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serves to pamper the debased appetites and 25: It does not occur under either of the enervated sons of luxury and of its component parts. sloth."

BEDFORD. " The old town gaol was One word or two more shall finish taken down about thirty-three years these desultory observations. - A youth- since.” As " the late dean of St. ful genius may be compared to wax, Paul's” (see Barwick, Peter) died in capable of receiving any impression .1664, was this about the year 1640? while warm, but as soon as the cold BEDFORDSNIRE. Col. 2, I. 23. “The damp mists of age or poverty approach, chief employment for the lower classes it either receives po benefit from, or of persons in this county arises from breaks under the sigoet. Mr. Pope agriculture, making of lace, and the wisely asserts, that “when real meritis manufacturing of straw hats. In the wanting, it avails nothing to have been two latter, numbers of women and cbilencouraged by the great, commended dren are constantly occupied, and from by the eminent, and favoured by the them derive a bare subsistence. There public in general.”—Truly it does not is no such thing as bone lace made in the -but for one, possessed of abilities that county, and the fullers' earth pits are all claim reward, to remain unsupported in Buckinghamshire. What the fullers'by the great, and unassisted by the wise, earth pits have to do here is not very evito endure the scoffs of the inperious dent: the fact is, fullers' earth was forand the unmerited censure of the critic, merly dug in the county of Bedford, but to be exposed to the bleak wind of ad- the pits now worked are in the adjacent versity, deprived of the mantle of hope, county of Buckinghamshire. It would wandering on the sharp rocks of ima- seem too, from the same sentence, that gioation, without a conductor, to be the lace manufacture has taken a sigoaded by sickness, and at length pal- milar direction : but, if no bone lace sied by death, displays at once a pore be made in Bedfordshire, what kind of traiture of the deepest misery, and the lace is it, that employs some of the sinistrous motives that actuate man- people, as mentioned in the first senkind is general.-Oh, ye that sport tence of the quotation ? By the by, in the blaze of grandeur, that surfeit we are no where told what bone lace on viands the most delicious, that re- is. Under Lace, bone and blond cline on the bosoms of swans, or roll [blonde] lace are mentioned, but withon couches of roses ? ye, who amass out the least hint of what is meant by wealth in your coffers, that cankers in either of the words. Indeed it would indolence, or glitters in darkness ! de- seem from what is there said, that they bar not yourselves from the heartfelt were synonimous terms: but blonde pleasure of doing good, ere your riches lace signifies lace made of silk; while take unto themselves wings, and vanish bone lace is made of flax thread. The from your view.-Go to the mat of the term bone lace is now nearly obsolete ; unfortunate son of desert, and pour the this being in general called simply laces balm of sympathy to his soul; if it will or, when it is thought necessary to disBot repress the arrows of death, it will tinguish it, thread lace. alleviate their smart; if it will vot dis- It might have been added, that a pel the mists that hover round the eye- small patch belonging to this county lids, it will communicate a ray of conso- lies within the limits of Hertfordshire, lation to the heart; and the blessing of between Studham and Flamsted. bim that was ready to perish will come BedOWEENS. Col. 3, 1. 31. How is upon you; or should it fail in either, it possible to form a circle with three the plaudits of a good conscience will tents ? be your reward, and impart more real Col. 4, I. 20, 24. Are not “the gesatisfaction than the gaudy trappings nuine Arabs” “ of a pure Arab race ?" of brocade, or the perishable lustre of or can there be tribes of a pure Arab worldly magnificence.

race," who are not “genuine Arabs ?" Liachouse, Hay 16, 1816. P. G. How are we to reconcile the apparent

contradictions in this paragraph ? lu HOR E CYCLOPÆDICÆ.

the next paragraph but one, notwith(Continued from Vol. LXIX. page 507.) and poultry.

standing what is here said, we find goats DED. In the first paragraph beds Col. 8, 1. 13 f.b. for however read at

and bedsteads are confounded to least. gether. What is fen-down, col. 2, 1.21 Col. 9, 1. 15 f.b. for also read else.

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Ben Col. 3, I. 17. Por conversation ditional handles are inserted in the side, read conservation.

and it becomes a two-man beetle, or a Col. 4, I. 88 fb. For fifteen read three-man beetle. thirteen. At least, not being able to BEGARMEE. Col. 2, 1.9: marefer to Kirby's work, this 1 presume to tured !surely it ought to be debilibe the necessary correction of a passage, tated. which, as it stands, involves a contradic- BEGRARDI. These make two arti. tion.

