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remember, in a conversation with the Rev. Adolphus thus proceeds :-“My desire is, that we should mould Sydow on this point, to have been struck with the into a more perfect form that which we already posinsensibility to the distinction between the endow- sess in the United Evangelical Church of Germany;" ment of truth and of error, which circumstances had and in that portion of his book which contains his produced in his highly intelligent mind; and the detailed application of his general principles, he speaks wonder is repeated in the case of Chevalier Bunsen. of 60 bishoprics for 60,000 parishes, containing about He speaks without any protest, or any feeling of 10,000,000 of Protestants. This gives 100 parishes, incongruity, of "the two National Churches”-so that, or about 167,000 souls, for each bishop. He has instead of being in a position for unfolding the con- Metropolitans besides, and Rural Deans, the former stitution of the Church of the Future, it does not

having the confidence of the king, and therefore appear that some intelligent Germans have yet got allowed to wield his patronage—the jus magistatis in hold of the grand distinction on which alone National the Church of the Future. Now, on reviewing this Churches can be upheld—the principle of endowing projection, we own we have a difficulty in repressing the truth, and nothing but the truth, according to the idea that it is meant for a practical joke; and the Word of God. We wish we could sympathize yet, in sober earnest, Chevalier Bunsen would cashier with our author in the hope that an era of free love English Episcopacy, Scottish Presbyterianism, and is dawning on the Church (p. 267). But we must disintegrating Independentism, for this strange meconfess that if that love is to take its outgoing in the lange--this cumbrous and anomalous system. He direction of putting errors condemned by the Word retains bishops, and yet prays, “God preserve us of God not merely on a level with his truth, but from dioceses like most of the Roman Catholic and above it, in point of State support, we cannot but English ones.” say, “into their assembly, mine honour, be not thou We need add little now to show that this ideal of united.” We would predict that a period of disunion the Church of the Future, as we understand it, is and disintegration awaits the Church of Prussia when vulnerable at a hundred points. It is essentially such elements are still mixed up in its ecclesiastical Erastian, even while its author says, “ the spheres constitution. If she has not discovered the antagon of the State and the Church are entirely different ism that exists between Popery and God's truth, and separate.” The king and his ecclesiastical miniswho is she that she should claim, or that any of her ter of State have powers which the New Testament sons should claim on her behalf, to be the model of no where confers.* It admits even the dreaded Inthe Church of the Future? It is no doubt beautiful dependentism, by making the people in some cases and catholic (although, on the whole, we judge it rulers. It retains patronage in full vigour, and in romantic) to hear our author speak of the Herrnhut- unchallengeable power. Before a man can take part ters and Methodists as the embryo orders of the in calling a minister, he must, among other things, Church of the Future for missions to the heathen, be a contributor to the building and repairing of and describing them and “other separatists” as the the church. Now, surely, it cannot commend the chrysalis of that Psyche which is only waiting for the discernment of any author to hear him, with the Bible mild air of spring to unfold her wings. But we on his study table, eulogizing such an institute as the deem it far more likely that these separatists will chrysalis of a future Church, possessed of all that is absorb the Church in Prussia than that the Church

pure, free, evangelical. Again, on the one hand, it is will absorb them, unless they be deadened and de

not right to slur over the gross laxity long tolerated generate. The patriotism of the author, glowing and

among the ministers of the Prussian Church; nor, on truly generous as it is, may shadow forth other

the other, to mutilate Presbyterianism, and then results; and he dwells again and again on the pic- reason against it; in short, a system in which the ture which his native land will present when his spiritual is evermore inter-penetrated by the temNational Church has become the model Church of poral or the civil power, is one which only fond parthe future. But it is a dream. Make that Church tiality can defend. Instead of being regarded as a all that he wishes to-day; its corruption and decay model, we view it as a beacon. Bunsen exults in will begin to-morrow. Ile asks with enthusiasm, the hope that no further proof than his plans and “ Have these three-government, congregation, and

arguments is needed to show that “the day of clergy-different interests ?” We reply, they have Clergy Churches and State Churches is over and not; but they have passions, prejudices, pride; and

gone, and as certainly that of sects and separatists;" to commit them to any scheme that is not purely and and then he exclaims, “ Of this Church of the Fuperfectly scriptural, any plan moulded by human

ture, we say that in her all, just or unjust, reasonwisdom, is not merely dangerous—it is sinful. Are able or unreasonable, jealousy must disappear;" in we not right in supposing that our author is pleading other words, a specific for regenerating a whole for Utopia where he says :

