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On the motion of Dr Macfarlan, the thanks of the As- west of Scotland is constantly liable to a large influx of sembly were communicated to them by the Moderator, the very worst portion of the Irish population. He believwho concluded by praying that the Lord would prosper ed that if Popery was to prevail in the British Isles to the them in the various spheres in which they were called to extent anticipated, it would

be, if he might use the expreslabour.

sion, by colonizing Great Britain from Ireland. Viewing CALL TO MR MACNAUGHTAN OF PAISLEY.

the question relatively, they were bound to consider the In this case a call had been presented to Mr Macnaugh- case of those large towns. He trusted the union of the tan of Paisley by the congregation of Rosemary Street, two Churches was already cemented, and already based Belfast, of which Professor Gibson had formerly been upon principles and elements far more enduring than the pastor.' Mr Macnaughtan accepted the call-his congrega- labours or the life of any man, however important these tion opposed it; and the Presbytery, deeming the case as might be, and none held Mr Macnaughtan in higher estione between the Presbyterian Church of Ireland and the mation. With these views, Mr Gibson begged to move that whole Free Church of Scotland, had referred it to the As- the translation do not take place. sembly. Parties were heard at considerable length. Pro- Mr Archibald Gardner, elder, Paisley, seconded the fessor Gibson urged the vast importance to Ireland of hav- amendment. ing an eminent Free Church minister in Belfast, and, in The vote being taken, the amendment was carried by a addition to the call, which was signed by 300 individuals, majority of 150 to 69. read a memorial signed by 1407 leading members of the The Assembly then adjourned. various Presbyterian congregations in Belfast, earnestly praying the Assembly to agree to the translation. Mr

Evening Sederunt. Brough and Mr Macalester, elders of the Free High Dr R. Buchanan gave in the Report of the Sustentation Church, Paisley, remonstrated against the translation as Fund Committee. The financial portion came first. calculated to be deeply injurious both to the locality and to " In laying their annual Report before the General Asthe whole Free Church. Mr Macnaughtan again formally sembly, the Committee be as usual, with a statement of accepted the call, and while stating his reasons for doing the revenue for the year, and with some brief notices of its 80, said—“I found it was not the case of the High Church past success. against a church in Belfast. No; the claims were those of Received from Associations

£86,774 16 3 Ireland--of the country that has called so long, so loudly,

from donations and subscriptions 2,199 Il 8 for our assistance, pleading now that she would be advantaged by the settlement of a Free Church minister. It Total revenue for the year 1847–8 : 88,974 711 was the Presbyterianism of Ulster declaring that she de- Total revenue for the year 1846–7 83,117 16 10 siderated an infusion of Free Church blood and energy; and to that plea I could not turn a deaf ear.

Increase of the present year

£5,856 11 1 Parties being removed,

“ To exhibit the progress of the Fund since its original inDr Candlish moved that Mr Macnaughtan should be re- stitution in 1843, the following statement is subjoined :moved from his present charge. He founded his motion on Total revenue for 1843-4

£68,704 14 8 the decided acceptance given to the call by Mr Macnaugh

for 1844-5

77,630 12 0 tan. Apart from that, he could not have brought himself,

for 1845-6

82,681 17 4 for a moment, to think of agreeing to his translation.

for 1846-7

83,117 16 10 Dr Patrick M'Farlan seconded the motion.

for 1847-8.

88,974 7 11 Mr Robert Paul, elder, entertained different views from “Comparing the revenue of the first with the revenue of those which had been expressed, and could not refrain the last of these five years, the increase at this date amounts from bringing these before the house. He cordially agreed to no less than £20,270, 13s. 24d. This statement, however, with all that had been said in regard to the sister Church; does not bring out the full amount of progress which the but, at the same time, he did feel that, in the present cir- Fund has made. The sum stated above as the revenue of cumstances of this Church it was not right to allow our 1843-4 included the contributions, not of twelve, but of fourdistinguished men to be taken away from us. He had an teen months, the Fund having been commenced in March overpowering sense of the spiritual destitution in our manu- 1843, and the revenue of that year having included all that facturing towns ; so great was it that they could not spare was received up till the 15th May 1844. The actual sum these men. He regretted exceedingly that already so many received from all sources, during the first twelve months distinguished ministers had been translated from the of the Fund -- that is, up till the 30th March 1844 – was Church of their fathers, and from spheres far more im- £61,096, 25. 107d. Comparing this, which is the real amount portant than those they at present occupy. He did not of the first year's revenue, with the revenue of the year say that Belfast was not of great importance, but Paisley 1847-8, the difference in favour of the present year is no less was surely of at least equally great importance; and no than £27,873, 5s. Ojd. such strong case had been made out as, in his mind, to lead “There is still another circumstance connected with the proeither Mr Macnaughtan or the Assembly to say that he gress of the revenue of this, to the Free Church, all-important should leave his present sphere of duty.

