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· The Coalition, or the Evil,' is levelled against the Allies, and as a matter of course, enumerates all the vexations, curtailments, .contributions, and humiliations, with which they have visited France, as so many gravumina of the general accusation. We certainly feel no inordinate partiality for the counsels which directed the measures adopted for the depression of France, still less can we approve of the general system pursued in partitioning the states of Europe, and adjusting the balance of power; but we really cannot, with this ingenious Frenchman, wholly lose sight of the privations and inflictions which the continental powers had endured from the Emperor of the armies of the French; nor we forget that France never, till the disasters of Spain and the North compelled her to reflection, exhibited any other feelings than those of exultation at the splendid career of Napoleon. The right assumed by the Sovereigns of the Holy League, to arbitrate between realm and realm, to bestow or to anpibilate independence and dominiontheir dismemberment of larger states, and their absorption of smaller-with other parts of their policy, excite in us feelings of the utmost disgust; but the question between them and France, is a very different one, and the present writer is too much of a partisan to discuss it fairly. England, however, is the great object of his antipathy; ber ambition, her rapacity, her subtlety, supply him with copious food for railing. Her diplomacy is, according to him, of the most masterly and Machiavelian kind, constantly and successfully directed to the extension of her power and influence.
On this point we shall only remark, that whatever may have been the intentions of English diplomatists, their acts, we think, were injurious to the honour and interests of England, when they sanctioned the destruction of Polish independence, and sacrificed the republics of Italy.
The second Part is entitled France, or the Remedy,' and is of course occupied with hyperbolical eulogies on her valour and her power. As a general specimen of the style and manner of the work, we quote the second chapter.
After the disastrous battle of Cressy, every thing appeared to be lost: but the monarch felt, that, in spite of his faults, in spite of his mishaps, he alone was still the fortune of France; and the monarchy was saved.
Similar calamities have brought on similar perils. As it was then, the nation is threatened now; and as it was then, so is the throne with it. · © But the heirs of Philip de Valois are among us: the noble task of the Bourbons will be accomplished.
• They will endeavour to save the public under pain of exile ; and France will second them under pain of death.
• Resources will not be wanting, when a firm resolution calls them boldly into action.
Our plains may bave been ravaged, our strong places destroyed, our weapons broken; but the country of the Catinats and Vaubans remains; but our soil, our arms, our minds are left us; and, instead of being deprived of our strength, we have been rendered more terrible, by whatever is violent in the exasperation of wounded pride, and will shortly by the convulsions of despair.
• It is easy therefore, after having twice in vain reconciled ourselves to the coalition, to reconcile ourselves to fortune.' pp. 69, 70.
The translator has executed his task very respectably, and the work is certainly of some importance, considered as the manifesto of a powerful and restless party; but some time has now elapsed since it was written, and it is, of course, on that account, of diminished value.
Art. VIII. England Described ; being a Concise Delineation of every
County in England and Wales ; with an Account of its most important Products ; Notices of the principal Seats ; and a View of Transactions Civil and Military, &c. With a Map. By John Aikin,
M.D. 8vo. pp. 507. London, 1818. THIS is a valuable accession to British Literature, not only
as a book of education, but also as a volume for permanent reference. It is stated to be an enlargement of the veteran Author's England Delineated,' which first appeared about thirty years since, a work excellently adapted to inpart to juve-, nile readers a correct acquaintance with their native country in its most important circumstances. The multiplied editions of that work sufficiently attest the estimation in which it has been deservedly held ; but as various additional objects presented themselves, which it did not enter into liis original plan to potice, Dr. Aikin has been induced to new-model his former composition, and to include all those topics which, before, were necessarily omitted. The present edition is, therefore, essentially a new work, and it presents a more correct and compendious view of the present state of South Britain, than we remember to have seen.
After a brief sketch of the physical Geography of England and Wales, the Author describes the various counties from north to south, giving information relative to the following particulars concerning each : viz. its boundaries, appearance, climate, mountains, rivers, canal-navigation, agriculture, mines, chief towns, castles, seats of the nobility and gentry, and population. Io the accounts of the different cities and towns, their ancient and present state, civil and military transactions, commerce, manufactures, &c. are concisely, but correctly noticed. The population is given, according to the last census, and is for the most part limited to those places, the inhabitants of which amount nearly to two thousand.
As specimens of the manner in which Dr. Aikin has executed this work, we select his accounts of Liverpool and Manchester.