“ Neither State nor con- nation, and turning it into an Eden, is discovered. gregation need entertain with us any suspicion of Our author believes that the vision is a reality, for assumptions on the part of the clergy-the govern- he is an earnest impassioned man; but he is gazing inent need fear no rude fanatical congregation—the

on a mirage-he is propounding an ideal destined Church need dread no insidious government, a never to be realized by a Nation, though it will by stranger to the national faith;” in other words, the Exxanois. there can never again be a Frederick on the throne It is true, Bunsen deserves our highest eulogy for of Prussia, who is an infidel himself, and the patron his constant aim at the good of the Christian people, of our future Voltaires.

and the rearing of a Church for them, his endeavour We cannot now advert to the author's views of to overthrow sacerdotalism, and bring into vigorous Popery, Independentism, Presbyterianism, and other forms. After discarding English Episcopacy as “a

* Can it sound otherwise than strange to read~" In Berlin is

the directory of spiritual affairs under a minister of State" (p. 133); fragment, its counterpart the Presbyterianism of or, again, referring to the synods, it is said, each Synod “ watches Geneva, Holland, Scotland, as nothing better, Inde- over the maintenance of sound doctrine and disciplíne in churches

and schools. Causes of complaint brought to light by this exami. pendentism as a mere disintegrating negation," he nation, are to be laid before the State courts (p. 140).




play the individual conscience, and personal respon- of Paulus and Wegscheider, to the philosophic infisibility of the sinner. He estimates most soundly delity of Ilegel, thence to the mythical gospel of also the retrograde movement in England. It will Strauss, and ultimately to the Atheism of Stirner. end, he declares, in a system “essentially Popish.” And he presents us with many interesting and impor"It corrupts the doctrines of redemption, justifica- tant views of the religious and ecclesiastical condition tion, and the sacraments, by giving to them a Judai- and prospects of Germany. A detailed reference to cal meaning. This is, in our opinion,” he says, “ to these we must, for the present, postpone,wishing rather deny and crucify Christ.” Yet this conceded to his in this paper to give an outline of his statements reapplause, truth compels us to record the sentiment, garding the people and churches of Britain. that his own “ Constitution” is but a very partial He is a great admirer of the English character. honouring of Him who is Judge, and Lawgiver, and He says : King. To close, What will be the fate of this volume?

If the German feeds upon the ideal, the practical is the

characteristic of Great Britain; I say, Britain, because most By some it will be regarded as “ a protest against of what I say here of England is applicable to Scotland also. Episcopacy;" by others, "an unconditional recom- Reality, action, business, bear sway in the politics, the inmendation of it.” These opposite views were actually dustry, the commerce, and, I will even say, in the religion of taken of the author's letters to Gladstone, and the

the English. Yet this practical tendency which characterizes same conflicting opinions may be formed of this

England is not selfish, as might have been expected. The work, because the author does not take the golden and grandeur to the imagination. The habit which the Eng

large scale on which the people work gives a certain scope thread of scriptural simplicity to guide him through lish have of falling into parties, and of looking at themselves the labyrinth which he has attempted to thrid. At constantly as a nation, is opposed to a narrow selfishness; the same time, it will help on the reaction which, and a more elevated sentiment struggles with this vice in a for some years, has been begun in Germany. The

large portion of the people. . author says, that the dead Rationalism of the

I observed in England one thing, that the people talk much

less of liberty than we do on the Continent, but practise it eighteenth century which . . . . could claim nothing

