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London, 1718, 8vo. 12. Charge of misrepresentations
the Account of what was transacted in the assembly at Exon," London, 1719, 8vo. 7. “ An Answer to Mr. Enty's Defence of the Assembly,” London, 1719, 8vo. 8. “ The Western Inquisition,” London, 1720, 8vo. 9.“ The Security of Truth, in answer to Mr. Enty,” London, 1721, 8vo. 10.“ Inquisition-honesty displayed,” London, 1922, 8vo.—On the doctrine of the Trinity he published, 1. “A Letter to a Dissenter in Exeter," London, 1719, 8vo. 2. “ Plain Christianity defended," in four parts, London, 1719, 1720, 8vo. 3. “ Thirteen Queries propounded to the Rev. Mr. Walrond, in an appendix to the Innocent vindicated,” London, 1719, 8vo. There was an Auswer to these queries printed in 1721, under the title of “. An Answer to some Queries printed at Exon, relating to the Arian Controversy," and ascribed to Dr. Daniel Waterland. Mr. Peirce had some thoughts of writing a reply, but changing his purpose, Mr. Joseph Hallet, jun. wrote a defence of them, printed at London in 1736, 8vo, with this title : “ The Truth and Iimportance of the Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity and Incarnation demonstrated : in a defence of the late learned Mr: Peirce's thirteen Queries, and a Reply to Dr. W---'s, and a gentleman's Answer to them,” &c. 4. Propositions relating to the Controversy concerning the Trinity, in a Letter to the Rev. Mr. Enty,” London, 1720, 8vo. 5. “ An Answer to a pamphlet, entitled Texts of Holy Scripture compared, &c.” London, 1721, 8vo. 6. “ A Reply to Mr. Enty's late piece, entitled Truth and Liberty consistent,” &c. London, 1721, 8vo.--His most valuable works, however, are his commentaries on the Seripture : 1. "A Paraphrase and Notes on the Epistle of
St. Paul to the Colossians. With an Appendix upon Ephes. iv. 8." London, 1725, 4to. 2. “A Paraphrase and Notes on the Epistle of St. Paul to the Philippians," Lond. 1725, 4to. 3. “A Paraphrase and Notes on the Epistle to the Hebrews," 1727, 4to. Theological : 1. “An essay in favour of giving the Eucharist to Children," 1728, 8vo. 2. “ Fifteen Sermons, and a Scripture Catechism,” 1728, 8vo. 1
PEIRESC (NICOLAS Claude FABRI DE), a very learned Frenchman, was descended from an ancient and noble family, seated originally at Pisa in Italy, and born in 1580. His father, Renaud Fabri, lord of Beaugensier, sent him at ten years of age to Avignon, where he spent five years on his classical studies in the Jesuits' college, and was removed to Aix in 1595, for the study of philosophy. In the mean time, he attended the proper masters for dancing, riding, and handling arms,all which he learned to perform with expertness, but rather as a task, than a pleasure, for even at that early period, he esteemed all time lost, that was not employed on literature. It was during this period, that his father being presented with a medal of the emperor Arcadius, which was found at Beaugensier, Peiresc begged to have it; and, charmed with decyphering the characters. in the exergue, and reading the emperor's name, in that transport of joy he carried the medal to his uncle; who for his
encouragement gave bim two more, together with some books upon that subject. This incident seems to have led him first to the study of antiquities, for which he became afterwards so famous. In 1996, he was sent to finish his course of philosophy under the Jesuits at Tournon, where he also studied mathematics and cosmography, as being necessary in the study of history, yet all this without reJaxing from his application to antiquity, in which he was much assisted by one of the professors, a skilful medallist; nor from the study of belles lettres in general. So much labour and attention, often protracted till midnight, considerably impaired his constitution, which was not originally very strong. In 1597, his uncle, from whom he had great expectations, sent him to Aix, where he entered upon the law; and the following year he pursued the same study at Avignon, under a private master, whose name was Peter David ; who, being well skilled likewise in antiqui,
! Life in Prot. Diss. Magazine, vol. 11. -Gen, Dict.
ties, was not sorry to find his pupil of the same taste, and encouraged him in this study as well as that of the law. Ghibertus of Naples, also, who was auditor to cardinal Aquaviva, much gratified his favourite propensity, by a display of various rarities, and by lending him Goltzius's “ Treatise upon Coins.” He also recommended a visit to Rome, as affording more complete gratification to an antiquary than any part of Europe. Accordingly, his uncle having procured a proper governor, he and a younger brother set out upon that tour, in Sept. 1599; and passing through Florence, Bologna, Ferrara, and Venice, he fixed his residence at Padua, in order to complete his course of law. He could not, however, resist the temptation of going frequently to Venice, where he formed an acquaintance with the most distinguished literati there, as Sarpi, Molinus, &c. in order to obtain a sight of every thing curious in that famous city. Among others, he was particuJarly caressed by F. Contarini, procurator of St. Mark, who possessed a curious cabinet of medals, and other antiquities, and found Peiresc extremely useful and expert in explaining the Greek inscriptions. After a year's stay at Padua, he set out for Rome, and arriving there in Oct. 1600, passed six months in viewing whatever was remarkable. After Easter he gratified the same curiosity at Naples, and then returned to Padua about June. He now resumed his study of the law; and at the same time acquired such a knowledge of Hebrew, Samaritan, Syriac, and Arabic, as might enable him to interpret the inscriptions on the Jewish coins, &c, In these languages he availed himself of the assistance of the rabbi Solomon, who was then at Padua. His taste for the mathematics was also revived in consequence of his acquaintance with Galileo, whom he first saw at the house of Pinelli at Rome; and he began to add to his other acquisitions a knowledge of astronomy and natural philosophy. From this time it was said that she had taken the helm of learning into his hand, and begun to guide the commonwealth of letters.”
