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It cannot be doubted, from several

RICHARD WATTS, Esq. passages in Pliny's letters, that the by his will, dated 22d of August, 1579, miod of this great and good man was

founded this Charity

for six poor Traveilers, soinewhat tiuctured with the supersti

Who not being Rogues or Proclors, tion of the times in which he lived ;

May receive gratis, for one night, but, as his ingenious translator has ob

Lod:ing, Entertainment, served, this was also the case wiib the

and fourpence eaclı. greatest characters of that age, and

In testimony of his munificence, therefore it would be unjust to bring a

In honor of his memory, charge of weak credulity against Pliny.

And inducement to his example, Now, though I am ready to admit this Nathaniel Hood, Esq. the preseni Mayor,

has caused this stone as a sufficient apology for the wonderful stories related in letter 26, book vii.

Gratefully to be renewed,

and inscribed, about a ghost raltiing his chains, which

A.D. 1771. Pliny says he believes upon the credit of

Ard on further inquiry I found that others; and two other ghosts who en

Richard Walis, Esq of Rochester*, in tered a window, and cut off a poor boy's Queen Elizabeth's time, dwelt in a hair as he lay asleep (which latter story house culleri Satis, on Bolly-hill, in the he gives upon his own credil); yet I parish of St. Nicholas, in this city, confess I am at a loss to account, upon which house is now the property of any principle short of downright cre

Joseph Brook, Esq. His noble cbarily dulity, for the credence which Pliny to the poor of this city will appear by professes to give to the story of the

the following summary of his will, dolphin and the boy, as related in letter dated the 22d of August, 1579. He 38, book ix, which, though he declares

give unto his wife Marian all his lands, it to be authenticated upon undoubted

teremenis, annuities, and freehold es. evidence, is scarcely surpassed by any

tates whatsoever, for her widowhood thing to be met with in the adventures

and if she married again, then he gave of the renowned Baron Munchausen. It is not surprising that a degree of life, chargeable on his said estales; and

her an annuity of twenty marks for her importance should be attached to the after bero marriage or death he willed most trifling production of such a writer that his principai house, called Satis, as Pliny- the most trivial incident con

with the house adjoining, the closes, nected with such a character, naturally orchards, gardens, and appurtenances, excites a degree of interest; yet I really his piate and household furniture, sbould do think that a few of the letters in this be sold; and after some legacies paid collection (such for instance as that to

thereout, the residue to be placed out his colleague Cornutus, No. 21, book

at interest by the Mayor and Citizens of vii,) might have been omitted without Rochester, and the interest and profits any serious loss to posterity. The whole to be employed to the perpetual sup; purport of this leiter is io inform his port of an alis-house then erected, and friend that he had got sore eyes, and at standing near the market-cross in Ro. the saine time to thank him for a pullet, chester; and that tbere be added which he observes " notwithstanding thereto “six several roollis, with chim. the weakness of his eyes, he could dis- neys, for the confort, placing, and cover was extremely fat

abiding of the poor within the said' These objections, however, are un

cily; and also to be made apt and cone important, and sink into nothing, whenvenient places therein for six matrices, compared with the innumerable beau-, or flock beds, and other good and suf-' ties, and the intrissic excellence, which ficient furniture, to harbour or lodge in every reader of taste and judgment will

poor travellers or wayfaring men, being readily discover in these letters.

to common rogues vor proctors;t and R. A. D.

they, the said way faring men, to har.

hour and lodge therein no longer than To the Edilor of the European Magazine. * Richard Walis, disq. represented this

city the second Parliament in the reigo of

Queen Elizabeth,
ATELY passing through the city

+ It is generally thought that the reason

of Mr. Wales's exclamling proctors from the struck with the following inscription on benefit of this charity was, ihat a procior had the front of a house situated on the been employed to make his will, whereby he norih side of the ligh street.

