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It cannot be doubted, from several

RICHARD Watts, Esq. passages in Pliny's letters, that the by his will, dated 22d of August, 1579, miod of this great and good man was

founded this Charity somewhat tinctured withi the supersti.

for six poor Travellers,

Who not being Rogues or Proctors, tion of the times in which he lived ;

May receive gratis, for one night, but, as his ingenious translator has ob

Lod: ing. Entertainment, served, this was also the case wiib lhe

and fourpence each. greatest characters of that age, and In testimony of his munificence, therefore it would be unjust to bring a

In honor of his memory, charge of weak credulity against Pliny. And inducement to his example, Now, though I am ready to admit this Nathaniel Hood, Esq. the present Mayor,

has caused this stone as a sufficient apology for the wonderful stories related in letter 26, book vii.

Gratefully to be renewed,

and inscribed, about a ghost ruliling his chains, which

A.D. 1771. Pliny says he believes upon the credit of And on further inquiry I found that others; and two other ghosts who entered a window, and cut off a poor boy's Queen Elizabethis time, dwelt in a

Richard Watis, Esq of Rochester*, in hair as he lay asleep (which läller story

house called Satis, on Bolly-bill, in the he gives upon his own credit); yet I parish of St. Nicholas, in this city, confess I am at a loss to account, upon which house is now the property of any principle short of downright cre

Joseph Brook, Esq. His noble charity dulity, for the credence which Pliny

to the poor of this city will appear by professes to give to the story of the

the following summary of his will, dolphin and the boy, as related in leiter 38,' book ix, which, though he declares gave unto his wife Marian all his lands,

dated the 22d of August, 1579. He it to be authenticated upon undoubted

teremenis, appuities, and frechold es. evidence, is scarcely surpassed by any

tates whatsoever, for her widowhood; thing to be met with in the adventures and if she married again, then he gave of the renowned Baron Munchausen. It is not surprising that a degree of life, chargeable on his said estaics ; and

her an annuity of twenty marks for her importance should be attached to the after her marriage or death he willed most trilling production of such a writer that his principai house, called Satis, as Pliny-the most trivial incideat connected with such a character, naturally orchards, gardens, and appurtenacces,

with the house adjoining, the closes, excites a degree of interest ; yet I really his plate and household furniture, should do think that a few of the letters in this

be sold; and after some legacies paid collection (such for instance as that to

thercont, the residue to be placed out his colleague Cornutus, No. 21, book vii,) might have been omitted without Rochester, and the interest and profils

at interest by the Mayor and Citizens of any serious loss to posterity. The whole

to be employed to the perpetual sup, purport of this leiter is io inform his port of an alims-bouse then erected, and friend that he had got sore eyes, and at standing near the market-cross in Ro, the same time to ihank him for a pullet, chester; and that there be added which he observes “ notwithstanding thereto “ six several roolis, with chim. the weakness of bis eyes, he could dis

neys; for the confort, placing, and cover was extremely fat”

abiding of the poor within the said These objections, however, are un

cily; and also to be made apt and conimportant, and sink into boiling, when compared with the innumerable beau-, or flock beds, and other good and suf

venient places therein for six matrices, ties, and the intrinsic excellence, which ficient furniture, to harbour or lodge in every reader of taste and judgment will

poor travellers or wayfaring mev, being readily discover in these leuters.

to common rogues vor proctors;t and R. A. D.

they, the said wa; faring meni, to har.

bour and lodire therein no longer than To the Edilor of the European Magazine. * hichard Haris, ting. represeik tills

city the second l'arliament in the reigo of ATELY passing through the city

Queen Elizabeth. dos Rochester, I was very much

+ liis generally thought that the reason

of Mr. Watts's exclaming proctors from the struck with the following inscription on benefit of this charity was, that a procior had the front of a house situated on the been employed to make his will, whereby he north side of the ligh street.

