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person who is now writing this notice, may think; what a saint has felt, he may for myself; but when I am wise, this illu. feel; what at any time has befallen any sion vanishes like the mists of the morning, man, he can understand. Who hath and then I know that what I thoughi to access to this Universal Mind, is a party be myself, was only one of my manifes- to all that hath or can be done, for this is tations, only a mode of my existence. It the only and sovereign agent.. is 1 who bark in the dog, grow in the It may easily be seen that this amounts tree, and murmur in the passing brook. to an identification of man with God; Think not, my brother, that thou art di- yet this system is by no means Panverse and alien from myself; it is only iheistic; perhaps, indeed, we may be while we dwell in the outward appear- permitted to coin a new term, and call it ance that we are two; when we consider Human Pantheism. Pantheism sinks the depths of our being, we are found to man in God-makes him to be a phenobe the same, for the same self, the same menon of the Divine existence, but this vital principle, animates us both. (We system, so far from being an absorption speak as a Transcendentalist.) I create of humanity in God, is an absorption of the universe, and thou, also, my brother, God into the human soul. A pantheistic createst the same; for we create not two friend once explained to me the difference universes but one, for we two have but between his system and that of the Tranone soul, there is but one creative energy, scendentalists. “I hold myself,” said which is above, and under, and through he, " to be a leaf, blown about by the all.

winds of change and circumstance, and Well—but all this is no new theory, holding to the extreme end of one of the and whatever reverent disciple may have branches of the tree of universal existimagined that Mr. Emerson, or any “ fa ence; but these gentlemen (referring to vorite of the gods,” has herein shown a the Transcendentalists), think themselves wonderful originality, betrays a most to be some of the sap.” But to return to triumphant ignorance of what is, and the second series of essays. As we before what has been. Such a doctrine was said, we shall confine our remarks altowell known in the East, before history gether to the essay on • Experience.” began; no man can tell when it arose, For the sake of connection and order, we it is as old as thought itself. Rich, will give a detailed analysis of the essay, (say the Vedas) is that universal self, stating the doctrine in our own words, whom thou worshipest as the soul.” We but giving full quotations where the subshould strive, therefore, to disentangle ject matter is interesting, that the reader ourselves from the world of matter, from may be enabled to judge of our faithfulthe bonds of time and space, that we may take our stand at once in the Over ILLUSION.—When a man wakes up, as soul,' which we are, did we but realise it were, comes to a consciousness of his it. We are the Over-soul, and we come own existence, and asks himself the into our own native home, when we at- questions of his origin and destiny, as, tain to our true point of view, where the whence came I? where am I going? whole universe is seen to be one body. why do I exist ? he almost inevitably Then do we know of a truth that it is loses himself in the outworld. [1 am we who think, love, laugh, bark, growl, endeavoring, as the reader will remember, run, crawl, rain, snow, &c. &c. Mr. to state the substance of the Essay on Emerson has given a beautiful expression Experience.) A chain of causes has to this thought:

preceded our birth and actions; and the

deeds of this present time will be fol. “There is no great and no small

lowed by a chain of results. But who To the soul that maketh all :

knows any thing of these chains ? « We And where it cometh, all things are ; find ourselves (says Mr. Emerson) in a And it cometh every where.

series of which we do not know the ex

tremes, and believe that it has none. We “ There is one mind,” says Mr. Emer. awake and find ourselves on a stair : son, in his Essay on History,

there are stairs below us which we seem 10 all individual men. Every man is an to have ascended ; there are stairs above inlet to the same, and to all of the same. us, many a one, which go upward and He that is once admitted to the right of out of sight.” We appear to possess no reason, is made a freeman of the whole power, no creative energy, independent estate. What Plato has thought, he of these circumstances. The soul within


“ common


seems to slumber, and we attribute all to affirm that if there was disease in the liv. what is without; but while we fioat on, er, the man became a Calvinist, and if half seeing, living in appearances, the that organ was sound he became a Unita. soul silently and secretly performs its rian.” A protest must, however, be encreative acts, so that we are astonished 1ered against the consequences which at the end of a day when we have done flow from this doctrine of the temperanothing, to find that real effects have ments. Temperament is final from the been produced. We seem lost to our. point of view of nature only, but a deeper selves, having faith only in appearances. insight will transcend it. The doctrine Where we ourselves are, all is mean; of temperaments, taken by itself, (says but where others are, there is beauty; Mr. Emerson,) leads to physical necessifor who knows but the thing which ty; but there is a door into every intelligives dignity to life may be with them gence, which is never closed, through wbile we feel that it is far from us. “It which the Creator passes, bringing with is said, all martyrdoms looked mean him light and higher knowledge. when they were suffered. Every ship SUCCESSION.---We are first deceived by is a romantic object, except that we sail the outworld, thinking it to be real, and in. Embark, and the romance quits our ourselves a part of it; afterwards, when vessel, and hangs on every sail in the we have been undeceived by a considerahorizon. . I quote another man's tion of temperament, we fall into new ilsaying ; unluckily that other withdraws lusions, thinking temperament to be final. himself in the same way, and quotes More thought will disclose to us the se