bad given all the estates to himself; but I am

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one night, unless sickness be the further Attorney-general, that they had no cause thereof; and those poor folks share of, nor benefit from, Mr. Watts's there dwelling, should keep the same charity, left for the poor of the city of saeet. and courteously entreat the said Rochester, although part of their papoor travellers; and every of the said rishes were in the liberties and precincts por travellers, at their first coming in, of the said city. They shewed that the to bare fourpence; and they should estate at London was leased by Mr. warn them at the fire of the residents, Watts in his life-time for ninety-nine wudis the said bouse, if need be.”- years, al 81. per annum, which lease And further lo sopport the said house, expired in 1658; and, from improveand to pershase fax, hemp, yarn, wool, ments made during the lease, it then and other necessary stuff to set the poor yielded to the Mayor and Citizens of of this city to work, he gave to the Rochester 2001. per annum; and that Jator and Citizens all other his lands, from the estates in Chatham they retrae perts, and estates, for ever. The ceived 50l. per annum above the origianzual red is of these lands, &c. al the nal value. * lize of making his will, amounted to That the Mayor and Citizens of this TEL. 166. 84.; and his dext and immedic city have not heenwanting in setting a due ate heirs bave autbority to inspect the value on so liberal a benefaction, is evi. actents of the charity every four dent, not only from the altention theypay years. The leases were not to exceed to the building, and in seeing the generous years. The will was proved design of the testator duly perforined; the such of September, 1579. Mrs. but in 1736 they gave a fresh expres. Watts

, ibe sole executrix, married, sion of their gratitude, in causing a after six years, to one Thomas Pagitt; very handsome mural white marble inoand certain doubts arising about the nument to be erected to his memory, on will of Mr. Watts, an agreement was

the south side of the door entering into atered into between tbe parties —" By the choir of Rochester cathedral : on which the late Mrs. Walls was to keep the top of this monument is a small Satis, the furniture, &c.; and in consi- but very neat bust of Mr. Watts, given deration of this, she was to pay one

by Joseph Brooke, Esq. as appears by baadred marks towards repairing the the following inscription:aras-bouse, to pay all the monies willed

Uuder the busls: by Wr. Watts, to clear the lands be

Archetypom nunc dedit queathed of all claims, and to convey Jos. Brooke, de Satis, Arm. other lands to the yearly rent of 201.

On the marble monument beneath it: And the Mayor and Citizens agreed to

Sacred to the memory of Richard purchase hemp, &c. to set the poor to

Watts, Esq. a principal benefactor to work, and to provide for travellers as direciel. The Mayors succeeding are ber 10th, 1579, at his inansion-house on

this city, who departed this life Septemto provide a sufficient Citizeo, within ten days after they are sworn, whose Bully-hill, called Satis (so named by

Queen Elizabeth, of glorious memory), basiness it shall be to receive and dis

and lies interred near this place, as by barse the yearly profits, under the name of provider : which provider is to de- will, dated August 22d, and proved

his will doth plainly appear; by which hiver an annual account of the receipts Sepiember 25th, 1579. He founded an and disbursements to the Dean and alius house for the relief of poor peoChapter, or to the Bridge wardens. The poor residing in the house are to be ple, and for the reception of six poor

travellers pat ia by the Mayor for the time being.

every night, and for employe ja this state the charity continued untii ing the poor of this city. the year 1672, when the parishes of in testimony of their gratitude and his

The Mayor and Citizens of this city, SL Siargaret's and Stroud coinplained in Chancery, by Sir Heveage Finch, merit, bave erected this monument

A.D. 1736.-Richard Watts, Esq. tben

Niayor. inclined to think that the word proctor is derited from procurator, who was an itine- Notwithstanding the defendants, the rast priest, and had dispensarious from the pope to absolve the subjects of this realm

* The original annual value of the estate from the oath of allegiance to Queen Eliza- in Chatham, left by Nr. Watts, is in the beth, in whose reign there were many such decree said to be twenty marks, equal to priests,

131. 6s. 8d.