BEGUINS. scles, though they are Bees, Voice of: From Mr. Hunter's said to be different names for the same discovery of the lateral tracheæ in the communities; and from each we are rebee, joined with our knowledge of the 'ferred to SERTIARIES, though these are * Jateral openings in the abdomen of the said to be the same. In some passages cicadæ, we may be led to infer, that the too the beguins and beghards are spoken noise, supposed to be produced by the of as different. Under Beguins, “ the friction of the wings in other insects, is third rule of St. Francis, and of the 'produced in the same way. Probably the Augustines,” is mentioned: but we are wings may be employed io modulate the not told what this is under either of the sound, as the tips are in man; and words. bence their motion accompanying it.

BEHEADING. What is “ a circular Bee [s], Generation of. Col. 6, 1. 34, 'stroke" ? for as, read are : I. 85, for is read are: Benut. “ The interval hetween the 1. 12 f.b. for push read fuss. Col. 8, Bebut and the Indụs, in the widest part, l. 26, for ovaria read ovarium. is about 94 geographical miles. Pliny

Wild Bees. Col. 2, 1. 9, for or allows only 120 Roman miles between rather that of a species read rather than the Indus and the Hydaspes." From of a species.

this only the writer appears to consider Beer. Col. 2, I. 21 f.b. for melted the distance assigned by Pliny as less grains reud malted grain.

than the preceding: but, according to “ Beer tasting of the cask the different values of the Roman and may be freed from it [the cask ?), by geographical mile, as given under MEAputting a handful of wheat in a bag, SURE. it exceeds it by two English miles and hanging it to the vessel.” If the nearly. editor of the Cyclopædia can believe Beira. This is apparently from the this, he need not boggle at the doctrine same haod, as gave us such an accurate of transubstantiation.

account of the boundaries of AxdaBees, in Naval Architecture," pro- LUSIA, see Mag. lxix. 12.

Who else perly Bes. We may read what is here could consider a province as bounded said of them, without being a whit the by one, from which it was separated wiser. They are two planks, thus called by another? Yet so it is represented from being somewhat similar in shape to here: “bounded on the north by the the capital B, holted one on each side of province of Entre Duero a Minbo, from the bowsprit near its outer extremity, which it is separated by the river Duero where the forestay and fore-topmast or Douro, and by Tralos Montes." In stay are fastened. They serve both to fact, it is bounded on the north by the secure the stays, and for the men to provinces of Entre Douro e Minbo and stand on when stowing the sails. They Tralos Montes; from the latter of which, are sometimes called the saddle.

and from the greater part of the former, Beeitings. L. 1, for finest read first. it is separated by the Douro: on the : Beetle. At the end should be added: west, by the ocean ; on the south, by This is a solid block of wood, nearly the province of Estremadura, and the conical, about a yard long, and eight Tagus : on the east, by part of Spanish inches in diameter at bottom, where it Estremadura and Leon. is booped with iron.

At the top it “ BELAY, on board of ship, signifies is continued for a few inches of equal the same as fasten." This is not true, diameter, and of a size easily grasped, for there are many ways of fastening to form a bandle: and another handle very different from belaying. The artiis inserted at right angles into ils side cle is given much better in Moore's litabout the middle. When made of a tle Vocabulary, now before me, but larger size, it is sometimes called a there it is not sufficiently explicit. It coinmander. When too large to be should be: “to fasten a rope by windmanaged by one man, one or more ad- ing it several times,” in the form of a

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figure of 3,"rouod a cleat, belaying say. In some countries, probably, to pin, or kevel.”

confine a loose dress ; in others, to sus. · Belion....was the boundary of pend the scanty covering suggested by the expedition of Decimus Brutus :” modesty ; and in others, to still the yet in the next sentence we are told, cravings of hunger. From the belt, that he first crossed the river, and was thas introduced, it was natural to sus then followed by his army.

pend the sword, when war had given BELLS. Bells are bere mentioned as birth to this weapon : and it does not huag to certain robes, and to the bri- by any means appear from the quo

dles of war-horses, but no notice is tations from Homer and Virgil, in taken of their being different in shape col. , 2, that the sword was not thus from the great 'ells in churches. We worn by the Greeks and Romans; for confound under one name two very surely the weapon was as likely to hang different things : that described in the against the thigh when suspended from Cyelopædia, a bollow, circular vessel, a belt passing round the waist, as when open where its periphery is greatest, fastened to a bldric crossing the shouland made to sound by means of a der. The sword of a fop in the middle clapper: and a thin hollow sphere of of the last century dangled nearly at his metal, or piece approaching to a sphere knee, yet it huug by a belt, not a balin shape ; the aperture of which con. dric. Spenser very aptly uses baldric for sists of a siwall slit