Fund, which the Committee think it due to 'state. It has Mr Gibson of Glasgow said, there seemed to be some been felt all along-and was felt by none more than by the confusion in the minds of the parties who had spoken from illustrious founder of the Fund-that its real strength lay, the bar, in regard to the importance of the west of Scotland not in the donations, but in the produce of the Associations. and the sister country. If the question was to be decided The donations could be regarded only as a casual and unceras for the general good of the Church, to say the least of it, tain source of income. The true index of the prosperity of the Free Church of Scotland's demand for the labours of the Fund must be looked for in the steady advance of the Mr Macnaughtan were fully as great as those of the Church ordinary contributions derived from the associations. Conin Ireland. He trusted that the General Assembly would templated in this point of view, the state of matters is highly bear in mind the condition of the large manufacturing satisfactory. There has, indeed, been a great falling off, as towns. Any one residing in these towns must be aware was from the beginning expected, in the sum obtained from that the misery which exists in them is not less than in donations and special subscriptions. For whereas in the many of the districts in Ireland, and far greater than in the year 1843-4 this branch of income yielded no less than province of Ulster, or in the town of Belfast. Take into £16,178, 7s. 6d., it has produced in the year 1847-8 only consideration another element, not less important, namely, £2,199, lls. 8d. But, on the other hand, turning to the the infidelity which prevails in this country at the present associations, this truly gratifying result appears, that whereas moment. It was a solemn and serious thing to contem. during the first year of the Fund the associations yielded plate such a state of matters as now exist. In the city of £44,517, 15s. 47d., they have this year contributed £86,774, Glasgow, which was almost joined, he might say, to the 16s. 3d. I have now shortly to state the charges against the town of Paisley, he was sure he was within the mark when Fund for the year now closed, and how these are to be met:he stated that there were not less than 150,000 capable of The number of ministers on the roll of presbyteries is 693 attending the house of God, who attended no place of wor- Deduct professors and others not on the Fund

9 ship whatever. He believed there were not ministrations for them, if they did not take into account Popery and Total number of ministers receiving stipend from Cenother forms of error. But let it be borne in mind that the tral Fund .

684

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“ The following statement will show the amount payable and industrial interests of the kingdom, would in all proto these ministers for the year 1847-8:

bability have sufficed to make us lay our whole intended 1. Balance at Whitsunday 1847

£63 15 2 efforts aside. And what would now have been the inevi2. Total revenue for year 1847-8

88,974 7 1 table consequence ? Had the season of distress and dif3. Interest on bank account

737 12

ficulty come upon us at a time when the mind of the

Church was to a large extent asleep as to the claims and Total revenue of the year

89,775 14 4 exigencies of our Central Fund, it is not too much to say Deduct

that, instead of being occupied in accounting for a limited 1. Expenses of management, in

increase, we should at this moment have been considering cluding books and papers

how we were to face a seriously diminished revenue. The furnished to the congrega

Committee feel, and they doubt not the Assembly will tions £1,591 18 8

sympathize in the feeling, that the guidance and the good2. Other charges against Fund 784 7 4

ness of God have been most abundantly manifest in those 3. Produce of non-ministerial

leadings of his providence under which the Assembly were charges payable to Home

led last year to adopt those measures which have served, Mission 2,537 15 8

by his blessing, to avert from us so great a calamity. Tó 4,914 1 8 that circumstance it is mainly due that, in a great trial of

affliction, the abundance of our people's joy, and their deep Total amount available for payment of Mini

poverty, have abounded to the riches of their liberality. sters' Stipends and Widows' Fund 84,861 12 8