Even adversity, affliction, the cret of this illusion also ; it is this--each death of friends, have not power to soul is constituted in a peculiar manner, awaken us to ourselves. While our subjected to moods and changes, and the eyes are thus fixed upon the outworld, soul, by its moods and changes, is the we are lost to the reality of existence; reason and ground of the temperaments, these things are not the soul, neither as these last are the reason and ground have they rower to move it. “ In the of outward nature. • The secret of the death of my son, now more than two illusoriness is in the necessity of a sucyears ago, I seem to have lost a beautiful cession of moods or objects.” Men are estate-no more. I cannot get it nearer constituted each in his own way; there to me. If to.morrow I should be in- is little that is infinite in them. The naformed of the bankruptcy of my principal ture of each creates his temperament, the debtors, the loss of my property would temperament of each does its part in crebe a great inconvenience to me, perhaps, ating outward nature. A man is like for many years, but it would leave me a bit of Labrador spar, which has no lusas it found me-neither better nor worse." tre as you turn it in your hand, until you

TEMPERAMENT.—But even here we come to a particular angle; then it shows obtain a glimpse of the supremacy of the deep and beautiful colors. There is no soul. Man sees only what he brings adaptation or universal applicability in eyes to see. “We animate what we can, men, but each has his special talent; and and see only what we animate. It de. the mastery of successful men consists in pends on the mood of the man whether adroitly keeping themselves where and he shall see the sunset or the fine poem.” when that turn shall be oftenest to be Temperament must always be taken into practised. We do what we must, and consideration. It is in vain that the land- call it by the best names we can, and scape be spread out, if the beholder be of would fain have the praise of having ina cold nature, and regard it not. We are tended the iesult which ensues.” If we not the creatures of the outworld, for the take one man, two men, with their temoutworld acts on us only according to our peraments, natural character, or what you temperaments; and, in this, we already will, it is not enough ; they cannot consee some pre-eminence of ourselves over stitule the universal harmony.

“ Of nature. And these outward things are course, it needs the whole society to give not so outward after all as we have sup- the symmetry we seek. The posed. Politics, creeds, conventional- lored wheel must revolve very fast to apisms of societies, are not themselves pear white." causes trammelling us, but ill-looking ac SURFACE.—Temperament finds its reacidents we have impressed upon nature. son in the character of the individual “I knew a witty physician who found man, and outward things are as the temtheology in the biliary duct, and used to perament of him who perceives them.

But is this really so? Is the universe must not harbor such disconsolate conwhich we construct in thought, the same sciences, borrowed too much from the with that in which we have the good for consciences of other nations. We must tune, or the misery, to live? Nay, but set up the strong present tense against who art thou, O man, that askest? No all rumors of wrath, past or to come.” good comes from too much prying into Take things as they come, live in the nature; the actual, it must be confessed, present, enjoy the present, and ask no is against us, and, if we have faith in it, questions, "In the morning. I awake, we lose our convictions of the supremacy and find the old world, wise, babes, and of the soul. * Nature hates peeping, and mother, Concord and Boston, the dear our mothers speak her very sense when old spiritual world, and even the dear they say, Children eat your victuals, and old devil not far off. If we take the good say no more about it.” We find, when we find, asking no questions, we shall we think, either a contradiction in our have heaping measures." thoughts, or a want of harmony with “We may climb into the thin and cold . actual existence. We are therefore, of realm of pure geometry and lifeless sci