The young men, who play so important à part in for its own, but an understanding which dreamt not Germany, and even in France and other countries, do not so of the depths of mind and spirit, has borne its own in England. It is not for want of spirit in the English youth corpse to the grave, except where it has been pre- --they have even rather too much; but it is contined in the served as a mummy, and cherished as a dead house- preparatory sphere of schools and colleges, and does not dishold god by certain Governments;” and in this all

play itself in public business. Influential institutions satisfy that love our kind will exult.

this people. The young men know that their turn will come, We mingle our felici

and they wait quietly. Among a people deprived of public tations with his, that the work of faith is advancing, institutions, vigour is often misplaced; it is forced forward in that truth is in progress, that love, the queen of all youth and exhausted in riper years, In England, on the conthe graces, is plying her many labours, “not in trary, it is disciplined in youth and exerted in manhood. On secret orders and foreign societies, sneaking about in

the Continent, paternal authority is much shaken; in Britain, silence, but of public brotherhoods, and free sister

the parents, generally speaking, know how to keep their

children at a respectful distance; and this is a great element hoods, whose motive is Christian love, and whose

of strength for a nation. When the Bible would pronounce a object is the comfort of their poor and oppressed threat against a people, it says, “I will give them children to brethren in the faith.” That may be the path along be their princes, and babes shall rule over them.” (Isa. iii. 4.) which, in the wise overrulings of God, the right con

The opinion which he gives of the aristocracy is also stitution of the Church of the future is to be made

very favourable; the more so, probably, from the conpatent to the Churches of the present.

temptible character, or worse, of the general aristo

cracy of the Continent. He sadvocates the organic GERMANY, ENGLAND, AND SCOTLAND; or, Recollections reform of the Church of England-reform in her

of a Swiss Minister. By J. H. Merle D'AUBIGNE, universities, especially by giving the study of theology D.D.

London. a prominent place in the curriculum-and reform in We doubt not that we shall best consult the wishes

her Government, by elevating the position of the

clergy, and freeing the Church from the abjectness of our readers, in dealing with this volume, if, instead of its present slavery. He says:of presenting them with any lengthened criticism

If Evangelical England is to be rebuilt, she must be set up of our own, we lay before them a selection of the

anew upon the living rock of the Divine Word. She must reminiscences and impressions of the distinguished cease to cultivate almost exclusively in her universities the author. Merle D'Aubigné is one of the few men classical languages and the mathematics; and in order to form who, when they speak, can command a hearing theologians, some attention must be paid to tbeological from Christendom; and as, in this volume, he speaks

science England, in this respect, is far behind the Churches

and universities of the Continent. chiefly of ourselves—about three-fourths of the book

To the convocations once belonged, saving the king's prerobeing devoted to Scotland—we have an additional

gative, the government of the Church. But in 1717, at the time call, as well as an irresistible inducement, to listen. of the Jacobite troubles, the debates having displeased Govern

Germany occupies the first sixty pages of the ment, the convocation was dissolved; and now it no longer volame. D’Aubigné, although a Genevese by birth,

exists. It is true, that whenever a new Parliament meets, and for many years by residence, is no stranger

the elections again take place; the convocation assembles at to Germany. He spent six years (from 1817 to

Westminster; a Latin sermon is preached; after which the

convocation recognises what the last Parliament has enacted 1923) in that country--first as a student, and after

concerning ecclesiastical affairs, and draws up an address to wards as a pastor; and he tells us that he “can the king or the queen; after this it adjourns sine die. Thus never revisit it without again feeling himself among the Anglican Church meets to take ofi' its hat and make a low the friends of his best years.” He was himself

bow to those who have taken away all its power-and then withered for a time by its Rationalism, but God have

the mutes disperse. It is the shadow of a body, which have ing a work for him to do, delivered him. He draws

the shadow of a jurisdiction, holds the shadow of an assembly,

and then all these shadows dissolve and vanish under the anhere a rapid, but true and even thrilling sketch of the

tique arches, and amorg the pillars, statues, urns, and tombs progress of Rationalism from the rationalismus rulgaris of the Gothic abbey.