bad given all the estates to himself; but I am


one night, unless sickness be the further Attorney-general, that they had no cause bereof; and those poor folks share of, por benefit from, Mr. Watts's there dwelling, should keep the same charity, left for the poor of the city of weet, and courteously entreat the said Rochester, although part of their papour travellers; and every of the said rishes were in the liberties and precincis por travellers, at their first coming in, of the said city. They shewed that the ba kave fourpence; and they should estate at London was leased by Mr. in them at the fire of the residents, Watts in his life-time for ninety-nine in the said house, if need be.”- years, at 81. per annum, which lease And further to support the said house, expired in 1638; and, from improveand lo purchase Bax, hemp, yarn, wool, ments made during the lease, it then and elber necessary staff to set the poor yielded to the Mayor and Citizens of of this city to work, he gave to the Rochester 2007. per annum; and that Mater and Citizens ali other bis lands, from the estates in Chatham they retretents

, and estates, for ever. The ceived 50/. per annum above the origiapoual rents of these lands, &c. al the nal value.* fize of making his will, amounted to That the Mayor and Citizens of this 38. 168. &d.; and his vext and immedi. city have not heen wanting in setting a due ate heire bave authority to inspect the value on so liberal a benefaction, is evi. becounts of the charity every four dent, not only froin ihe attention they pay fears. The leases were not to exceed to the building, and in seeing the generous treats-one years. The will was proved design of the testator duly perforined; the 20th of September, 1879. Mrs. but in 1736 they gave a fresh expres. Watts

, the sole executrix, married, sion of their gratitude, in causing a after six years, to one Thomas Pagitt; very handsome mural white marble moand certain doubts arising about the nument to be erected to his memory, on will ef Mr. Watts, an agreement was the south side of the door entering into entered iuto between the parties—“ By the choir of Rochester cathedral: on which the late Mrs. Watts was to keep the top of this monument is a small Satis

, the furniture, &c.; and in consi- but very neat bust of Mr. Watts, given deration of this, she was to pay one

by Joseph Brooke, Esq. as appears by bundred marks towards repairiog the the following inscription:atas-bouse, to pay all the monies willed

Under the busis: by Mr. Watts, to clear the lands be

Archetypum nunc dedit queatbed of all claims, and to convey Jos. Brooke, de Satis, Arm. other lands to the yearly rent of 201.

On the marble monumeat beneath it: And the Mayor and Citizens agreed to Sacred to the memory of Richard purchase hemp, &c. to set the poor to perk, and to provide for travellers as

Walls, Esq. a principal benefactor to directed. The Mayors succeeding are

this city, who departed this life Septem

ber 10th, 1579, at lijs unansion-house on to provide a sufficient Citizeo, within en days after they are sworn, wbuse Bully-hill, called Satis (so named by business it sball be to receive and dis

Queen Elizabeth, of glorious memory),

and lies interred near this place, as by burse the yearly profits, under the name of provider: which provider is to de

his will doib plainly appear; by which liver an annual account of the receipts will, dated August 221, and proved

He founded an and disbørsements to the Dean and September 25th, 1579. Chapter

, or to the Bridge wardens. alms house for the relief of poor peoThe poor residing in the house are to be ple, and for the reception of six poor put is by the Mayor for the time being travellers every night, and for employJet this state the charity continued unui ing the poor of this city. the year 1672, when the parishes of

The Mayor and Citizens of this city, t. Slargaret's and Stroud complained merit, have erecied this monumeut

in testimony of their gratitude and his in Chancery, by Sir Hepeage Finch,

A. D. 1736.-- Richard Watts, Esq. tben inclined to think that the word proctor is

Mayor. derived from procurator, who was an itine- Notwithstanding the defendants, the rast priest, and had dispensations from the pope to absolve the subjects of this realm The original annnal value of the estate from the oath of allegiance to Queen Elizain Chatham, left by Mr. Watts, is in the beth, in whose reign ihere were many such decree said to be twenty marks, equal to priests.

131, 6s, 8d.



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Mayor and Citizens, alledged that no the terms of any power of the binomia part of those parishes were within the without being under the necessity city, or the ancient walls or limits performing the involution.