Mayor and Citizens, alledged that no the terms of any power of the binomia, part of those parishes were within the without being under the necessity city, or the ancient walls or limits performing the involution. The me thereof; yet a decree in that court was thod by which this is performed is calle made, ordering that St. Margaret's pa. by writers “ Sir Isaac Newton's Rulrish should receive 30!. a year till ihe for raising a Binomial to any Powe lease of ninety-nine years, of the estate wbatever" (See Huttoo's Mathematic at Chatham, expired; afterwards they and Bonnycastle's Alg.) But every re should receive six parts out of thirty, quisite information on this subject ina' which shall from time to time be made be obtained by consulting the four la by any improvement of rents, &c. over chapters of the secoud sect, of vol. and above the said 301. It decreed to Euler's Algebra, and therefore any fu the parish of Stroud 201. on the same ther remarks here would be superfluou condition, and when the said Icase ex. I am, Sir, your's, respectfully, pired, four parts of thirty of the im; Kent-road, Marih.. J. R. YOUNG proved reuts, together with the 201, per annum. And the remaining twenty parts were decreed to the Mayor and N compliance with the request of ou Citizens of Rochester, for the relief of travellers, and other charitable uses. a List of those Chimney Sweepers wh The estates of this excellent charity are have engaged to sweep Chimuies wil now so far improved as to amount to Machines. ncar 5001 per ampum : the receipts and disbursements are regularly inspected

Thomas Allen, No. 20, Middle-street by the Committee for Charitable Uses. * Benjamin Brasier, 3, Colt-yard, Mile

Cloth-fair, The house appointed for the recep.

end road, tion of the poor travellers is situated on the porth side of the High-street, and is

S. Brown and Son, No. 3. George yard

Water-lane, Fleet-street, probably the original building. A very cousiderable sum was expended by the Joseph Bollon, No. 4, Duke-streeli Mayor and Citizeos on its repair in


Coleman, Tottenham. 1771. Agreeably to the benevoleot de.,

John Cook, No. 17, Great Windmill sign of the donor, poor travellers have Jodging and fourpence each; and that

street, St. James's, and at No. 4 this charity might be inore generally John Davis, Peler street, Mint, South

Cain place, Kentisti-lown, known, the foregoing inscription was fixed over the door.


Thomas Edmonds, Stoke Newington,
I am, Sir, your constant reader,
London, Jan. 16, 1818. M. ROSS.

John Fisher, Union-street, Borough,
James Hall, Pear-tree-alley, Shorediteb

John Harding. No. 15, Juba's.row Tothe Editor of the European Magazine.

Brick lane, Old-street,

Ann Herbert, Hampstead.
T page 95 of your Magazine for J. Johnson, No. 28, Laystall-street,

last month, is an inquiry respecto Gray's inn-lane, ing the property of the powers of bino- J. Kirton, No. &, Manor-place, Walmial factors. This property is well worth, known, and is poticed by almost every Thomas Marreck, 13, Bell-lane, Spitalwriter on Algebra. Its priocipal use is fields, its being the foundation of the binomial John Powell, Layton, Essex, theorem, and its furnishing a ready. J. Parker, Stratford, Essex, method of finding the co-efficient of John Pain, Blue-coalfields, Shadwell,

Jonathan Snow, No 6, Baker's court, # The Committee of Charitable Uses was Half-moon alley, Bishopsgate, first established in 1693, by mutual agree. W. Sermon, Brewer's court, Augel-almeni, between the Mayor and other go. ley, Bishopsgate, verning members of this city on one part,

S. Sheridan, Balthamstow, and the freemen on the other; it is com

W Stafford, Waliliamstow, posed of two Aldermen, the Common Councilmen, and five freemen : all which Timothy Thorn, West Ham, Essex,

Samuel Weazer, Holloway. are chosen annually by the jury of the court Icet, held on the day of swearing the Richard Walker, No. 6, Greco-court, Mayor.