For in the case of not a few of the Committee can bear Deduct

record, like the apostles of old, that 'to their power, yea, 1. Amount paid to widows of

and beyond their power,' they have been willing of themministers who have died

selves, refusing to allow their temporary straits to stint during the year * 240 00

their contributions, and embarrass the Lord's cause. But 2. Paid at Martinmas last to 67

I am bound to say-duty to the Assembly binds me to say ministers settled under the

--the great cause which this Assembly has committed to Act of Assembly 1844 3,635 6 5

my hands binds me to say-that the pressure of the times 3. Amount due to said minis

will not avail to justify all the shortcomings of the year. ters at Whitsunday, their

It is gratifying, indeed, to be able to state, that 534 minisnumber being increased to

terial charges and 94 stations have this year increased 77 4,000 35

their contributions. But it is not gratifying to be obliged 4. Paid to Widows Fund for

to add, that while so many have been going forward, no vacant charges

98 0 0

fewer than 163 ministerial charges and 73 stations have 7,973 9 10

been moving the opposite way. Had these 236 congrega

tions done no more even than maintain their former ground, Total amount available for payment of sti

the total increase for the year would have been, not pends to the ministers entitled to the equal

£5856, lls. ld., but £9293, 16s. 84d. And, further, had dividend

76,888 2 10 they advanced even to the extent of one-half of the same Of the whole number of ministers entitled to

ratio with the others, the actual increase would have the equal dividend, 11 have been ordained

amounted to no less a sum than £12,040. The Committee in the course of the year 1847-8, and the

are well aware, and wish it to be distinctly understood, amount necessary to pay the proportion of

that in the large backgoing list now alluded to, there are stipend falling due to them is

552 0 0 cases in which the falling off can be both explained and

justified. The death or removal of one or more of the Leaving, as the balance due to the 596 minis

class of larger contributors may have diminished the total ters entitled to a full year's stipend on the

sum collected, while yet among the existing members of equal dividend

£76,336 2 10

the congregation there may have been an actual increase To each of these 596 ministers the General Assembly will both of contributors and of contributions. But tbis, the Low, accordingly, have the satisfaction of declaring a stipend Committee are bound to say, they consider to be the exfor the year 1847-8 of £128.

ception, and not the rule. Among the great majority of “Of this stipend, there was paid at Martinmas last to each the congregations in the backgoing list, the Committee can minister £60.

discover nothing whatever to hinder their progress, which “ The exact amount, therefore, still due to each of the might not be pled with at least equal force by many of ministers is £68.

those that have been going steadily forward. These things Dr Buchanan then adverted to the efforts which had

ought not so to be. It is wrong in itself, and it is altobeen made during the year to increase the fund so as to gether discouraging to those congregations that have been afford a minimum of £150 for each minister. He gave a nobly striving to do their part in that great work which detailed account of the steps which, as Convener of the the Church has in hand. Committee, he bad adopted, with this view, and of various Professor Miller moved the approval of the Report, in a difficulties with which they had to contend. He con- lengthened and eloquent address. As we understand that tinued :

a report of his address, and of the others delivered in con" It were most unreasonable and unjust, however, not nexion with this subject, is being prepared with the view merely as regards the Committee, but as regads the pres- of being extensively circulated, we give but two passages byteries and congregations of the Free Church, not to as specimens:notice what has been unquestionably the main difficulty “Let us remember that ministers, to be useful in preach• with which this movement has had to contend. That dif- ing the gospel, must be unencumbered with the cares of ficulty has been the extraordinary pressure of the times. this world-must not be borne down and racked by anxiety The judgments of the Lord have been abroad in the earth, for the maintenance of themselves and families. In the and by terrible things in righteousness he has been causing old dispensation, we know that it was otherwise arranged, his forgotten voice to be heard. At the date of last As- and that the Levites were left free to devote their whole sembly, no man, not even the most clear-sighted and cal- time and labour to the service of the sanctuary. And we culating, dreamt of such a crisis in the affairs, not of this also know that our blessed Saviour, on both occasions of country only, but of the whole world, as even then was sending forth his disciples to preach the gospel, enjoined already at hand. On the contrary, the prevailing impres- them to “ provide neither gold nor silver nor brass in their sion was, that, instead of entering, we were emerging from purses," no change of raiment, "nothing for their journey, the cloud. And it was undeniably in this belief that, with save a staff only,” for “the labourer is worthy of his hire." 80 much heart and hope, we addressed ourselves to the And we should do well to ponder the dialogue on their regreat enterprise which this Report describes. It was well turn:-“ When I sent you without purse and scrip and for us that in this, as in other things, the future lay hidden shoes, lacked ye anything? And they said, Nothing." from our view. A single glance into that dark period of Would that the preachers of the same gospel could now overwhelming disaster that was about to overtake the say that from us they have lacked nothing. We have heard whole commercial and manufacturing, the whole monetary of the oppressions of the rich and powerful in the land