The me thereof; yet a decree in that court was ihod by which this is performed is calle made, ordering that St. Margaret's pa. by writers “ Sir Isaac Newton's Ruls. rish should receive 301. a year till the for raising a Binomial to any Powe, lease of ninely-nine years, of the estate whatever” (See Hutton's Mathematic at Chatham, expired; afterwards they and Bonnycastle's Alg.) But every se should receive six parts out of thirty, quisite information on this subjeci ina which shall from time to time be made be obtained by consulting the four la by any improvement of rents, &c. over chapters of the secoud sect. of vol. 1 and above the said 301. It decreed to Euler : Algebra, and iherefore any fur the parish of Stroud 201, on the same ther remarks here would be superfluou condition, and when the said lease ex. I am, Sir, your’s, respectfully, pired, four parts of thirty of the im; Kent-road, Marih.. J. R. YOUNC proved reuts, together with the 201 per

And the remaining twenty parts were to the Mayor N with the request of ou.. travellers, and other charitable uses.

a List of those Chimney Sweepers wb The estates of this excellent charity are have engaged to sweep Chimuies wit now so far improved as to awount to Machines. ncar 5001 per ampum : the receipts and

Thomas Allen, No. 20, Middle-street disbursements are regularly inspected by the Committee for Charitable Uses.* Benjamin Brasier, 3, Colt yard, Mile

Cloth-fair, The house appointed for the recep

end road, tion of the poor travellers is situated on

S. Brown and Son, No. 3. George. yard the porth side of the High-street, and is probably the original buildings, A very Joseph Boiton, No. 4, Duke-street

Water-lane, Fleet-street, by the

Aldgate, Mayor and Citizeos on its repair in 177. Agreeably to the benevolent de John Cook, No. 17, Great Windmill

W. Coleman, Tottenham, sign of the donor, poor travellers have

street, St. James's, and at No. 4. Jodging and fourpence each; and that this charity might be inore generally John Davis, Peter street, Mint, South

Cain place, Kentishi-lown, known, the foregoing inscription was

wark, fixed over the door.

Thomas Edmonds, Stoke Newington, I am, Sir, your constant reader,

John Fisher, Union-street, Borough, London, Jan. 16, 1818. M. ROSS.

James Hall, Pear-tree-alley, Shoreditch

John Harding. No. 15, Juba' Tothe Editor of the European Magazine.

Brick lane, Old-street,

Ann rbert, Hampstead.
T page 95 of your Magazine for J. Johnson, No. 28, Laystall-street,

last month, is an inquiry respecto Gray's inn-lane, ing the property of the powers of bino- J. Kirton, No. &, Manor-place, Walmial factors. This property is well worth, known, and is poticed by almost every Thomas Marreck, 13, Bell-lane, Spital. writer on Algebra. Its principal use is fields, its being the foundation of the binomial John Powell, Layton, Essex, theorem, and its furnishing a ready J. Parker, Straiford, Essex, method of finding the co-efficient of Joho Pain, Blue-coal fields, Shadwell,

Jonatban Snow, No 6, Baker's court, # The Committee of Charitable Uses was Half-moon alley, Bishopsgate, first established in 1693, by mutual agree. W. Sermon, Brewer's court, Augel-almeni, between the Mayor and other go. ley, Bishopsgate, verping members of this city on one part, S. Sheridan, Walibamstow, and the freemen on the other; it is com

W Stafford, Walibamstow, posed of two Aldermen, two Common Councilmen, and five freemen; all which

Timothy Thorn, Wert danı, Essex,

Samuel Weazer, Ilolloway, are chosen annually by the jury of the court Icet, lield on the day of swearing the Richard Walker, No. 6, Greth-couTİ,

Coleman street, Mayor.