necessity, skeptics. Let us not, then, ence, or sink into that of sensation. Belook too narrowly into philosophy and tween these extremes is the equator of science, but live, as others, on the sur-life, of thought, of spirit, of poetry-a face of things. “What help, indeed, narrow belt.” Live on the surface, and from thought? Life is not dialectics.” ask no questions. • We live amid surfaces, and the true SURPRISE.—It would, undoubtedly, be art of life is to skate well upon them.” pleasant, if it were possible, to live in The wise man will live in the present. this world as knowing something beyond He knows that the appearances are at the mere surface of existence. But it is least appearances; of other things he in vain that we construct our positive knows little. “ Five minutes to-day, systems. “Presently comes a day, or is are worth as much to me as five minutes it only a half hour, with its angelin the next millenium. Let us be poised whisperings, which discomfits the conand wise in our own to-day. Let us clusions of nations and of years !” Our treat the men and women well: treat systems never cover the right matters, them as if they were real : perhaps they always is there a gap through which the are.” This perhaps they are,” is the reality oozes out. · Life is a series of profound sentence; we have proved them surprises, and would not be worth taking to be mere appearances, yet even the or keeping if it were not. God delights doubt presents itself-perhaps they are to isolate us every day, and hide us from real. What shall we do amid these con the past and the future. We would look flicting doubts? There is but one plan, about us, and with great politeness he enjoy the present, and let all these an. draws down before us an impenetrable noyances go by the board. Perhaps all screen of purest sky, and another behind is appearance, perhaps it is real, let us us of purest sky. You will not renot look deep, but skate on the surface. member,' he seems to say, ' and you will “Great gifts are not got by analysis. not expect.”” We are not what we wish Every thing good is on the highway.” we were, we are not what we think Let us no longer be troubled by these ourselves to be. “The ardors of piety high ethical questions which result in agree at last with the coldest skepticism no good. Follow your own impulses -that nothing is of us or our worksand all will be well. How can a man that all is of God.” « The individual is have peace when he calls that crime always mistaken. He designed many which is no evil, but, on the contrary, ac- things, and drew in other persons as cording to nature ? “ Nature, as we know coadjutors, blundered much, and someher, is no saint. The lights of the church, thing is done; all are a little advanced, the ascetics, the Gentoos and Grahamites, but the individual is always mistaken. she does not distinguish by any favor. It turns out somewhat new, and very She comes eating and drinking and sin. unlike what he promised himself.” ning. Her darlings, the great, the strong, REALITY.—Temperament gives us the the beautiful, are not children of our key to Illusion. Outward nature is as it law, do not come out of the Sunday is, because our temperaments are as they School, nor weigh their food, nor punc But, again, these temperaments are tually keep the commandments. If we a new, and a higher illusion; they rewill be strong with her strength, we sult from the necessity of succession in


the moods of the soul But these moods self, which is nowise to be indulged to also are finite and transient; where shall another. The act looks very differently we look then for Reality? Nowhere on the inside and on the outside; in its but in the soul itself can it be found. quality, and in its consequences. MurWe have described life as a flux of der in the murderer is no such ruinous moods, but we must not forget there is thought as poets and romancers will that in us which is permanent and un- have it; it does not unsettle him, or changeable. This unchanging principle fright him from his ordinary notice of is revealed to us by consciousness, and trifles : it is an act quite easy to be conby it we are identified, now with the in- templated, but in its sequel 'it turns out finite God, now with the flesh of the to be a horrible jangle and confounding body. So we may look upon ourselves of all relations. : .. Inevitably does the from two distinct points of view; from universe wear our color, and every obthe first, we are seen to be the absolute ject fall successively into the subject and unchanging God, from the second, itself. The subject exists, the subject we seem identified with perishable mat- enlarges; all things, sooner or later, fall • ter. “In our more correct writing, we into place. As I am, so I see; use what give to this generalization the name of language we will, we can never say any Being, and thereby confess that we have thing but what we are; Hermes, Cadarrived as far as we can go. Suffice it mus, Columbus, Newton, Bonaparte, are for the joy of the universe, that we have the

mind's ministers.” not arrived at a wall, but at interminable CONCLUSION.-“ Illusion, Temperament, oceans.”

Succession, Surface, Surprise, Reality, SUBJECT OR THE ONE.—“ It is very Subjectiveness,—these are the threads unhappy, but too late to be helped, the in the loom of time, these are the lords discovery we have made, that we exist. of life.” First we wake up to a full conThat discovery is called the Fall of Man. viction of the real existence of the out. Ever afterwards we suspect our instru. world ; this is Ilusion. ments. We have learned that we do not Then we recognize that we see the see directly, but mediately, and that we outworld only according to the constituhave no means of correcting these co tion of our natures, and find that much lored and distorted lenses which we are, we considered real was a deception aris or of computing the amount of their ing from our Temperament. Here com

Perhaps these subject-lenses mences the emancipation of the soul from have a creative power; perhaps there the illusions of sense, here commences are no objects. Once we lived in what the doubt whether nature outwardly we saw, now, the rapaciousness of this new exists. power, which threatens to absorb all things, After this, we find in ourselves a law engages us. Nature, art, persons, let- of consecutive changes, which unlocks ters, religions, objects, successively new mysteries, showing us more clearly tumble in, and God is but one of its that we create the outworld and then de. ideas. Nature and literature are subjec- ceive ourselves by supposing our own tive phenomena ; every evil and every creation to have an outward existence; good thing is a shadow which we cast. this is Succession.