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The Church of England must have a government inde- that the Christian's sap has been transfused into pendent of the Parliament—a government in which, doubt- them, not from the weakened off-shoots of the less, the bishops will sit; but in which will appear also the ordinary clergy, and wherein deputies from the parishes will

Romans, but from a young, vigorous, and indigenous have an influential voice. Every true Protestant should

stock. This union of natural energy, with that reject the hierarchial course; which may


very serviceable, energy which comes from above, can alone explain perhaps, for ancient Egypt, or modern Rome, but is unsuited the Church of Scotland, and what she is now doing." to Great Britain.

FuriherThe want of ecclesiastical institutions and representation in England is, I am convinced, one of the most active causes

Scotland appears to me at present the best proof of the of Puseyism. Both the ministers and the members of a

Reformation. I do not mean that nothing is wanting in it; Church require occupation; and when there are no public but, comparatively speaking, it is, of all Protestant nations, institutions calling upon them to discuss ecclesiastical in

that in which the gospel has worked the best, and in which terests, and to realize salutary reforms, then they rush into

its effects have been the most durable. This gives to Scotland something else. In Germany, they have taken to science a great importance in that Christian restoration which we and Rationalism; in England, they have turned to ecclesias- should wish our age to witness. Though Scotland should not ticism and Popery.

be for us the model country (it is in ages further back, in the An ecclesiastical constitution, inspired by a spirit of wis

primitive times of Christianity, that the model of the Church dom and piety, would remedy this evil. Councils, synods,

is to be sought), it is perhaps destined at the present period to and connections of different ministers with each other, would

be the vanguard of Christ's army. rouse those who are on the point of falling asleep, and be a means which the grace of God would employ to “ lift the

This eminent rank, he thinks, has been secured to hands that hang down, and the feeble knees.” (Heb. xii. 12.) Scotland, by her attachment to sound doctrineThey would prevent two evils--the want of superintendence, meaning by doctrine not a cold, arid, lifeless orthodoxy, of order, and of discipline, on the one hand; and the arbi- but “the doctrine which is according to godliness.” trary rule of the bishops, on the other.

Doctrine, as it is to be found within the Church of ScotReferring to the threatened endowment of Popery, land, is neither an abstract dogma nor an obsolete formula. he exclaims :

It is spirit and life. These minds so quick and so penetrat

ing; these intellects so moulded by public life and civil liberty, Let the State beware! Popery is less a' religion than a

to great movements and great manifestations; these souls so State. The Papacy everywhere tends to constitute itself a

fresh, so ardent, so energetic, cannot take delight in that State within a State. We know that it is yet far from its

phantom of orthodoxy which we have seen on the Continent object; but let us be patient! we are clearing the road for it. subsisting long after the life of faith had disappeared. The With politicians so short-sighted, as some of those who have, critical, exegetical, patristic, or historical element, which chain other respects, justly acquired the highest reputation in Europe, Popery will quickly make its way. The State talks degree in Scotland; yet we must not therefore expect to find

racterizes Germany, does not, it is true, exist to the same of finding another ally, but it will receive a master.

an external and superficial theology. There is more real theoA touching incident opens and warms his acquaint-logy—that is to say, knowledge of God—in Scotland than in ance with Scotland :


The Siottish theologian places himself at once in the centre We arrived in Edinburgh. It was the day on which the of the Christian doctrine; it is on faith in the reconciliation Queen's birth-day is kept; there were great rejoicings in the by the expiatory sacrifice of Christ that he takes his stand. streets, and fireworks were thrown against the coach. I had

This grand dogma, which tells us at once of the sin of man not yet alighted, when I perceived amidst the crowd a head

and the grace of God; this fundamental doctrine, which conalready whitened by age, with a lively eye and benevolent

tains, on the one hand, the consciousness of our guilt, and, on smile. It was Chalmers, that man wlio for these thirty years the other, the assurance of an irrevocable counsel of mercy and has been all over Europe the representative of Scotland; he

salvation, is the vivyfying centre of Scotch theology. Faith had had the kindness to come and meet me. The hearty in the Lamb of God, who has borne the sins of the world; welcome of this venerable Christian, with whom I was not

this is the milk with which the Scottish child is sed in the before personally acquainted, and who adds to bis great genius

schools of the towns, the mountains, and the plains; and the the simplicity of a affected me even to tears. Thence

strong meat, whose rourishing juices are dispensed by the forward I loved Chalmers as a brother, and reverenced him

theologians of Edinburgh or Glasgow to the future ministers as a father. I was united to him, to his Church, to his people, of the Church. by a powerful bond of affection. A month afterwards, having