, terminating at each the zodiac, which is oblique to the axis end in a circular hole; and made to of the Earth. sound by means of one or more solid Benda, Francis, col. 2, 1. 13 f.b., bodies enclosed within it. Such were " could boast of baving had the hothe bells attached to the legs of a nour of accompanying bis majesty hawk; commonly, till of lale years, [Frederick II. of Prussia), during the to the headstalls of waggon horses; forty years which he had been in his to the corals hung round the waist of service, in near fifty thousand different children ; and, no doubt, to garments. concerts." What I more than three The French brave an appropriate name a day for forty years together, allowing for these, grelots : while the bell with a no respite either in peace or war, though clapper they call clache, or, if small, his own minister, and his own general in clachelle The Germans also bave dif- chief! ferent names for the two. Thus the Bender. Col. 1, 1. 19. What is

French phrase for “to bell a cat” is, “ that dreadful instrument of modern attacher'le grelol, not la cloche : and warfare, the globe of compression ?” the Germans express the same by der It does not occur under either of the ketz die schelle anhaengen, not dié words in the Cyclopædia : and though glocke.

an obscure account of it is given a little · BELLADONNA, L. 6, for insomniş below, we are there referred to MINE, tead in somniis.

under which not a word is said of it. * BELLE Dane. Før Town read Down. BENGAL. Col. 9, I. 6. " The most

Bellows, Hessian. As these are not common vehicle anjong the peasants is described, I turned to Hessian, in hopes a hackery, which see. That is, gentle of obtaining an account of them ; but reader, only take a trip to Bengal, and all I found was, “ Hussian Leilows, see you may sce whai it is : for no such Bellows."

word occorsia the alphabetical order of BELOX £. L. 13, 14 : " in the Medi- the Cyclopædia. terranean, on the coast of Lisbon !""

- Langungr of. Col. 2, I. 38, What coast can this be? lo some parts 39. " Tbe indefinite pronouns are all of the West of England, tbis fish is apłotes in Bengalcse, as they are in called the longnose.

Latin and Greek.” What is meant here • BELT. L. 13. The writer does not by indefinite pronouns?.. leen aware of the distinction between Col. 3,1 3-6. Wbat is the difference bell and a baldrit, which are now con- of form between “ an apen consonant founded together. A language cannot immediately preceding the final letter," be rich that wants discriminaliog terms; and “ a final letter preceded by an open and it is to be regretted, that. our own consonant going before it?" Where too is much iropoverished by the disuse of is the use of the addition going before

ppropriate words. For what purpose it? for it could not be preceded by
the belt, properly so calleda or girdle, a consonant in any other situation.
was brst worn, it is now impossible to Ib. I. 5 f.b. " the valve of wbicb ig
Europ. Mug. Vol. LXX. July, 1816.


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also included as a joint.” I would ra. modore, the rear-commodore become

“ which is very properly con. vice-commodore, and the sub-commosidered as having three joints also:" dore become rear-commodore, according for the thumb consists of three bones, to seniority. When actiog on service, as well as each of the fingers.

the chief commodore shall wear a broad Benzoin. It is not the white powder, red pendant at the main, and the com

which has received the singular name modores a white, at the same place ; of Lac Virginale," or lac virginis ; the vice-commodores a red at the fore, but the turbid, wbite liquid, formed the rear-commodores a blue at the mi. by adding water to the tincture of zen, and the sub-commodores a combenzoïn, from which the white pow. mon St. George's pendant. der, called magislery of benzoin, sub- A lieutenant of the gavy, who ranks sides on standing.

with a captain of the army, shall be paid Col. 2, 1. 25, afler almost add all. as a captain of the army; and as a capI. 28, for perforın read pro- tain of the army upon service commands

a body of men called a company, $0 1. 37, for it may be gently shall the lieutenant of the navy comshaken read it may be taken off and mand a body of men called a division ; gently shaken.

and he sball be denominated a captain, I. 40, 41, “and should not and each division shall consist of sixty be lost.” Then what is to be done with men, more or less, according to the size it?

of the ship, and her complemeut. Each BERBERIS. Col. 2, 1. 25 f.b. 16 The division shall be trained to serve berries are so acid that birds will not cat shore, wben necessary. thein.” Yet on turning over the leaf, A midshipman who has served six we are told in the last paragraph of the years, and passed examinations, which article, that “ a few of these shrubs stamp him qualified for any station in will make an agreeable variety in wil. the navy, sball, as at present, if he can dernesses, and the fruit will be food for obtin it, be at ouce commissioned as a birds."

captain of division (now called lieute(To be continued.)

nant); but if he should be unable to obtain this at once, he shall not re

main, as he has hitherto remained, after For the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE. a sacrifice of six years, without any hold PROPOSED ARRANGEMENT for a Naval whatever of his profession, but be shall BREVET.

receive a commission, dated on the day THAT the following regulations shall that he shall have passed his final exaaud added to the naval instructions; lieutenant; rauk with a lieutenant of viz.

