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an outline of contemporary history, a study of one special work, and a memorizing of selected passages, there will be a tendency to gain knowledge about literature rather than acquaintance with writings and a love of reading. What does. it profit if the child to gain knowledge lose love?

In many cases subjects are prefaced with an introduction stating the end sought and giving helpful suggestions as to the best means of reaching this end. The syllabus thus becomes a practical treatise on methods of teaching. In geometry and in the physical sciences there appear directions for the study of elementary portions of these subjects in the earlier years of school life. Such suggestions are notably absent from the subjects of arithmetic, geography, and litera ture. There seems to be no good reason why a feature so excellent should not be introduced throughout. The correlation of subjects also receives marked attention. The relation existing between literature and history and between the history and language of different countries is noted, and in science one finds a fruitful conception of unity. But there is no hint that geography is the key to the pedagogic situation at any stage in the life of the pupil, and no reference is made to the relations existing between the fundamental operations of arithmetic.

The most important evidence of progress in principles and methods appears in the wider introduction of the objective method, in the emphasis laid on the study of type-forms, and in the direction to the teacher to begin at the standpoint of the pupil. The use of such expressions as the following will indicate the application of these principles : “Make the pupil familiar with the customs, food, education, language, laws, modes of government, arms and armies, ships and navigation.” "Illustrate the laws of physics and chemistry by simple homemade apparatus."

“ Use the familiar animals of types .. illustrative of the classes to which they belong.” “Study of the animals and plants to be found near the homes of the pupils. " Practical observation rather than books." In civics and economics, also, though no directions for objective work are given, the examination presupposes that the class has had the guidance of a teacher who knew how to give an interest to the subject by illustrations and exemplifications drawn from the current discussions and events of the times; yet, after all, the

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section on civics begins with " "theories," and that on economics with definitions,"

In neither literature nor geography do we find a suggestion of these methods, although there are "typical forms" in literature and there is such a thing as taking the standpoint of the pupil in geography and psychology. The section on geography, with some relatively unimportant changes, stands as it stood in the earlier editions. Not only is there no reference to the methods of elementary study, but there is no more mention of sand or putty, of methods of map-drawing, or of the necessity of beginning with the things nearest home, and with types in physical geography rather than with the “ordinary school text-book in mathematical and political geography,” than if Parker and Frye, not to speak of Ritter, had never written. The subject of psychology is still farther behind the times. The caption is psychology, but the topics dealt with and the method of treatment belong to that abstract, traditional, and metaplıysical thing that used to be called “mental philosophy"; that studied mind instead of mental phenomena, discussing the possibility of introspection rather than teaching how to perform the operation; and, to use the words of the syllabus, dealing with "the terms of psychology and the distinctions between them” rather than the powers and activities of the minds of the students themselves, and the significance of this knowledge for personal mental life. It is indeed true, as the syllabus states, that “there is a method of study by which a knowledge of mind and its operations is attainable by the student just as surely as there is a profitable mode by which the natural sciences may be studied by young students," but the method is the same in psychology as in any other natural science. It is to be hoped, also, that the study of the will may occupy a prominent place in the next syllabus. It is a subject practical enough, certainly, to deserve it.

After physics and chemistry the place of honor in the syllabus belongs to the forty pages devoted to the subject of form-study, drawing, and ornament. The excellence of this chapter, no less than its importance, cannot be over-estimated.

In addition to the four years' course, there has been inserted a valuable abstract of Worman's Analysis of Ornament, and the Syllabus prepared by the late Dr. John W. French,— his last service to the cause of education,--and adopted by the Department of Public Instruction in the State of New York.

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In this practical and effective way recognition is given to the necessity of the study, early in the academic course, of "a subject which should be taught in all the elementary schools of the State.” Emphasis is laid upon the fact that drawing is a language for the expression of form-ideas.

No apology need be offered for suggesting that the high degree of excellence attained by portions of this syllabus might well characterize it as a whole. The effect of such a work, as it stands, placed in the hands of the progressive schoolmasters of the State, must be to afford a stimulus, a standard, and a guide; to aid in the proper use of the text-book; and, by the topical outlines, the suggestive questions, the list of irregular verbs with their principal parts, the complete list of roots and affixes, and the general topics of history, to supplement the text-book, and to give breadth and freedom to teaching; and, finally, to introduce a spirit of progressive and sympathetic co-operation which will result not in dead uniformity, but in living, organic unity.



