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phasized by the fact that we have not yet finished paying for our wars. Our pensions have in the past ten years cost an average of more than $140,000,000 annually. In 1908 our taxation for pensions was nearly $154,000,000, while in the same year we paid for the maintenance of the army $111,000,000, and for the navy $119,000,000, a grand total of $384,000,000 credited to the army and navy account. Nearly two-thirds of our entire revenue are expended upon wars past and anticipated. Moreover, this material loss suggests untold suffering, which we must take into account in any attempt to measure the disastrous effects of war. For instance, if we count those who were slain on the battlefield in the Civil War, and those who died from wounds, disease, and hardship in wretched prisons, the loss of men—many of them the very flower of the nation's young manhood—was equal to seven hundred a day during the four years of the war. This wholesale destruction of the moral wealth of the country can not be estimated. Emphasis upon such facts by the teacher of American history will make them eloquent arguments in favor of peace.

When we learn to keep in mind the right perspective in teaching the national biography of such a peace-loving people as we have been from the beginning of our history, we shall devote to the arts of peace and to the social and industrial conditions of life that large measure of attention which is their due. In so doing, we shall also bring out the fact that our history is a part of world history and that we have a racial inheritance to which people of various lands and ages have made invaluable contributions. We shall make it clear that for much that we hold dear in our civilization today, we are indebted to the Hebrews, the Greeks, the Romans, and to various countries of Medieval and Modern Europe. We have not lived in isolation; no country ever can. In all phases of our history, our national life has been closely related with the life of European countries and with the rest of the world. And this is as it should be, for no nation can render its appropriate service to humanity except by harmoniously coöperating with other nations,-a fact which was never so self-evident as in this age of steam and electricity.

One reason, doubtless, why so much stress has been laid upon wars is that the heroic element is called into action on the battlefield. There is often a picturesque and colorful quality in the subject-matter that strongly appeals to boys and girls. This heroic quality as exhibited in campaigns and battles is worthy of emphasis. But heroism is quite as vividly illustrated by men of peace in the performance of social duties. Even if we devote less of the time and strength of the school to the destructive forces of war, and more to the constructive arts of peace, we shall find that there is no history more fascinating or more dramatic for the American boy and girl than our own. To illustrate my meaning, let me mention only a few facts which suggest the character of the peaceful evolution of American institutions. In the settlement of America, European life entered the new world, received large modifications from physical influences, and then reacted upon the social and political life of the old world. When the settler reached America he was European in dress, tools, habits of thought, and ways of doing things. But these he rapidly changed in adapting himself to the trying conditions of pioneer life. In the beginning, therefore, the wilderness mastered the man; but in the end the man mastered the wilderness and brought under his control a continent. The result was a new type, the American. This process of Americanization evolved many dramatic incidents and many heroic deeds.

Now it so happened that the early colonists were largely Anglo-Saxons, having the Anglo-Saxon spirit or impulse with its love of fair play and its keen sense of individual freedom. The political ideas and ideals which these colonists planted here were rapidly modified under the democratizing influence of frontier surroundings; yet the Anglo-Saxon spirit, represented by the early New England settlers, has largely dominated American thought and purpose from 1620 down to the present time. In other words, the Anglo-Saxon spirit on the one hand, and the movement westward with its constant touch with pioneer conditions on the other, largely explain the American type in its social development.

In the great movement from the Atlantic to the Pacific, there has been a continual advance of the frontier, and in every area of this advance a return to primitive conditions, and also a new social development. In this developmentwhich has been much accelerated because it has taken place for the most part in times of peace—the five phases of institutional life as represented by the family, the church, the school, the state, and industry, are well illustrated. Each of these should receive its due share of attention. Hitherto we have over-emphasized political history, altho the state is the most complex of all the great institutions. In this overemphasis upon the political side of life. we have tried to teach what the pupil is not ready to understand and failed to give a proper consideration of things which he can underderstand and which are more important for him to know.