But if Christ, once dead, is the groundwork of the edifice, gone to spend my last two days in Scotland with Chalmers, Christ, now living, is its corner-stone. If there are some in a delightful village at Fairlie, on the sea-shore, opposite

countries in Christendom which vorship Christ as much in the mountains of Arran, I repaired to Greenock, to meet the

his death and as a victim (which there certainly are), I think steamer which was to carry me to Liverpool; and, notwith

that there are done which honour Christ in his imperishable standing the distance, notwithstanding his age, and a heavy

life as King so much as the Church of Scotland. rain (a Greenock day, as they call it there), Chalmers would see me to my cabin, and did not leave me till the signal He proceeds to give an account of the Scottish was given for our departure. Chalmers was the first and the mode of public worship, admiring its solemnity and last whom I saw in Scotland. If I recall this cordial wel- simplicity. He complains, however, of the length of come, it is not only for the sake of doing honour to this

our public prayers : “ A Christian alone in his closet friend; I merely point to the venerable Edinburgh patriarch as the type of Scottish hospitality.

may pray for a quarter, a half, or a whole hour, or

more; but when a large assembly has been praying Like all travellers, he is loud in his praises of for ten or fifteen minutes, are not most of the hearEdinburgh. He terms it “the most picturesque of ers unable to follow, except on extraordinary occaall the towns wbich he has ever visited. Its situa- sions, and sadly liable to wandering thoughts? On the tion has been compared to that of Athens, but it is Continent, at least, it would be thus.” Of our preachers added that the Modern Athens is far superior to the he says:ancient.” As to the character of the people, he says :

All things considered, better preachers are to be found in "I found the Scotchman kind, cordial, hospitable. Scotlaud than in any other country of Christendom. We active, and generous. . . . . I was especially struck generally, see, mingled in due proportion, in the discourses of by the energy of this people—their energy of feeling, the Scottish preachers, those two elements which constitute all of words, and of action. There is still something of

Christian eloquence--the objective truth on the one hand, and the old Scots and Picts in these Christians of the

the individuality of the preacher on the other. The developnineteenth century. Christianity has sunk deeper prominent among some of the leading men in Scotland; and

ment of the latter principle, the subjective element, is very into them than into any other nation, but you see this it is which constitutes their eloquence, but not to the


:-“GERMANY, ENGLAND, AND SCOTLAND." 25 injury of the other. Perhaps, on the contrary, among the mass of the preachers, the former element is too predominant. the Established Assembly. First, it was to the Free

He explains the reason of his declining to address Our readers may be interested in his sketches of Church that he had been deputed; and then, further, “Scottish orators :"

he perceived that such was the state of the public

mind in Scotland, that he must absolutely make a I will not mention all the admirable orators whom

choice. I have heard in England and Scotland; the list would

Besides,” he asks, “ what could I have too long. But if I must give the names of the said in the Established Church ? It would have been lions of eloquence, I would point in Scotland to Chal- against my conscience not to speak in all sincerity; mers, whose profound intellect and ardent heart are dis; and yet my remarks would have been out of place plased through the medium of a diction of fervid, I would

before so august a body.” He then turns to the Free even say, of Scottish energy--Chalmers, whose lips utter

Assembly, remarking fames and fire, so that in spite of an accent so strongly providcial as to be almost unintelligible to us, the foreigner loses On passing from one Assembly to the other, we feel that not one of his expressions, for the soul of the orator reveals the State and its power, the nobility and their influence, are what his organ seems to conceal - Chalmers, who fearlessly with the Established Church; and certainly this is something. throws himself into the most difficult subjects, because wher

