000 people. If American invention, unassisted as it has been,
$200,000 already excites the astonishment of Europe, what may not be expected from it when aided and encouraged? And why should not aid and encouragement be A Bill for the establishment of a National University. yielded by institutions like the present, founded and Be it enacted, fc., That the President of the United endowed by the munificence of the State ? In our States be, and he is, hereby authorized and required own day we have seen them work wonders in physi- to cause to be surveyed, and laid off into building lots, cal science, even when directed by a stern, jealous, such part as he shall think proper of the ground reand exacting Government, which, while training the served of the United States, in the City of Washingmind to be quick, dexterous and daring, darkened ton, and to cause the same to be sold, at such times its vision, and circumscribed its flight, Is it here alone and places, and in such proportions, and under such they would be impotent, where no depth could be hid- regulations as he shall prescribe ; and the proceeds den from its glance, no height forbidden to its wing? thereof, aster defraying the charges of survey and sale,
But your committee, fearful of exhausting your pa- to be invested in such stocks or public securities, as tience, forbear to extend this report by arguments shall, by him, be deemed advisable, and the same, which it is easier to multiply than to withhold; for the when so invested, and the dividends thereon arising. same reason they refrain from answering objections shall constitute a fund for the support of a National which could not be stated without injury, since, in University. replying to them, force and perspicuity must be sacri. Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the Pres. ficed to conciseness. Nor can such a course be re- ident of the United States be, and he is hereby, authorquired where it is intended merely to present a general ized to cause to be erected, on such site, within the result
, not the particular process of reasoning by which District of Columbia, as he shall select, the buildings that result has been obtained. Your committee, how necessary for a National University; and for defraying ever, desire it to be understood, that they have not de- the expenses thereof, the sum of dollars is hereby clined examining any objection which occurred to appropriated, to be paid out of any money in the Trea them, and though some have been found which it must sury of the United States, not otherwise appropriated be confessed are not without difficulty, all are thought by law. capable of a satisfactory answer.
Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That the Presi. Under a conviction, therefore, that the means are dent of the United States be, and he is hereby, requestample, the end desirable, the object fairly within the ed to cause to be prepared and laid before Congress, legislative powers of Congress, and the time a favora. at its next session, a plan for the regulation and govble one, your committee recommend the establishment ernment of the said University. of a National University, and have directed their The bill was twice read and committed. chairman to submit a bill and estimates for that purpose.
NEW YORK CANALS.
Mr. Brooks presented the petition of the comEstimates of the value of lots and squares belonging missioners appointed by the State of New York
to the United States, as furnished by a communi- lo superintend and provide for the improvement
cation from the Superintendent of the City. of the internal navigation of that Siate, signed Four thousand building lots of 5,265 square
by De Will Clinton, ibeir President, praying for feet each, and about 2,000 feet front on
assistance, in land or money, from the General the waters of the Potomac river, Eastern
Guvernment, to aid in opening a communication, Branch, valued at
· $750,000 | by means of canals, between the navigable waters Squares 1 to 6, proposed to be laid off into
of Hudson's river and Lake Erie, aod between building lots, containing, in the whole,
the said waters of Hudson's river and Lake 816,000 square feet, or 155 standard lots,
Champlain; which was referred to the Commitvalued at
200,000 tee on Roads and Canals. The memorial is as
follows: But the latter amount is the only one which it is to the honorable the Senate and House of Represensupposed could be speedily realized.
tatives of the United States in Congress :
The representation of commissioners of the State of Estimate of the expense of buildings for the National New York, in behalf of the said State, respectfully
University, on a plan susceptible of extension, but showeth : That the Legislature of the said State in calculated for the present to answer for one hundred April last passed an act to provide for the improvement and sixty persons.
of their internal navigation, (of which act we take the Buildings (which it was supposed last year might liberty of transmitting herewith a copy.) In this it be completed in the year 1818.)
will be seen that a board of commissioners is consti1. Habitations for the principal and six
tuted, and that, among other duties enjoined upon professors, two buildings, 75 by 54 feet,
them, they are required to make application to the $30,000 each
$60,000 Government of the United States for cessions, grants, 2. Lodgings for one hundred and sixty stu.
or donations of lands or money, for the purpose of aiddents, refectory, (temporarily in the base
ing in opening a communication, by means of canals, ment story,) fuel and provision, cellars,
between the navigable waters of 'Hudson river and servants' apartments, 265 feet by 46 75,000 | Lake Erie, and the said navigable waters and Lake DECEMBER, 1816.