The great and crescent self, Then comes the rule of life. If these rooted in absolute nature, supplants all things are mere appearances, they are at relative existence, and ruins the kingdom least appearances, and are real to us; let of mortal friendship and love.

us therefore live in appearances, skate The soul is not twin-born, but the only on them, but never again allow ourselves begotten, and though revealing itself as to be involved in them; this is Surface. a child in time, child in appearance, is But always, whatever rule of life we of a fatal and universal power, admitting may form for ourselves, the soul interno co-life. Every day, every act, betrays venes; new appearances, new forms, the ill-concealed deity. We believe in spring up, unexpectedly to ourselves, ourselves as we do not believe in others. and the rule of life is found to be futile; We permit all things to ourselves, and this is Surprise. that which we call sin in others, is ex This intervention of the soul reveals periment for us. It is an instance of our to us the fact that we are the absolute faith in ourselves, that men never speak God; this is Reality. of crime as lightly as they think: or, After this, the full truth flashes upon every man thinks a latitude safe for him. us, that we are not only God, but also


nature, that God and nature are but as- is manifest, and its errors expose thempects of the individual soul; this is Sub- selves. jective ress.

We have called this system Trans

cendentalism ; but only by a gross abuse V. Such appears to be the meaning of language. Idealism and Transcend. and connection of Mr. Emerson's Essay entalism are very different from the docon Experience. The other essays con trine we have been examining; and we lain the same thoughts, the same general regret that our misapplication of terms material, expressei in a different manner. has been rendered necessary by the po. We do not conceive it necessary to enter pular usage. We shall take occasion to into any general appreciation of the sys- speak farther of this matter in a future tem; its partial and inadequate character article.


“ All truth is beautiful, but not all beauty

Made worship-leads the absorbed and restless soul
To blissful heights of Truth.--Pray thee, old man,
Give me God's blessing.”

Mr. Tennyson, in a poem, exquisitely wrought in many of its parts, entitled the Palace of Art, has represented the final and utter loathing brought over a Soul, who, building herself a splendid structure, adorned with every thing grand and beautiful in nature, and stored with all forms of knowledge and art, had shut herself in from God and men to a solitary contemplation of these fair things, and to a still life of intellectual pride forever feeding upon itself. In the following poem, written several years since, something of the same moral is involved—that neither natural beauty in all objects of the universe, nor the highest knowledge, which is the growth and manifestation of intellectual beauty, is sufficient to satisfy an immortal mind. Yet thousands, unhappily always the brightest. minded among men, have made this fatal error-lived in a sole realm of unbounded riches, and died miserably poor.

It may be added, though it can hardly be necessary—as the two poems are, in structure and conduct, so entirely different—that this piece was written before the Palace of Art was published in this country, and before the writer had ever seen it.

DARKNESS was in my heart. The shadows of many sorrows lay upon my soul. The spirits I had summoned were powerless to aid me. • Must it be so ?” I said; “ shall the last of the race of Erdolph, whose years have passed in vigils and sufferings, be ever baffled thus ?

What is life to me--what death? Behold ! the bubbles may rise, and sink again, on the Great Sea! but ever each shapeth itself anew, and comes freshly forth, again and again, to feed upon the sunlight. Exist. ENCE keepeth little account of form, or place, or years; to have been is the eternal promise of to be.

If my ministers can avail me not, what do I lingering farther among these present shapes, or counting any more the little moments ? But I will consult the mightiest of them all, the spirit of the waters.” So I went forth at the dead hour of night, and stood by the gray and melancholy

Wild and mournful sighed the winds around, and a few trembling stars were imaged on the dark and rocking billows. Spirit of Ocean !" I cried aloud, “where dwelleth thy power and the glory of thy presence ? By my magic words and fearful spell, I bid ihee conduct my spirit to thy shadowy court.” So I uttered the magic words and the fearful spell above the troubled waters. A tremulous light, swayed to and fro, advanced over the deep, and a voice of strange utterance said, “ follow the spirit-torch wheresoe'er it lead thee.” Suddenly my burden of clay


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