Coleman street,




called Daingean, expressing a close CURTAINING A CONCISE DESCRIPTION OP

secure place. This the English styled a JONE OF THE PRINCIPAL PLACES IN

Bawn, from the Teutonic Bawen, to RELAND ; WITE THE ANTIQUITIES,

construct and secure with branches of CESTOYS, CHARACTER, AND MANNERS

trees.Such seems to have been the DI TEAT COUNTRY.

principal warlike constructions of the

Irish and their defences previous to the BY THOMAS STRINGER, M.D. arrival of the English in 1] 69, when (Continued from page 118.) large and strong castles of lime and


Let us next consider the military ILITARY ANTIQUITIES. weapons of this period. Aotecedent to

Raths, always on high ground, the coming of the Belgic colonies, and are of different dimensions, some not probably during some subsequent ages, Deasuring more than ten or fifteen stone batchets, and spears and arrows yards in diameter 1 others contain eigh- headed with fints or stones, were only tres or twenty English acres. They in use. The Celtes, from practice, Fere always proportioned to the pro. having acquired a dexterity io using perty and power of the Toparch. the stone hatchet, the Firbolgs made Round these the clan resided, and brass ones of the same shape. When within these they retreated from dan- such instruments as brazen celts were ger: Dany of them are artificial, with fabricated, it was not difficult to make achterraneous cbambers and sally ports. brazen swords, and they have been disThese raths or bills were, according to covered, at different times, in great numthe dialect of the foreigo tribe that bers in this isle. possessed them, oamed inotes. Mota, Giraldus Cambrensis, who with his in the Icelandic, is a place of meeting countrymen bore a part in the Irish The Mote of Monacoghlan, in the pa. wars towards the end of the twelfth risk of Aghaboc, is an high artificial century, is our best authority for the bill, surrounded by entrenchments, and military weapons of the ancient Irish. defended by outworks, the residence of He tells us, they had long lances, two a Toparch subordinate to Macguil Pba. darts, broad axes, and threw stones drig. or Fitzpatrick, Prince of Ossory. with great quickness, force, and effect. à place of judicature, or talk-moles, -The battle axe was a weapon which as well as the residence of the Chief. Cambreosis expressly declares we adoptThese raths, or earthen mounds, are

ed from the Ostmen and Norwagians. les constructed :

The Irish and Britons, who fought with ist, & sound of earth formed in the darts and lances, were unable to resist shape of a cone, and finished in a the long swords and axes of the Angloporot at top, encircled generally by a Saxons. This axe, or batchet, they slight diteb. These are sepulchral. carried constantly about with them,

2d. A large circle, surrounded by a and used it as a walking-staff, and they raised ogget of earth and a slight ditch: , ofteu used it treacherously. Bows, frequently 1 observed two near to each arrows, and swords, were of later inother. These cannot be sepulcbral, troduction. They did great injury with probably raths for conferences and meet, stones, to prevent which the English iegs.

placed archers in the ranks with the 3d, High raised circular tumulus with heavy-armed infantry. In the age of more thaa ose fosse. These are evi. Cambrensis, the Irish had bridies, but deatly military works; as likewise are, no stirrups, boots, nor spurs ; even in

4th, Those with ramparis and out- 1584, when Stanihurst writ, they were works. The most common plan is a without spurs, as was Mac Murrogh in bigt circular moond, with a square or

1509. eblung work attached to it, the whole The Irish cavalry were styled Hobil. Surrounded by one or more ditches. lers. The Kerns, or infantry, do not

Tbe Dun, or Din, was another sort of seem to have received this appellation fort, and the same as the Welsh Dinas. till some time after the arrival of the This originally was an ipsulated rock, English. The other foot soidiers of as is proved by tbe application of it to the Irish were termed Galloglasses. Dunamase, Dundanolf, and others. Oor Skene is evidenily a cuniracion Smith and O'Connor confound the Dun of the Anglo Saxon Segene, a short with the next kind of Irish fortress sword. The Skene was soinctimes as Lurup. Mag. F'ol LXXIII. Mar. 1818.