The Free Church has on her side the people and their enthuever this great orator bends his steps a ray of light springs up, siasm; but let us not forget that among this people there are and makes all clear-Chalmers, the most powerful soul that to be found influential merchants and manufacturers, enlighterer was made subservient to the most lucid and vigorous in- ened lawyers, respectable magistrates, and nobles belonging to tellect. I would next name Dr. C—; at first grave, severe,

the most illustrious houses of Scotland. abrupt, letting his sentences fall with a certain monotony,

The description of the meeting which he addressed appearing torpid, almost asleep; then all at once bursting like in Tanfield, and which many of our readers will rea sbell amidst the assembly, moving heaven and earth, and leaving all his auditory crushed and shattered by the thunders member, is one of the most graphic passages in the of his feloquence. I would name also the Rev. T. G

volume. We can give but parts of it. smiling, jesting, scattering flowers around you, and then They could not certainly do us greater honour than appoint soaring like an eagle from these gay parterres, among which Chalmers to introduce us. The thought of hearing once more you thought he would leave you, and carrying you with him this venerable old man, whose life had been so full of action to the highest heavens.

and of power, and whose voice (a fact before unheard of in The greater portion of the volume is connected with the history of the Church) had, as if endowed with magic the Disruption and the Free Church. He visited

power, twice covered the whole of his country with temples

consecrated to the Lord; perhaps also the thought of saluting Scotland in the month of May 1845, when the two

the foreigners, had drawn together an extraordinary concourse. Assemblies were sitting, and he came in contact The Free General Assembly meets in a plain, modest, but vast with the leading men of both. He has evidently taken building, formerly destined, I believe, for a manufactory, much pains to acquire a thorough knowledge of the situated at Canonmill at the foot of a hill on a picturesque character and details of the ten years' struggle which

road leading to the sea, towards Fife. The hall is low, which preceded the Disruption. He has also studied, with Under its bare rafters and rude beams, which form a strong

renders the atmosphere stilling; but it is very spacious. manifest care and minuteness, the religious history of

contrast with the desert magnificence of the Established Scotland from the Reformation downwards; and in Assembly; with no throne, no Lord High Commissioner, no the latter half of the volume he narrates the whole powdered pages-was assembled, on the evening of the 18th with fulness and facility, interspersing the narrative of May, an immense auditory enthusiastic for the Church and with his own eloquent and earnest commentary.

for liberty.

We advanced slowly, headed by Dr. Chalmers, as it was First come his personal reminiscences. His refer.


for the dense crowd to open and allow us a passage. ences to the Establishment and its Assembly will Some one was reading at that moment a report of the Comsufficiently explain his sentiments regarding them:- mittee for the Propagation of Christianity among the Jews;

but the instant Dr. Chalmers appeared, a general movement Wken, after having seen the Castle and the Parliament House, we arrived at the church in which the Established interrupted the reporter. The audience rose, shouted, clapped

their hands, stamped, and waved hats and handkerchiefs. I General Assembly was sitting; As you were presented to

can speak of this, for I shared not in these acclamations; I his Grace this morning,” said my friend, “

had arrived only the day before, and nobody knew my face. platform." I should have preferred a more modest place, but

The moment some powerful expression, some it was impossible: a door immediately opened before us, and we were admitted to our seats—I on the right, and my compa

' winged word,” strikes the Assembly, it acts like a waternion on the left of the throne of the Lord High Commissioner. spout falling on a calm and quiet sea. The waters more and

rise; the waves roll onward and rush together; now falling, The platform in which I was seated rises majestically over the Moderator's chair, as if to represent the superiority of the

and now dashing furiously upwards. A Scottish Assembly State over the Church. The Commissioner's throne is placed it is a living body of extreme sensibility, which will start

is no corpse that nothing can move, as our own too often are; under a rich canopy of crimson velvet. Behind him stand

at the slightest touch. Yes: these multitudes feeling so deep two little pages, with powdered hair, in full court dresses of

an interest in the debates of the Church, for the cause of searlet; in the back-ground were several officers in waiting the people of God, is a spectacle which even the world does The Marquis of Bute, who was in an adjoining room when we

not present, when political debates are in progress, and the arrived, entered almost immediately after. Below the throne was the Assembly, besides the ministers, the elders, and a few earthly interests of nations are at stake.' Neither in the advocates in their gowns and wigs, representing the courts of in Paris, is to be seen anything like what is witnessed in the