.

falling heavy on the heads of some of the devoted men of -that there may be no apology for worldly parents or this Church-and it may have been thought that more than guardians of youth, holding back the talented and wellone may have thus been pressed into an early and appa- disposed of all ranks from devotion to this ministry-let the rently untimely grave; but, sir, it is a solemn question which incomes of our. clergy be respectable and sufficient now at each one of the laity within our Church may well ask him- once-not as a lure to draw men to the pastoral office on self, Have I no blame in the sickness, and decay, and death that account, but that their scantiness may be no impediof godly men? Are my hands clean in this? Had I been ment in the way of those who otherwise might and ought more true to myself and to the principles I profess than to to have come." the Church, and to her great Head, might not there have Dr Cunningham and Mr Makgill Crichton having therebeen less privation, and less distress among the outgoing after addressed the Assembly, the following deliverance tenants of the manse ? Have I left them to suffer all in was come to:worldly things, and refused to take my own share? Is it “ The Assembly having heard the Report, approve of the that the men who fought and nobly won the battle, have same, and record their thankfulness to Almighty God for been left to defray the expenses of thecampaign?–a thought the measure of success which, during the past year, has from which even the bonest pride of the worldly man will been vouchsafed to this important scheme of the Church. recoil. A heavy responsibility weighs on us in this crisis They at the same time declare, in terms of the report, that of our Church.' Would God that we could all realize it; the stipend payable to each of the ministers entitled to the and when we have to give in the final account of our steward- equal dividend at Whitsunday 1848, is £68 (or £128 for the ship here, we may be able to say that we sought anxiously year), subject to the reservations and conditions of the Act to know our duty, and that, when known, we were enabled of Assembly, regulating the Widows' and Orphans' Fund to perform it! And oh, sir, let us have a jealous care least of the Free Church of Scotland. In reference to the in any way, even though the temptation come to us in the ministers of new charges, the Assembly sanction the paydisguise of zeal and enthusiasm in the cause, we endanger ment of their stipend, in terms of the regulations of 1844, that Fund whose stability and advancement should be our applicable to their case, subject as above to the reservations chief care. Let us hold all private and personal considera- and conditions of the Widows' and Orphans' Fund Act. tions wholly subdued and out of the way. Let us beware And further, the Assembly resolve as follows:-(1.) That of tampering with, and innovating rashly on that machinery the movement for increasing this Fund, so as to secure for which has worked well hitherto—which has brought this it a minimum stipend of £150 to every ordained and setFund to-day to more than £20,000 more than it was on the tled minister of the Free Church of Scotland, be immedifirst year after the Disruption. Let us, above all, avoid ately and vigorously prosecuted throughout the bounds of prayerfully whatever may possibly lead to disunion or dis- the Church. (2.) That every presbytery, at its first meetagreement among ourselves. Let us be ready to sacrifice ing after the General Assembly, should take up this subrather all personal convictions, however strong, if they be ject; that all those presbyteries in which conferences were but in minor matters of mere detail. For what responsi- held with the representatives of the Assembly's Commitbility can be imagined more fearful than would be that of tee during last year, should resume consideration of the him who, in this our Church's crisis, should rashly or even minutes and resolutions then adopted, and take such meainadvertently throw the apple of discord in the midst, sures as may seem best fitted to secure, in the course of the now when union and united effort are especially required! present year, the attainment of what was then proposed in Oh, sir, let us seek rather to be of one accord, and of one the way of increase to the Fund. (3.) That, in particular, mind,' remembering the injunction, : Let nothing be done presbyteries at the foresaid meeting, should appoint certain through strife or vain-glory; but in lowliness of mind let of their brethren, within one month thereafter, to address each esteem others better than themselves.' Let us walk the several congregations within their bounds upon the by the same rule, let us mind the same thing.'