Boston : Ginn & Co.,

A Primer of Ethics.--Edited by BENJAMIN B. COMEGYS.


This little book is in the main an abridgement of one of Jacob Abbott's Rollo books. It is plain, practical, and, for the most part, wise. The thought is simple, and the sentences easy, though the words used often reach beyond the range occupied by an ordinary child's speech. It abounds in illustrative examples, some of which grow out of the theme, while some are made and added to it, like fruit of wax or plaster hung upon a tree. The book is not, and does not profess to be, a systematic treatise; neither is there any attempt to ground the duties mentioned in it on any fundamental principle, as even a text-book for elementary schools should do-but the counsels given are judicious, and a little child may be profited by their teaching.


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Rudimentary Economics.--By George M. STEELE, LL.D., Principal of Wes

leyan Academy, Wilbraham, Mass. Boston and New York: Leach, Shewell & Sanborn, 1890, pp. xvi, 211.

In criticising such a book as this it is necessary to make due allowance for the limitations under which a text-book designed for popular reading and high school study must be written. Originality, for example, in the presentation of new theories is hardly to be expected. Two conditions are chiefly to be looked for--clearness and conciseness of presentation, joined to soundness of thought and accuracy of statement. The first condition of a good popular text-book is fulfilled in this work of Dr. Steele's. Being somewhat simpler and apparently intended for younger minds than Walker's Elementary Course of Political Economy, and being better arranged for teaching than Ely's Political Economy, it possesses merit.

It will be more interesting to examine the economic views presented. As a protectionist Dr. Steele has given us one of the very few books on that side of the question so prominently before the country. Both sides are presented with fairness, but the leaning of the author toward the views recently expressed in Patten's Economic Basis of Protection is not concealed.

Throughout the book, man is recognized as the center, and in the brief discussions of wages, labor organizations, factory legislation, etc., this standpoint is well emphasized. There is often a failure to profit by recent economic writing, as where Mill is quoted, on page 28, “ The greater part in value of the wealth now existing in England has been produced within the last twelve months'; thus ignoring Professor Clark's demonstration that only the form of the value, its embodiment, is of such recent creation, the value itself being the product of centuries of effort and abstaining. The notable discussions of the theories of interest and profits, in the economic quarterlies of the past three years, are not made use of as much as one might desire. Thus the wage-fund theory is entirely rejected without attention being called to its substratum of truth, which is that the amount of capital determines the efficiency of labor and so indirectly affects the amount of his wages.

Mr. Carey is frequently quoted, and his position is adopted, that, “ As society advances, the laborer's proportion of the joint product of labor and capital tends steadily to increase; the

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proportion of the capitalist tends steadily to decline; while the quantity assigned to both steadily increases.” This is a pure assumption, and quite Atkinsonian. Since the amount of capital is increasing not only faster than labor, but apparently faster than interest falls, it is probable that capital as a whole, in the form of interest and profits and also the share of monopoly in the shape of rent, is increasing faster than wages. Four per cent. interest on $10,000 is greater than six per cent. on $3000.

Railroads are apparently only touched upon once, and then only in three or four lines, wherein their monopoly character is almost entirely denied-a view quite in opposition to the position of specialists like Professors Hadley, Seligman, and Ely, and the German economists.

The author in one place, page 192, indorses Carey's view that “the value of land arises not from the fact that all additions to the population after a certain time must resort to a less productive soil, but from the same facts which constitute a condition of all other value ; namely, the labor bestowed upon the commodity." Yet on the next page Dr. Steele says rent is influenced by the fertility of the soil, the difficulty of cultivation, and the situation, while on page 210 he indorses George's explanation of "the unearned increment" as “ an increase of wealth no part of which has been created by the owner," but by the labor of "the community as a whole.” This inconsistency is not explained in the book.

Despite these things, however, the book has excellent features, such as the discussion of production, luxury, and money, and is written in so pleasant a style that it is fairly well fitted for the class for whom it was written,

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Elementary Science Lessons : A Systematic Course of Practical Object

Lessons.-By W. HEWITT, B. S. London and New York : Longmans, Green & Co., 1890, pp. xii, 115.

This little book contains a preface and an introduction well worth the price of the volume. The purpose of object-lessons is stated to be "the training of the various faculties of the

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