New York Canals.
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Champlain. To fulfil this requisition, then, is the ob- between one of our seaports and the region where furs ject of this address.
are collected, a road in all respects preferable to any Next to the establishment and security of the right other, besides drawing to our own citizens a profitable to self-government, we flatter ourselves that no subject commerce, would tend eventually to the subversion of requiring legislative interference can be found more that influence, and, in the meantime, offer to us imporinteresting than the one which we are charged to lay tant facilities for controlling it. before your honorable body; and we venture to solicit The trade carried on between our country and the your favorable consideration of it, in full confidence Canadian provinces is already considerable, and is that an enlightened public spirit may justly give to it rapidly growing. The fruits of the earth from the such a measure of patronage as cannot fail to produce southern shores of Erie and Ontario, and from the signal benefits to the nation.
borders of Champlain, find their way to the ports of The benefits to be acquired by the United States our northern neighbors cheaper than they can to any from the construction of these canals will most obvi- which offers a market of our own, and are there exously and immediately affect their pecuniary and their changed for the various commodities of foreign counpolitical interests. More remotely, indeed, they will tries. This trade is, indeed, profitable to many of our exert a favorable influence upon every object embraced citizens who engage in it, but it is much more so to within the scope of an enlightened and paternal policy. the British. Subject to their control, they direct it to If we consider the extent and fertility of our territory the advancement of all their public interests, and it is northwest of the Ohio, the large proportion of it which no mean instrument of that advancement. It is eviyet remains unsold, the disposition and the ability dently the vital spirit of their internal navigation, which our eastern fellow-citizens possess to purchase which it cannot fail to exalt into a consequence that and to improve it, we cannot be insensible of the great may hereafter greatly affect us. Would not the pros. pecuniary advantage which would result from opening ecution of our projects to complete effect result imno to them a safe, easy, and economical passage into that diately in giving to citizens of the United States the territory. Every dollar saved to them in the expenses entire profits of this trade, and to Government all the of removing thither would operate to enhance the value security and influence connected with a thickly settled of the public lands, and, at the same time, to hasten frontier, and a most decided superiority of shipping on their settlement; and it is obvious that a canal from the lakes? the Hudson to Lake Erie would save a large portion of Nothing can be more certain than that the continthese expenses. The number of persons to be affected uance of our Union is essential to our freedom. The by this consideration cannot be accurately stated. It means of this continuance are to be found only in the certainly would not be small. We are well assured strength of our common interests. Whatever extends that, in the course of one year since the war, more and consolidates these interests, must be of distinthan twelve thousand new settlers, almost exclusively guished importance to Government; and can anyfrom the East, have established themselves within the thing be imagined more efficaciously conducive to limits of this State, west of the Genesee river.