foot and a half long, sometimes shorter, Barrow, the other sides were secured by and was a Firbolgian instrument. Wil a ditch twenty-five feet broad, whick liam the Congoeror was the first that could occasionally be filled with water encouraged archery; it soon became from the river. Within the ditch was a the streogth of the British army. The wall, the foundations of which only reancient bow was six feet long, and the main. The approach to this fortress was arrow two feet three inches : 80 that by a causeway one hundred feet in length; the small Irish bow and arrows, which the quter ballium from north to south, seem to me lately introduced by the including the Bawn, three bundred and Scots, were very inferior to ours. fifty feet in diameter, from east to west

Castles.- In obedience to Henry's four hundred and ten feet. The inper commands, his great feudatories erected ballium from north to south is one hubcastles in their respective possessions. dred and forty, and from east to west About 1180, Lacey castellated Leinster one hundred and thirty feet. The and Meath. Cox is the most copious on Bawn was

à common appendage to this head; he says, Ardfinnan, Nenagh, castles. Stanihurst describes it as con: Lismore, Tyrbrack, within two miles of vected with castles, and being a large Carrick, and Limerick, were built by arca surrounded with great ditches and King John. Castledermot, Castle- ramparts; within these cattle were proderwagh, Kilkea, and Leighlin, by the tected from an enemy or thieves. Lacies. Ferns, Sligo, Tralee, Geashill,

It was not before 1584 that the Irish Adare, and Askeaton, by the Firzo became reconciled to the fire and explo. geralds. The Grey Friars at Leighlin, sion of guns. Ballymarter, Ardtully, Lixnaw, and The Earl of Essex, in 1599, telle Macrome, by the Carews. Phillips. Queen Elizabeth, that the Irish were town and Maryborough, hy Belling- unable to force any walled town, or ham. Athenry, by Bermingham. Green castle, or house of strength; but they Castle, Castle Carberry, Atbassel, Car- used a military engine called a Sow, lingford, Casțle Connell, Loughrea, and which was used at the siege of Sligo, Portumny, by the De Burgos. Kilo A.D. 1689, and is ' thos" described'; kenny, by Ranulph Earl of Chester. " It was made hollow to contain men, Castle of Kilkenny, by the Earl of and was composed of very strong whole Ormond. Thomastowo, by Thomas timbers bound with iron hoops, and Fitz Anthony. Ross and Carlow, by covered with two rows of hides, and Isabel, daughter of Strongbow. Carrick- as many sheep-skins, which rendered fergus, by Sir Henry Sidney. Castle it proof against musket-balls or steel Island, in Kerry, by Geoffry de Marisco. arrows. The back part was left open Timoleague, by Barret. Trim, by Wil. for the men to get in and out at pleaJiam Peppard.

sure, and in front were doors to be Insulated rocks adopted as a place opened, when the sqw was forced under of safety, probably from the Firboigian the wall, which was done with little invaders, a warlike race: Dunamase is labour, the engine being fixed on an situated in the Queen's County, about iron axle-tree."- --" The Irish,” says four miles east from Maryborough. Its Stafford, “besieged Liskaghan Castle name, which imports the fort of the in 1600, and placed a sow to the walls plain, evinces it to have been consi- thereof, to'sap the same; but the dedered and used as a place of strength fendants did so well acquit themselves in the earliest ages: the plain is what is in a sally, that they tore the sow in called the Great Heath, nearly sur- pieces, made her cast her pigs, and rounding it.

slew ( of them dead on the The Castle of Ley, near Portarling place. ton, one of the oldest structures made MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS OF THE Ave by the Buglish in this kingdom. CIENT IR #1.- O'Carrol, about 1330, The Castle of Ley was erected on a and Cruise, two eminent harpers, were lofty hill. Its length externally is sixły most probably tbe first who tuned their feet, its breadth torty-six. The walls harps on the true diatonic harmonic are eight feet thick, iv some places principles. But even this improrement sixteen. It was ihree stories higb. seenis to have been confined to those The arches are all circular, except one residing within the English pale. pointed leading from the causeway intò With the state of the ancient Irish the Bawo, probably a later construc. melodies of the middle ages we are not tion. On the north ran the river acquainted, few having reached or

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