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called Daingean, expressing a close CONTAINING A CONCISE DESCRIPTION OP

secure place. This the English styled a ONE OF THE PRINCIPAL PLACES IN

Bawn, from the Teutonic Bawen, to RELAND ; WIT& THE ANTIQUITIES,

construct and secure with branches of CUSTONS, CLARACTER, AND MANNERS

trees.--Such seems to have been the SI TLAT COUNTRY.

principal warlike constructions of the

Irish and their defences previous to the BY THOMAS STRINGER, M.D. arrival of the English in 169, when (Continued from page 118.)

large and strong castles of lime and

stone were erected,
ANTIQUITIES OF IRELAND CONTINUED. Let us next consider the military
SILITARY ANTIQUITIES. weapons of this period. Antecedent to

Raths, always on high ground, the coming of the Belgic colonies, and are of different dimensions, some not probably during some subsequent ages, measaring more than ten or fifteen stone hatchets, and spears and arrows sarde in diameter : others contain eigh- headed with fints or sioues, were only teen or twenty English acres. They in use. The Celtes, from practice, were always proportioned to the pro- baving acquired a dexterity io using party and power of the Toparch. the stone hatchet, the Firbolgs made Round these the clan resided, and brass ones of the same shape. When sithin these they retreated from dan- such instruments as brazen cells were ger: Dany of them are artificial, with fabricated, it was not difficult to make subterraneouscbambers and sally ports. brazen swords, and they have been disThese raths or hills were, according to covered, at different times, in great numthe dialect of the foreign tribe that bers in this isle. possessed them, pamed motes. Mota, Giraldus Cambrensis, who with his in the Icelandic, is a place of meeting. countrymen bore a part in the Irish The Mote of Monacoghlan, in the pa.

wars towards the end of the twelfth rish of Agbaboe, is an bigh artificial century, is our best authority for the hill

, surrounded by entrenchments, and military weapons of the ancient Irish. defended by outworks, the residence of He tells us, they had long lances, two a Toparch subordinate to Macguil Pba- darts, broad axes, and threw stones druig, or Fitzpatrick, Prince of Ossory. with great quickness, force, and effect. A place of judicature, or talk-moles, -The battle axe was a weapon which as well as the residence of the Chief. Cambreosis expressly declares we adoptThese raths, or earthen mounds, are ed from the Ostmen and Norwagians. thas constructed :

The Irish and Britons, who fought with t, mound of earth formed in the darts and lances, were unable to resist shape of a cone, and finished in a the long swords and axes of the Anglopoint at top, encircled generally by a Saxons. This axe, or hatchet, they slight ditch. These are sepulchral. carried constantly about with thein,

ad. A large circle, surrounded by a and used it as a walking.staff, and they raised ogget of earth and a slight ditch: ofteu used it treacherously. Bows, frequently 1 observed two near to each arrows, and swords, were of later 10other

. These cannot be sepulcbral, troduction. They did great injury with probably raths for conferences and meet, stones, to preveut which the English

placed archers in the ranks with the 3d, High raised circular tumulus with heavy-armed infantry. In the age of Thore than one fosse. These are evi. Cambrensis, the Irish had bridies, but deadly military works; as likewise are, no stirrups, boots, nor spurs ; even in 4th, Those with ramparts and out. 1584, when Stanihurst writ, they were works. The most common plan is a without spurs, as was Mac Murrogb in bigb circular mound, with a square or

1509. oblong work attached to it, the whole The Irish cavalry were styled Hobil. forrounded by one or inore ditches. Jers. The Kerns, or infantry, do not

The Dun, or Din, was another sort of seem to have received this appellation fort

, and the same as the Welsh Dipas. till some time after the arrival of the This originally was an iusulated rock, English. The other foot soldiers of as is proved by the application of it to the Irish were termrd Galioglasses. Dudamase, Dundonolf, and others. Oor Skeve is evidently a contraction Smith aud O'Connor confound the Dun of the Anglo -axon Segene, a short with the next kind of Irish fortress sword. The Shene was somnctimes a Lutop. Mag. F'ol LXXIIL. Mar. 1818.