These things, it should be emphatically noted, have to do with the constructive arts of peace. In a very elementary way, for example, it can be shown how the simple old-time school in the rude log hut has become the complex educational system of today, and how the hand industry of the early colonial times has grown into the factory system of our modern city

In dealing with the industries, the inter-dependence of men and of communities should be demonstrated, and the need of coöperation between various countries in the interests of the well-being of all should be strongly set forth. In primitive industry the individual works alone; in modern industry he works in combination with others. In a very emphatic way the modern factory system illustrates the spirit of coöperation. Coöperation and not competition has been the law of material growth and prosperity.

The westward movement has been closely identified with the great tide of European immigration into this country. In sending their thousands and hundred thousands many countries have contributed their thought and their ideals, and all have been helpful. We are a cosmopolitan people, and we owe much of what we are to what the immigrants, first and last, have brought from their various European homes.

In connecting our national life with the life and work of the world, we shall fail of our duty to the young if we do not show clearly the frank and straightforward character of American diplomacy. We have been honest in our diplomatic methods; we have been sincere in our diplomatic relations. Moreover, in impressing the great ideal of peace and goodwill, we need to inspire our pupils with the thought that nations can not truly and nobly live without a due consideration for all classes and countries. It has been well said that our supreme business as a people is not the frightening of rivals but the making of friends. To put this ideal into practise, we must live up to the motto that justice and righteousness are the keystone of national greatness. Thus shall we meet the moral responsibility that is ours, and in a very real sense occupy as a people a position of leadership among the nations of the earth.

WILBUR F. GORDY

SPRINGFIELD, Mass.

TENDENCIES IN COLLEGE DEPARTMENTS OF EDUCATION

The data from which the following conclusions are deduced have been gathered from reading carefully the announcements of courses in education. Eighty catalogs have been systematically gone thru for this purpose. The institutions whose work in education is here reported include six sectionally representative state universities and two endowed universities. The ten catalogs of each, for 1897 to 1907, furnish statements of policy and plans in operation which in all likelihood are most influential in standardizing this developing feature of combined academic and professional study.

In 1897 these eight institutions offered in all 85 courses, in 1907 182 courses; in 1897 there were 14 instructors, in 1907 47; in 1897 work of graduate grade was offered in 27 courses, 1907, in 64 (approximately); in 1897 the instructor staff included 4 Ph.D. men, in 1907 28; in 1897 one-half of these departments were subordinate to or minor divisions of the department of philosophy; in 1907 all were independent of the departments of philosophy, and of at least coördinate rank with any other department in the Arts Faculty. In 1897 there was no single course common to all the eight departments, not even the so-called methodology course, altho the history and the principles of education, administration, and methods prevail in most of them, and some kind of psychology is offered. In this year there is little sign of agreement upon the fundamentals which shall constitute an introduction to the scientific and professional study of education. In 1907 there are approximately ten courses, embracing topics which in some way are dealt with in each of the institutions named. In 1897 progressively planned courses in single distinctive phases of education are not in evidence, in 1907 these abound. In 1907 all have chosen “ Education " rather than Pedagogy, or Science and Art of Teaching, etc., as a catalog name to embrace the range of their activities.

As there are now 269 educational departments in colleges and universities, and 264 in fairly reputable normal schools, as scarcely 15 per cent. of the 500,000 teachers in the field have enjoyed even the advantage of this available scant resource for professional outlook, as this total of 533 departments of education will likely be doubled in another decade, or at least will double their equipment and efficiency, as influential leaders in the field of secondary education will be, in increasing proportion, recruited from the younger men who will have had some professional training, and as the above 15 per cent. of teachers in the schools will probably then include as many more, the question of wise coöperation in directing these pervasive movements and tendencies assumes large proportions.

The following is a dogmatic summary of the above survey. Each item in the count requires elaboration and most of them call for provisos. The whole is, however, I believe, impressionalistically true.

(1) These departments are gradually becoming independent of any set philosophical system, and (partly, at least, due

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