Lord's-day, at one of the ordinary diets of divine worship, “ There is but one point more to which I would allude, upon this subject, expounding it from the Word of God, one which has been spoken of before by others more com- and at the close of the service reading the deliverance of petent, but one which, from its paramount and pressing the Assembly thereanent, and commending the cause to importance, surely cannot be brought too prominently or their sympathy and their prayers. (4.) That the brethren too often under our notice. I allude to the vital necessity appointed to this work should further meet with the deaof doing all that is in our power, in regard to this Fund, cons' court and collectors of each congregation, ascertain with the view of securing a future ministry of high standing the state of the working and agency of the association, and in this Church, both as to social position and mental ac- endeavour to engage the court in a systematic and strenucomplishment. Piety and zeal are very essential we know, ous effort to realize at least the amount of contribution to in the minister of God's word; but, we know also, that the fund which had been suggested by the conference. And they are not enough of themselves. He must' have a good further, that in this dealing with the deacons' court, they report of them which are without.' The first preachers of should seek the assistance of one or more of the leading the blessed gospel of Christ were indeed the poor and illi- office-bearers of the presbytery. (5.) That the presbyterate fishermen of Galilee, but they were chosen, be it teries that were not visited by the Committee should follow, remembered, while the great Master was himself with them, as far as possible, a similar course, endeavouring in every to guide and instruct; and it was not until they had passed case to bring the deacons' courts and congregations to an through a course of theology, such as can again fall to the

understanding as to the sum in the way of increase which lot of

no mortal man-three years, night and day, witness- they would make an effort to raise. (6.) That where the ing his bright example, and learning of his wisdom; and assistance of one or more brethren may be required by any not even then, not until, besides, what may be termed a

presbytery beyond their own bounds, said presbytery wondrous amount of classical attainment had been confer- should direct their clerk to communicate immediately with red on them in the gift of tongues at Pentecost-then, and the Assembly's Committee on the Sustentation Fund, in then only, were they sent forth on their apostleship. And order that the assistance sought might be provided without still more forcibly it cannot fail to strike us, that after our

delay. (7.) That the brethren appointed as above to visit Saviour's ascension, when he would himself elect an apos- the several congregations, deacons' courts, &c., should be tle for a special end, it is not now from the poor, illiterate, instructed to report to their respective presbyteries, at a humble, labouring class—all honour to them notwithstand

meeting to be held not later than the first week of August, ing—that the selection is made; but it is said, the well-born, and that a copy of said Report should be immediately forthe eloquent, the talented, the learned in all the knowledge warded to the Committee on the Sustentation Fund. The of the time, brought up at the feet of Gamaliel -- high in Assembly record their warmest thanks to the Committee, class, high in natural gifts, and high in mental accomplish- and especially to Dr Buchanan, their Convener, for the ment. It is he who so successfully becomes all things to ability and zeal with which he has prosecuted the business all men,' and is the very chiefest of the apostles. Let us of this great Fund." remember the high status of ministry which we have had The Assembly adjourned at half-past twelve. transmitted to our care, as if the providence of the Disrup

(To be concluded in our next.) tion had said: "Such is the Free Church, see that such it is maintained.' And as we value the services of these

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THE

FREE CHURCH MAGAZINE.

through the system; whereas in other histories, THE LESSONS OF REVOLUTION.

speaking generally, he is wholly excluded; or someWhen we call the attention of our readers to the thing is introduced from time to time in his namerevolutionary movements in Europe generally, and not the living God, but an image making graceful especially in France, it will not be expected that we entrance and exit alternately on the stage, somehave any new information to communicate. In the times as Fate, sometimes as Providence, and somematter of early information on current events, a

times as the Deity. monthly journal must be content to follow far be- In reference to the late events on the continent, hind the daily press. If this is the case in regard to however, we have observed in the periodical press of ordinary subjects, much more must it be so in re- this country, not a few articles breathing a solemnity gard to that which all eyes are turned to with such befitting the occasion, and honestly striving to look an absorbing interest. Accordingly, we do not pro- beyond second causes and human power. Although fess to be able to announce any fact regarding the we cannot say definitely that the people generally current revolutions which is not already before our have learned righteousness by the judgments that are readers, and before the world. It is not, however, yet abroad, yet, to some extent, a serious impression on that account, a work of supererogation on our part seems to have been made on the thinking portion of to call attention to the subject. The world has the public. It should be the aim of public journalists plenty of facts before it-as many as might have who know and profess the truth, to increase and made it wise and good—if it could use them well. direct that impression. In one sense this is a noble Our peculiar vocation is not to set new facts before time to exercise our calling in. There is no want of our readers' eyes, but to aid our readers in taking material wherewithal to fill our sheets. their view of the facts that are already before them. We are anxious to make one general remark sug