Houses of Parliament in London, nor in the Palais Bourbon law, which now exert so great an infinence over the Established Church. As for the audience or spectators, they were

Canonmills at Edinburgh. Let us, therefore, respect these very few in number, scattered here and there in the nave;

and noisy exhibitions, however extraordinary they may appear to

It is right that the Church should somewhere show to in the galleries there were none.

that world which so often sneers at her, that she is able to "Rari nantes in gurgite vasto."

feel more enthusiasm for the cause of Christ, than the world

. At the sight of so much grandeur, and at the same time so much coldness, one could not help inquiring whether this Assembly, which had in its favour the pompous representation he terms “ The Scottish Question;" and his deliverof power, possessed also the cordial sympathies of the people. However, I was told that in the evening there were more

ance regarding it is full, forcible, and explicit. Ile spectators present. After having for a short time listened to sets out with this general statementtheir debates, the subject of which I do not remember, I rose,

The Free Church has remained stedfast to the charactermade a low bow to his Grace, and retired.

istic principles of Scotlanı. The Moderate party, the present

we will

go to his

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D'Aubigné then proceeds to a discussion of wliat

Established Church, appears to me to have, unthinkingly, , eighteenth by the enervating and lethargic vapours of Patrondeviated towards the principles established in England. age and Moderatism.

Scotland submitted to this unlawful act. In the beginning He then states, in the form of propositions (taken of the eighteenth century her fatal slumber had commenced. substantially from the catechism by Mr. Gray of The Church had been losing her senses by degrees, and the Perth), the Scottislı doctrine of the Church and its mephitic vapours of Moderatism, ascending to her head, bad government, remarking, “ This doctrine appears to deprived her of the consciousness of her own existence. This me to have all the exactness of a theorem.” He adds, lethargic influence had increased from year to year, and she

fell into a long and dead sleep. We protest against the insinuations and the accusations to Yet a few generous voices still made themselves heard. which Scotland has been more than once subjected, from the The spirit of early times—the spirit of Knox, of Melville, of wise men of this world, even on the Continent. No; the Welsh-was not yet extinct. Thus, when a dead calm falls great principles maintained by this Church are not those of a upon the sea, destroying all life and motion, light airs from narrow Puritanisir., a political agitation, a desire of subject- time to time gently swell the sails of the ship, until at last ing the State to the Church, or the intrigues of an ambitious every movement of the air ceases, and the disheartened sailors ciergy. Scotland has received a vocation from God, and this can no longer work the vessel. In like manner, a few vivivocation she is fulfilling. The principles she maintains rest fying breezes still came, from time to time, to reanimate upon the most venerable statutes, the most ancient laws of Scotland, lying still and motionless in the dead calm of the this nation; nay, upon the Word of God itself. These priu- | Moderate party. ciples are the right, the strength, the glory of Scotland. They pervade her whole history, the struggles of her fathers, the

Then sketching the secession, and a number of the constitutions of her people, the scaffolds of her martyrs, her grosser intrusions which followed, he comes to the revolutions, her restorations, and all the great events in which regime of Principal Robertson, whom he characterizes her annais abound. They run through them like a reviving as “a stranger to the interval wants of the people of stream, whose waters carry in all directions fertility and life. God, and to the life of faith.” ** This controversy," says Gillespie, “ rises to the heavens, ratism," he says,

The reign of Mode

" became more and more absolute. and its summit is above the clouds.' The essential cause of the Disruption was the duty of

Robertson himself was soon outdone, and after havmaintaining the spiritual independence of the Church, of pre- ing destroyed the liberties of the Church, men were venting the civil power from deciding in religious matters; found willing to abolish even the doctrines of the and that duty is one which most incontrovertibly flows from Word of God." the constitution of tha: Church, and from the tenet of the kingship of Christ, which she has been commissioned from God to

Evangelical Christianity had almost expired in Scotland,

and absolutism, error, and lethargy had subdued the free and declare openly in the Church. The Church of Scotland cannot yield this point without proving unfaithful to her calling, living country of Melville and of Knox.