these objects than opening to distant sections of our Whatever adds to the value of all that land pro country the means of easy and profitable intercourse! duces must increase the value of the land itself. Toa Virtuous and enlightened men among us have long country which depends upon a distant market for the delighted themselves with looking forward to the pesale of its surplus productions, it is of great import- riod when a canal communication belween the Hudson ance to afford every possible facility of transportation; and Lake Erie would afford to balf the United States for all that is taken from the expense of transportation more ample means of promoting every social interest is added to the value of the articles transpurted, and, than have heretofore, in any country, been furnished by cheapening the rate of carriage, many articles are by the accomplishment of any human enterprise. rendered valuable which would otherwise be worth
The advantages of canals were not entirely unknown less. Moreover, if habit or the necessary accommodato ancient Governments. Among them, the wisest tion of life requires that such a country should con and most powerful executed works of this kind in sume foreign goods to the amount of all its surplus every direction through their territories, for the purproductions, it is evident that the landholder there en pose of agriculture, commerce, and war. The vestiges joys a twofold benefit in every increased facility of of many of these are still discoverable ; and they are transportation. Perhaps the whole of the country doubtless to be reckoned umong the most impressive between the great lakes, the Mississippi, and the Ohio memorials that remain of ancient greatness. When certainly the greater part of it would derive from the we recollect the instrumentality which canals have completion of our principal canal greater advantages formerly exhibited in collecting the blessings of wealth, for distant communication than any country so far strength, and a crowded population for every country inland bas hitherto enjoyed, and incomparably greater through which they passed, and see those very coun. than that country can ever derive from any other tries, by the neglect and ruin of them, reduced to their means. Regarded, then, merely as a measure of per original barrenness, can we suppress a conviction of cuniary wisdom, we trust your honorablo body will their immense utility? But it is not alone from hismake such an appropriation in favor of it as will in- tory, and the faint traces of them which have survived sure its accomplishment.
the lapse of many centuries, that the advantages of But considerations of a political nature seem to us these improvements are to be known. There are most urgently to recommend the construction of these proofs more conclusive; our own times furnish them. canals. The great infuence exercised over the West- In contemplating the present state of Europe, it is imern Indians, even in our own territory, by the subjects possible not to be struck with the number and extent of a foreign Government, we have always had numer- of her canals; and we perceive that they abound most ous reasons to wish destroyed. This influence depends in those countries where the wants of the social state materially upon establishments erected for the promo- and the means of power have been most diligently ex. tion of the fur trade. Any measure that would open, plored, and are most profoundly understood. We sco
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New York Canals.
them there enabling extensive empires to hold in speedy president of their board, and shall appoint a fit person administration to every public object all the resources for their secretary, who shall he allowed and paid such of their most remote sections, and, at the same time, salary as the said commissioners shall deem proper and increasing those resources prodigiously, by the econ- reasonable; and the president of the said board of omical exchanges of which they are the occasion. Ex-commissioners shall have power to call a meeting of perience is always a safe guide ; it is especially to be the same whenever, in his opinion, the public interests trusted when it has been acquired in the midst of diffi. require it; and the said board may adljourn, from time culties and dangers, and has been sanctioned by the to time, to meet at any time and place they may deem wisdom of different nations. If, then, in the pressing most conducive to the public good; and further, the exigencies of recent events, when every power of na said commissioners shall bave power to employ such tional defence and annoyance has been exerted, when and so many agents, engineers, surveyors, draughtsall the capacities of men, as individuals, and in polit- men, and oiher persone, as in their opinion may be ical combination, have been remarkably evolved, we necessary to enable them to fulfil and discharge the observe in that quarter of the globe a perpetually grow | Juties imposed upon them by this act, and to allow ing attention to the subject of canals, is it not expedi- and pay the said agents, engineers, surveyors, draughtsent, is it not wise, for us to engage in making them ? men, and other persons, for their respective services, No country is more susceptible of all their benefits than such sum or suns as may be adequate and reasonable. ours ; none of larger extent presents fewer impedi- 3. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the ments to their construction. They constitute improve- duty of the said commissioners, as soon as may be after ments peculiarly fit for a Republic. They contribute the passing of this act, tu cause those parts of the terequally to the safety and opulence of the people, and ritory of this state which may lie upon or contiguous the reputation and resources of the Government to the probable courses and ranges of the said canals They are equally desirable in reference to the employ- to be explored and examined. for the purpose of fixing ments of peace and the operations of war. In what- and determining the most eligible and proper routes ever light they are viewed, they seem to combine the for the same, and to cause all necessary surveys and substantial glories of the most splendid and permanent levels to be taken, and accurate maps, field-books, and utility.