How different the same object appears when seen gested by the present condition of France, but rein different lights, and from different points of view! ferring also to her past history. We are accustomed It is to be feared that the very magnitude of the to speak of Popery as adverse both to the moral events that are passing, and the rapidity of their and intellectual wellbeing of men—as not only polpassage, may hinder men from making useful obser- luting the fountain of the heart's affections, so makvations of the phenomena. The energy that should ing the man wicked, but also putting out the eyes be expended in calmly learning wisdom from the of the understanding, so making the man ignorant. last event, is apt to be expended in a feverish

expec- We have been accustomed to refer to nations in the tation of the next. We might liken our present aggregate, as well as to districts and to individuals office to that of the grave-stone—the hoary monitor in proof of this. But in regard to nations, we have of the church-yard-with its “ Stop, passenger, pause, often felt that France stood out either a real or an and think.” The fact told below is an old story, apparent objection to one part of the rule. Whatthat every body knows: “Here lies the dust,” &c.; ever France may have been morally, she has, as a but it affords a solid basis for the weighty admoni- nation, long been intellectually great. Speaking getion, “Stop, passenger, and think.” So, on the nerally, we have there a Popish country that has strength of events which every newspaper records, reached the very highest stage of intellectual advanceand with which every ear is familiar-on the strength ment. The difficulty is not fully met, by observof nations shaken, and of thousands slain--of wars ing that Infidelity rather than Popery has the masraging now, and rumours of other wars approaching tery in France—that it is want of a religion that ails -of fightings without and fears within—we would her, more than errors in the religion she has. In this build our exhortation, vulgar but precious, to “pause observation there is a considerable amount of truth, and think.”

and, so far as it is true, it goes to explain the phenoThe grand obstacle that hinders men from profit. menon. There is, however, and has always been, in ing by the contemplation of past and current events France, a great amount of real zealous Popery. For is, that they are not contemplated in the light of God. a time, during the revolutionary movements toward The landscape is viewed when the sun is down, or the close of the last century, positive religious belief hidden by a lowering cloud. God, the light of the seemed well-nigh extinguished; but the depression world he has made, is banished, and presumptuous was both partial and temporary. So soon did it men stumble over each other in the darkness. How revive, and so vigorous did it become, that one might different the histories of the Bibles, from all other conclude it had but bent to the blast, and never been histories! The grand distinguishing feature is that broken. Of late years France has been the principal in the Bible God is everywhere, transfused like light / support of Popish missions. It cannot be denied No. LV.

JULY, 1848.

cause.

that it contains much positive belief, and even zeal, As to its condition immediately preceding the in favour of Romish superstitions. The question Revolution, let it be remembered that France had, then recurs, in so far as the infidelity of France does in a very remarkable degree, given her strength and not serve to explain how that country has escaped power unto the beast. She had become the right the intellectual blight that accompanies the presence arm of Antichrist. From the statistics given by the of Antichrist in other lands, What effect should its | Evangelical Society of Paris, it appears that enorintellectual condition have in modifying the opinion mous sums of money have annually been contributed generally prevalent among Protestants, that Popery in that country for Popish missions throughout the overlays and smothers a nation's intelligence? One world. France has greater resources than any other fact is sufficient to destroy a theory. In so far as country that owns the authority of the Pope, and France is really Popish, and at the same time really these resources seem to have been lavished on his educated and civilized, its condition limits the ap