Having now spent almost three years in Italy, he returned to France in the end of 1602, and arrived at Montpellier in July, where he heard the law lectures of Julius Pacius, until he returned to Aix, about the end of 1603, at the earnest request of his uncle, who having resigned to bim bis senatorial dignity, bad, ever since the beginning of the year, laboured to get the king's patent. The degree of doctor of law being a necessary qualification for that dignity, Peiresc kept the usual exercise, and took that degree Jan. 18, 1604 ; on which occasion he made a most learned speech, upon the origin and antiquity of the doctoral ornaments.
In 1605, he accompanied Du Vair, first president of the senate at Aix, who was very fond of him, to Paris; whence, having visited every thing curious, he crossed the water, in company with the French king's ambassador, in 1606, to England. Here he was very graciously received by king James ; and having seen Oxford, and visited Camden, sir Robert Cotton, sir Henry Saville, and other learned men, he passed over to Holland; and after visiting the several towns and universities, with the literati in each, he went through Antwerp to Brussels, and thence back to Paris, returning home in Sept. 1606, on account of some family affairs.
Soon after this, he made a purchase of the barony of Rians, which he completed in 1607; and in the same year, at the solicitation of bis uncle, having approved himself before that asseinhly, he was received a senator on the 1st of July. In the following year his uncle died. In 1616, he attended Du Vair to Paris; where, in 1618, he procured a faithful copy, and published a second edition of “ The Acts of the Monastery of Maren in Switzerland.” This was in defence of the royal line of France against the title of the Austrian family to the French crown by right of succession; and, upon this, he was nominated the same year, by Louis XIII. abbot of Guistres in Guienne. He remained in France till 1623, when, upon a message from his father, now grown old and sickly, he left Paris, and arrived at Aix in October. Not long after he presented to the court a patent from the king, permitting him to continue in the function of his ancient dignity, and to exercise the office of a secular or lay person, notwithstanding that, being an abbot, he had assumed the person of a churchman. The court of parliament, not assenting to this, decreed unaniinously, that, being already admitted into the first rank, he should abide perpetually in it; not returning, as the custom of the court was, to the inferior auditory, in which trials are usually had of criminal cases. He obtained also, a rescript from the pope, to license him to be present at the judgment of capital causes, as even in the higher auditory some select cases of that nature were
customarily heard : but he never made use of this licence, always departing when they came to vote, without voting himself. In 1627, he prevailed with the archbishop of Aix, to establish a post thence to Lyons, and so to Paris and all Europe ; by which the correspondence that he constantly held with the literati every where, was much facilitated. In 1629, he began to be much tormented with complaints incident to a sedentary life ; and, in 1631, hav, ing completed the marriage of bis nephew Claude with Margaret D'Alries, a noble lady of the county of Avignon, he bestowed upon him the barony of Rians, together with a grant of his senatorial dignity, only reserving the function to himself for three years. The parliament not agreeing to this, he procured, in 1635, letters-patent from the king, to be restored, and to exercise the office for five years longer, which he did not outlive, for, being seized June 1637, with a fever, he died, on the 24th of that month, in his fifty-seventh year.
A very honourable funeral was provided for him by his nephew Claude, in the absence of his brother, who was then at Paris; but who, returning shortly to Provence, hastened to perform the funeral rites, and to be present at the obsequies. He also procured a block of marble from Genoa, from which a monument was made and erected to his memory, with an epitaph by Rigault. As he had been chosen in his life-time a member of the academy of the Humoristi at Rome, his eulogium was pronounced by John James Bouchier, of that learned society, in the presence of cardinal Barberini, his brother Antonio, cardinal Bentivoglio, and several other cardinals, and such a multitude of celebrated and learned men, that the hall was scarce able to contain them. Many copies of verses, in Italian, Latin, and Greek, were recited; which were afterwards printed together, with a collection of funeral elegies in forty languages, under the title of “ Panglossia.” Peirese was, in his person, of a middle size, and of a thin habit; his forehead large, and his eyes grey; a little hawk-nosed, his cheeks tempered with red; the hair of his head yellow, as also his beard, which he used to wear long; his whole countenance bearing the marks of uncommon courtesy and affability. In his diet be affected cleanliness, and in all things about him; but nothing superfluous or costly. His clothes were suitable to his dignity; yet he never wore silk. In like magner, the rest of his house was adorned