draughts thereuf to be made; and further, to adopt and Bút if the execution of those of which we are the recommend proper plans for the construction and foradvocates be impracticable, or would involve an expense mation of the said canals, and of the locks, dams, emdisproportionate to their value, they can have no claim bankments, tunnels, and aqueducts which may be upon the favor of the National Legislature. On these necessary for the completion of the same, and to cause topics we entertain no doubts. The minute examina. all necessary plans, draughts, and models thereof to be tion which has been made this season, under our suo executed under their direction, perintendence, of all the lands which these canals will 4. And be it further enacted, That the said comtraverse, has convinced us that an expenditure not ex- missioners, or a inajority of them, shall be, and they ceeding ten millions of dollars would be sufficient to are hereby, authorized and required to make applicaperfect tbem. Shall they remain unattempted? The tion, in behalf of this Slate, to the Government of the State of New York is not unaware of her interests, United States, and of such States and Territories as nor disinclined to prosecute them; but where those of may be benefitted by the said canals, or either of them, the General Government are united with hers, and to the proprietors of lands through or near which the seem to be paramount, she deems it her duty to ask said canals, or either of them, may or may be proposed for their assistance. Wherefore, in her behalf, we
to pass, to all bodies politic and corporate, public or solicit your honorable body to make such an appropria private, and to all citizens or inhabitants of this or any tion, in lands or money, to aid in the construction of other of the United States, for cessions, grants, or dothese canals, as you, in your wisdom, may think rea- nations of land or money, for the purpose of aiding in sonable and just.
the construction or completing of both or either of tho By order and in behalf of the said commissioners, at said canals, according to the discretion of the several a meeting held in Albany on the 10th November, 1816. grantors or donors, and to take to the people of this DE WITT CLINTON, President. Siate such grants and conveyances as may be proper
and competent to vest a good and sufficient title in the
said people to the lands so 10 be ceded or granted as An Act to provide for the improvement of the internal aforesaid ; and, for the purposes above mentioned, it
pavigation of this state. Passed April 17, 1816. shall be the duty of the said commissioners to open 1. Be it enacted by the people of the State of New books of subscription in such and so many places as York, represented in Senate and Assembly. That Ste- they may think pecessary and expedient, and under pben Van Rensselaer, De Witt Clinton, Samuel Young, time establish ; and further, it shall be their duty to
such rules and regulations as they may from timo to Joseph Ellicott, and Myron Holley, be, and they are bereby, appointed commissioners to consider, devire, ascertain whether, to any and to what amount, and and adopt such measures as may or shall be requisite upon what terms, loans of money may or can be proto facilitate and effect the communication, by means cured, on the credil of this state, for the purposes of canals and locks, between the navigable waters of
aforesaid. Hudson river and Lake Erie, and the said navigable 5. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the waters and Lake Champlain; and, in case of the resig. duty of the said commissioners to make, or cause to be nation or death of any of the said commissioners, the made, with as much accuracy and minuteness as may Vacancy thereby occasioned shall be supplied by the be, caleulations and estimates of the sum or sums of Legislature, in the manner in which Senators of the money which may or will be necessary for completing United States from this State are directed to be chosen. each of the said canals, according to the plan or plans
2. And be it further enacted, That the said com- which may be adopted and recommended by them for Dissioners shali choose one of their number to be the construction or formution of the same, and to cause
Leade of Absence to Mr. Sergeant.
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the said calculations and estimates, and all surveys, To this also Mr. FORSYTH objected, considermaps, field-books, plans, draughts, and models author-ing it in substance the same as the first. ized and directed by this act, or so many thereof as The question on agreeing to it was taken-yeas may be completed, together with a plain and compre- | 74, nay: 81. So the motion was rejected. hensive report of all their proceedings under and by virtue of this act, to be presented to the Legislature of this State within twenty Jays after the commencement
THURSDAY, December 12. of the next regular annual session thereof. 6. And be it further enacted, that the treasurer
Three other members, to wit: from New York shall, on the warrant of the comptroller, pay to the Westeu WILLOUGHBY, jun.; from Virginia, Joan order of a majority of the said commissioners, out of RANDOLPH ; and from South Carolina, THOMAS any moneys in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, MOORE, appeared and took their seats. any sum or sums not exceeding twenty thousand dol. Mr. WRIGHT presented the memorial of the lars, and for which the said cummissioners shall account Managers of the Delaware and Chesa peake Canal to the comptroller of this State.