Prosecutions were carried on against the plication of the general formula, as to the necessary Protestants, in name of the laws, and manifestly effect of that superstition upon the understandings of contrary to their spirit, even in the provinces of men. We apprehend that at a certain stage in the France; and wherever she had power in other parts progress of the Romish superstition, the stream of the world, she appeared at once the servant of divides; and we ought to acknowledge the existence, Rome and the foe of humanity. At every step we and trace the windings of both branches. The meet with anomalies inexplicable except by the light alternatives are, abject ignorance, and an intelligence of divine truth. dissociated from moral restraints. Popery--the No pation in modern times has so zealously emexistence of the superstition in a positive character-ployed her power to extirpate Protestants beyond either extinguishes or percerts the intellectual in a her own soil, as this free-thinking, infidel France. nation. A nation or an individual may be highly No nation in modern times has outraged humanity cultivated, though steeped in positive Popery; but a so much as this refined and hyper-civilized France. nation highly cultivated, and yet retaining the beliefs No nation in modern times has been so much disof Rome, we apprehend, must be eminently dangerous graced by base deeds in her highest places as this to itself and its neighbours. In short, a nation, proud, chivalric France. where Popery really thrives, must, more or less, The crusade of the great nation against the poor according to modifying circumstances, be either á Christians of Tahiti is fresh in the memory of the Spain or a France: so ignorant, as to be unable to public yet, in all its disgusting details. So also are do good to any, or evil to any but itself; or so the shouts of triumph that rung through her capital wicked, so seared in conscience, so nursed in deceit, when intelligence arrived from her valiant armies and hardened in cruelty, that in proportion to its that they had succeeded in roasting alive a tribe of power, it must become its own and the world's Africans who had refused to surrender their native tormentor. We might suppose the spirit of Anti- land. Her deeds of shame in high places, we would christ gliding down the stream, and on approaching hope, for the honour of our common humanity, are the point of divergence, being altogether indifferent altogether unparalleled among civilized communities. how many of his victims shall take the right, and What a succession of atrocities was paraded before how many the left. We may suppose him giving the eyes of the world on that blood-stained scene, as his instručtions to his agents: One of two things must if to usher in, with fitting accompaniments, another be done-either put out the light, or lure the multi-grand crisis of the mighty tragedy! A wretch, movtudes by its blaze to a deeper destruction. If we ing in the very highest rank of nobility, murders his were obliged to make our choice between evils so wife for the sake of a paramour, and then is permit. great, we would rather have a people whom Popery ted to poison himself in prison to avoid the disgrace has kept in intellectual darkness, than a people who, to his order of a public execution. A judge in one with a bright intellectual light shining around them, of the highest courts is tried for crime, and condemned have swallowed the whole system of Romish super in the very court in which he had presided. The stition and wickedness. The process of accepting highest ministers of state are convicted of selling the irrational superstition, where the reason has been public offices for money, and plead in justification, cultivated, is so violent, that it must wrench out of that their predecessors bad done the same before its place conscience, the ruling power in man. It is them. The monarch meanwhile proves himself more subversive of the moral in men, than to leave worthy to be the head of such a gang. By a series them in nature's ignorance. Austria, if let alone, of beastly negotiations—which, from their very filthimight have lain for generations like a clod on the ness, journals of character cannot print-carried on earth-a burden to it, but nothing more; but France between himself and his ambassador, he sacrificed a must, as if by a necessity of nature, start up from helpless Queen to his own ambition-bartering away time to time, by an internal and spontaneous move- the rights of an independent nation, prostituting the ment, to act the fiend among the nations; scattering institution of marriage, and plunging a defenceless firebrands, arrows, and death a while, with an woman into certain family misery. As an appropriunearthly energy, and then falling down foaming at ate close to the abominable transaction, the ambasthe mouth, and lying as if dead.

sador who had been employed as the tool, thrown We proceed now to notice a series of facts and aside, as might have been expected, when the dirty features that preceded, accompanied, or followed, the work was done, in a fit of compunction, cut his own late French Revolution. We are not in circum- | throat. Such a series of base and tragic deeds you stances to complete the lesson. The object is too may meet with in the pages of ancient romance, or large and too near for being thoroughly surveyed in perhaps you may find them enacted yet in the court all its bearings. We may, however, observe and regis- of some Eastern sultan; but we are not aware of ter certain prominent points, in the hope that they anything similar among civilized nations in modern may form, in part, the materials of a riper judgment, times. Surely that nation was ripe for destruction. when we see in that matter the end of the Lord. When the new revolution was effected, the world

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