the army; and receive the same pay, The first one hundred post captains and hall-pay. These officers shall be mpon the list shall henceforth be depo- divided between the divisions comminated commodores, and shall enjoy manded by the captains of division. the rank and pay of brigadier-generals. The captaincy of division shall be open The remainder of the post-captains who to him, whenever he can procure it by rauk with colonels, shall be paid as brilliant exploit, good conduct, or the colonels, and be denominated vice will of the Admiralty ; but under no eommodores. The post-captains who circumstance, excepting ill conduct, rank with lieutenant-colonels shall be shall he fail to be appointed a cappaid as lieutenant-colonels, and be de- tain of division in eight years, fron nominated rear-commodores.

the day he entered the wavy. Nor shall The officers of the navy now called by any officer, but for ill conduct, remain the indiscriminate title of commanders, as a captain of division (now called lieu. and who rank with majors, shall be paid tenant) for a period exceeding ten years; as majors, and denominated sub-com- nor shall a captain of division by this modores.*

rule be precluded from obtaiving the As the commodore advances by gra. rank of sub-commodore earlier, it cir. dation to the rank of rcar-admiral, so cumstances adınit of it; having, howshall the vice-commodore become coin- ever, served at least two years as cap

tain of division (now called lieutenant), * Perhaps a more appropriate title may and the master sball take command after precot itself to others.

bim; continuing, however, as he now is,

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the pilot and conductor of the ship, sults only from a sense of duty, clouded to whom the captaincy of division sball by a sense of wrong. It is not difficult be open to his choice, in cases of merit to keep an established zeal alive, but which demand reward.

systematic injustice must in the end A young gentleman, on his entering prove an extinguisher, and, when once into the navy, shall, as at present, be extinguished, we may blow it as long called a volunteer ; but after two years as we please, but we shall not easily service, if his conduct has been proper, rousc it again inlo name ! he shall be commissioned with the rank, pay, and half-pay of an ensign ; and be denominated a midshipman.

On EARLY INDICATIONs of ATTACHMENT If some arrangement of this nature,

lo parlicular PURSUITS. I do not mean implicitly as described

To the Editor of the European Magazine. (which may abound with faults, that I am unable to perceive); but if some

TITIJOUT entering on the longThing of this nature were adopted, then

disputed, and as yet undecided, the officers of the navy would feel themselves to be on soinething like a footing those talents which are peculiarly adapt

question, whether we are born with with the army; but until then, they ed for particular professions and pur. cannot consider the navy otherwise, than

suits, or whether we are solely indebted as a secondary profession. The titles of commodore, vice-com- to education and habit for the biasse's

whicb influence our conduct, it cannot modore, and rear-commodore, would be denied that many, when at so early a soon become as familiar to the ear as brigadier-general, colonel, and lieu. period of life that the faculties of ihe tenant colonel : and a fair promotion have displayed, though, as might be

miod have scarcely begun to operate, of admirals, to pave the way for this

expected at such an age, in triics, an arrangement, would meet the reasonable expectation, that a permanent peace afterwards been their greatest delight;

attachment to such objects as have would be crowned by some such sign of and on which they have bestowed the regard to those of both professions, most unremitted attention. Many have which have conquered it, and if there supposed that the character of the Mon must be a Retired List," let the

is formed between the ages of seventeen retirement be from choice, and let the officer disabled by wounds, services, or

and thirty: it is then that the impres.

sions which are made are sufficiently ere, be provided for, as becomes the deep to be lasting, and the colours in liberality of a great and generous na. tion. Let those who have been passed selves sufficiently vivid to attract and to

which surrounding objects present themover be either restored to the rank captivate Arrived at the period when which they ought to have had, placed, if they prefer it, upon the lity of youth has ceased to produce per

the judgment operates, when the credua -- Retired List;" and this retirement, petual confidence, and before ine sober thus become voluntary, would no loue decisions of mature experience have ger be felt as a stigma. Thus modified, suggested the propriety of cautious reall the gradations of the navy would be flection, we adopt our notions, choose actuated by a new spirit, every individaal would feel the stimulus; the road lead to soine fixed ultiinatum, and

our friends, select the path which is to would be open to the top of the pro. fession to all rapks; and there would be

“ Begio to venerate ourselves as men.' to dread, as now, that let an officer's Yet allowing this to be, generally actions, zeal, perseverance, and merit, speaking, the case, we may often no. be what they may, a period would, per- tice in the mind, at a much earlier pe. haps, come, when his reward would be riod, some indications that mark what -neglect and scorn.

will be the cause of future greatness. The navy will be wanted again ; let The young mathematician experiences pot disgust take tvo deep a rool in its the greatest satisfaction in designing bosom, it is easier to prevent than to figures and drawing plans; the youth. care; let grace give justice to her sons, fui botanist cultivates his little spot and not the force of circuinstances in the paternal garden, and walches better and brighter will burn that zealwith a more than ordinary degree of acting from a consciousness that it is pleasure the progress and the varieties given to gratitude, than that which re- of vegetation ; the young patriot pricks


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