Company, formerly presented. He moved that 7. And be it further enacted, That the act entitled it be referred to a select committee. “An act to provide for the improvement of the internal Mr. INGAAM said, he was friendly to the menavigation of this State,” passed the 8th day of April, morial, but suggested the propriety of its being re1811, and the act entitled "An act further to provide ferred to the Committee on Canals and Ruads, for the improvement of the internal navigation of this already created. Slate," passed June 19, 181%, be, and the same are Mr. WRIGAT remarked that this case was not bereby, repealed.
an application for a canal to be laid out, or eslabLEAVE OF ABSENCE TO MR. SERGEANT.
lished by law, but was materially distinguishable Mr. HOPKINSON, of Pennsylvania, after stating the site, and made considerable progress in the
from thai case ; that already a company had fixed the actual or contemplated departure of Mr. SER business; but finding their fuos inadequate to GEANT, a member of this House from Pennsylva- the object, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delapia, tor Europe, and the liule advantage and the ware, ad each, on their application, taken a conneedless trouble an election to supply his place siderable share in the stock; hence we were not for a short remainder of this session would affuru, lelt to infer the propriety of culling the canal or which consideration prevented Mr. S. from re
the site of it. Tuis memorial, alter exhibiting signing bis seal-moved, that Mr. SERGEANT have the approbation of the private and public advenleave of absence for the remainder of the session. turers, asks the United States also to become ad
This motion, was objected to by Mr. FORSYTA, venturers and stockholders, to aid in the compleas un precedented and incorrect, inasmuch as the live of so important a work. I, sir, can have no member in question had not appeared in bis seat objection to ihat committee; but in the mass of at the present session, and could not have leave their labors, I presume it will not be so exclusively of absence, where he had not been present.'
allended to as if submitted to a select committee, Hence arose a brief debate.
tu which I hope it may be referred. Messrs. Pirkin, HOPKINSON, and GROSVENOR,
It was referred, however, to the Committee on and others, supported the motion, on the ground Roads and Canals. of precedenis somewhat analogous, and on the
Mr. ROBERTSON, from the Committee on the meritof Mr. Sergeant's claim io this indulgence, Public Lands, made a report on the petition of on account of the importance to the public of the the Kentucky Abolition Suciety, which was read business be had undertaken.
and ordered in lie on the table. Messrs. Nelson, Forsyth, and SOUTHARD, op- Mr. CONDICT, from the committee appointed posed the mulion, as well because without prece on the petition of Doctor James Smith, reported deot applicable to the case as without a fuunda a bill supplementary to the act heretofore passed, tion in right or reason. It was no sufficient" for the encouragement of vaccioation," whick excuse, it was contended, particularly by Mr. was read twice, and committed to a Committee Nelson, for a member of this House to abandun of the Whole. bis duties, that he had accepted another post of Oo motion of Mr. McLean, the select commithonor or of profit ; his duties and obligations in ree, lo whom was referred the report of the acting and to this House being paranjuuni tv any other Secretary of War, in pursuance of the resolution excepi those of necessity;
of the 4th iostant, were instructed to inquire into By some gentlemen, both for and against the the expediency of opening the road from Rey. motion, it was contended and admitted, that Mr. noldsburgh, in the Siale of Tennessee, to interSERGEANT's absence was a question between him sect the Natchez road, as surveyed and marked and his constituents, with which the House had by the commissioners appointed for that purpose; no coocern. But, on the other haod, it was ob. and that they report by bill or otherwise. jected that to pass a vole giving him leave of On motion of Mr. Bryan, the Committee on absence, would be sanctioning what was certainly Military Affairs were instructed to inquire into a relinquishment of his public duties.
the expediency of providing, by law, for the payAt length, Mr. HOPKINSON varied his motion, ment of such articles of military clothing as may so as to stand thus; that Mr. SERGEANT be excused be due suldiers discharged from the Army of the from attending the House for ine remainder of United States. the session.
Ou motion of Mr. Bennett, the Committee of