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foot and a half long, sometimes shorter, Barrow, the other sides were secured by and was a Firbolgiau instrument. Wil a ditch twenty-five feet broad, which Jiam the Conqueror was the first that could occasionally be filled with water encouraged archery; it soon became from the river. Within the ditch was a the strength of the British army. The wall, the foundations of which only reancient bow was six feet long, and the main. The approach to this fortress was arrow two feet three inches : so that by a causeway one hundred feet in length; the small Irish bow and arrows, which the quter balliuw from north to south, seem to me lately introduced by the including the Bawn, three bundred and Scots, were very inferior to ours. fifty feet in diameter, from east to west

Castles.- In obedience to Henry's four hundred and ten feet. The inper commands, bis great feudatories erected ballium from north to south is one huo. castles in their respective possessions. dred and forty, and from east to west About 1180, Lacey castellated Leinster one hundred and thirty feet. The and Meath. Cox is the most copious on Bawn was a common appendage to this head; he says, Ard finnan, Nenagh, casties. Stanihurst describes it as conLismore, Tyrbrack, within two miles of vected with castles, and being a large Carrick, and Limerick, were built by area surrounded with great ditches and King John.

Castledermot, Castle- ram parts; within these cattle were proderwagh, Kilkea, and Leighlin, by the tected from an enemy or thieves. Lacies. Perps, Sligo, Tralee, Geashill, It was not before 1584 that the Irish Adare, and Askeaton, by the Filz- becaine reconciled to the fire and explogeralds. The Grey Friars at Leighlin, sion of guns. Ballymarter, Ardtully, Lixnaw, and The Earl of Essex, in 1599, telle Macrome, by the Carews. Phillips. Queen Elizabeth, that the Irish were town and Maryborough, hy Belling. unable to force any walled town, or ham. Athenry, by Bermingham. Green castle, or house of strength; but they Castle, Castle Carberry, Athassel, Car: used a military engine called a Sow, lingford, Castle Connell, Loughrea, and which was used at the siege of Sligo, Portumy, by the De Burgos. Kilo A.D. 1689, and is thus described ; kenny, by Ranulph Earl of Chester. “ It was made hollow to contain men, Castle of Kilkenny, by the Earl of and was composed of very strong whole Ormond. Thomastowo, by Thomas timbers bound with iron hoops, and Fitz Anthony. Ross and Čarlow, by covered with two rows of bides, and Isabel, daughter of Strongbow. Carrick as many sheep-skins, which rendered

. fergus, by Sir Henry Sidney. Castle it proof' against musket-balls or steel Island, in Kerry, by Geoffry de Marisco.

The back part was left open Timoleague, by Barret. Trim, by Wil. for the men to get in and out at pleaJiam Peppard.

sure, and in front were doors to be Ipsulated rocks adopted as a place opened, when the saw was forced under of safety, probably from the Firboigian the wall, which was done with little invaders, a warlike race: Dunamase is labour, the engine being fixed on an situated in the Queen's County about iron axle-tree."--". The Irish,” says four miles east from Maryborough. Its Stafford, “ besieged Liskaghan Castle

' name, which imports the fort of the in 1600, and placed a sow to the walls plain, evinces it to have been consi- thereof, to'sap the same: but the dedered and used as a place of strength fendants did so well acquit themselves in the earliest ages: the plain is what is in a sally, that they tore the sow in called the Great Heath, nearly sur. pieces, made her cast her pigs, and rounding it.

slew twenly.seren of them dead on the The Castle of Ley, near Portarling place. ton, one of the oldest structures made MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS of The ANhy the Buglish in this kingdom. cient Irish.- O'Carrol, about 1330, The Castle of Ley was erected on a and Cruise, two eminent harpers, were Jofiy hill. Its lengih externally is sixly most probably the first who tuned their feet, its breadth torty-six. The walls harps on the true diatonic harmonic are 'eight feet thick, in some places principles. But even this improvement sixteco. It was ihree stories high. seems to have been confined to those The arches are all circular, except one residing within the English pale. pointed leading from the causeway into With the state of the ancient Irish the Bawn, probably a later construc. melodies of the middle ages we are not tion. On the north ran the river acquainted, few having reached or


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