Then commenced a period of transition, which separates without sacrificing the very principle of her existence.

the siismal times of Robertson from the glorious epoch of

Chalmers, D'Aubigné repeatedly asserts the Free Church to be the true Church of Scotland, and in proof, enters

He introduces “ Chalmers period and the Veto" upon a review of the leading points in her history. | with these startling and emphatic words :The periods of the first and second Reformations, Robertson had buried the Church of Scotland: Chalmers the Covenants, the Restoration, the “ Killing time,” | raised her from the dead. Or rather, the power of darkness the Revolution, are successively and most graphically liad prevailed under the illustrious name of the historian of traced, and the identity of the Church's testimony dis

Scotland and of Charles V.; the power from on high was played. We have neither time nor space to follow him gian, the great philosopher, the great philanthropist of the

made effectual under the illustrious name of the great theoloin his review. Suffice it to say, that his words every- nineteenth century. where are strong and decided, and such as to leave no

And shortly afterwards he says,doubt as to his meaning. He then comes to the period of the Union, denounces in earnest terms the “flagrant and yet remain attached to the traditions of that of Robert

We can only add, that to live in the period of Chalmers, iniquity,” by which shortly afterwards patronage was

son, is a most singular and revolting anachronism. restored. " It is true,” he says, " that more than a century has elapsed since the deed was done; but an

Having indicated the powerful evangelical influold iniquity is still more flagrant than a new one; it

ence of Chalmers, Thomson, and M'Crie, and the is increased every year by the injustice which refuses rapid revival of religion which followed within the to redress it. Such injustice is a crevice in the

Established Church, he comes to the passing of the armour of a people: in spite of all they do, this de

Veto, and expresses it as his opinion that Parliament fect becomes more and more apparent, neutralizing

was bound to have legalized it. “They ought to have every movement. Sooner or later the consequences

done a great deal more”—by abolishing Patronage will be seen. They have sown the wind, and

they altogether--" and, therefore, it was still more incumshall reap the whirlwind."" He proceeds to trace the

bent upon them to do less.” This, however, was not rise and progress of Moderatism. Having referred

done. A powerful opposition was raised on the part to the admission into the Church, at the Revolution,

of politicians, "" lawyers,” and “patrons.” D'Auof the three hundred " prelatic worldly and persecut bigné addsing” curates, and to the rise of Arminianism, he If we may believe the prevailing sentimeut in Scotland, says

there was yet a fourth class, which was one of the most in

fluential. There were men opposed to the gospel. PerceivThe patrons naturally preferred these Arminian clergymen ing that the Veto Act, which they had at first regarded merely to the Evangelical ministers, finding among the former men as a liberal measure, would favour the pre-eminence of evanmore compliant, more indifferent, and more accommodating gelical principles in Scotland, these men turned against it. as to the moral law.

Thus laxity in the essential doctrines The resurrection of the ancient Presbyterianism, with its of Christianity went along with laxity as to the liberties of faith, its vitality, its decision, its strict morality, its Christian the Church, and the two qualifications united, thenceforward works, and its independence, alarmed the world. Life has formed the distinctive characteristics of what afterwards re- always terrified the dead. ceived the name of Moderatism. Every period has its pecu

The Auchterarder case is then detailed. Referliar danger. After having had to sustain in the sixteenth century the hateful and perfidious struggle against Popery, ring to the order issued by the Court of Session to and in the seventeenth the violent and cruel one against Pre

the presbytery to ordaiu Mr. Young, the following lacy, the Church of Scotland was now to be enfeebled in the remarkable statement occurs, the perusal of which

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