• Manchester, situated in the south-eastern part of the county, has for a considerable time been known as a manntacturing place, and at the beginning of the civil war of Charles I. had been considered of so much importance, that being warmly attached to the parliamentary cause, it was besieged by the earl of Derby, who was foiled in bis attempt. Its original trade was in the coarse woollen fabrics, which were established in various parts of the north of Egland; but about the middle of the 17th century it was noted for the making of fustians, mixed stuffs, and small wares, such as inkle, tapes, and laces. Several other articles were successively introduced, of which the materials were linen, silk, and cotton; at length the latter t: ok the lead, and Manchester became the center of the cotton trade, an iminense busi. ness, extending in some or other of its operations from Furness in the north of the county (and latterly even to Carlisle): to Derby southward, and from Halifax to Liverpool east and west. The labours of a very populous neighbourhood, including all the towns of that part of the county, are collected at Manchester, whence they are sent to. London, Liverpool, Hull, and other places. They consist of a great variety of cotton and mixed goods, fitted for all kinds of markets, home and foreign, spreading over a great part of Europe, America, and the coast of Guinea, and bringing back, in favourable times, vast profits to this country. The cotton is principally imported at Liverpool and Lancaster, but is occasionally brought from London and other parts. Several subordinate manufactories, such as those of small wares, silk goods, hats, and the products of iron foundries, are also carried on in Manchester. The late improvements of machinery for spinning cotton and orier purposes, has caused the erection of numerous steam engines in and near the town, which have given employment to a vastly augmented population, but have at the same time proved a great annoyance by contaminating the air.
• The parish church of Manchester was in the 15th century made collegiate; and after the college had been dissolved under Henry VIII. it was re-founded by his danghter Mary, and has subsisted as an opulent ecclesiastical establishment. Its clergy are a warden, four fellows, and two chaplains, whose revenues the rise of property has rendered ample. The edifice is in the cathedral style, and contains several family chapels and chantries. The ornaments of the choir are much admired. Another memorial of the ancient conse. quence of the town is a grammar school, endowed in the 16th century by bishop Oldham, a native of Manchester, and closely connected with the university of Oxford, to which it has exhibitions. The buildings bear the name and appearance of a college ; and contain a public library of later foundation, worthy to compare with those of the university colleges. With the enlargement of the town, a proportional number of new churches has been erected, accompanied with those places for dissenting worship which are found in all considerable seats of trade. Of establishinents for other purposes are a well supported infirmary, several other institutions for benevolent and useful objects, and a Literary and Philosophical Society, instituted in 1781, which
has published several volumes of Memoirs. The New Bailey Prison, a large cdifice too much required in a place and neighbourhood swarıning with a turbulent populace, was constructed on the plan of Mr. Howard, and is under exemplary regulation.,
• The water communications by which the commerce of Manchester isaided, besides those of the rivers Irwell and Mersey, and the Bridgewater canals, consist of a canal to Ashton under Line joining the Peak-forest canal; the Bolton and Bury canal; and the Rochdale canal, which juins with the Yorkshire Calder navigation.
• Liverpool, at the mouth of the river Mersey, originally a chapelry under the parish of Walton, was known in the reign of Henry VIII. as a haven frequented by Irish merchants for the sale of yarn to the Manchester manufacturers, and in which the king had a castelet, and the earl of Derby a stone house. Its rise to commercial consequence appears to have been tardy, the first parochial church having been built in the reign of William III. From that period, its position at the great inlet of this part of Lancashire, with which the navigation of the river gave it a communication, caused it to augment in size and business in proportion to the increase of interior wealth and population, so as at length to have become unquestionably the second commercial port in the
kingdom. Its harbour is artificial, consisting of capacious docks formed in the town and communicating with the Mersey. The entrance of this river is naturally dangerous on account of shoals, but every mode of direction has been given to promote security, and merchant vessels of the greatest burden are brought into the docks. The trade of Liverpool is very general. That in which it long stood preeminent was the traffic for slaves on the coast of Guinea, doubtless favoured by the articles of trade for that quarter furnished by the goods manufactured at Manchester. This is now happily abolished ; but Liverpool retains a great commerce with the West India islands, and trades more largely
than any other port to the United States of America. The Baltic and Portugal branches are also considerable : and a very extensive connexion is maintained with Ireland. Several ships are sent to the Greenland fishery; and the coasting trade for corn and other commodities is a source of much employment. It has likewise partaken largely of the newly established sea-coast traffic with the East Indies.
« The internal communications of Liverpool are now very widely spread. By the Mersey, it has direct access to Warrington, Manchester, and all the places in the limits of the navigation of that river and the Irwell; and by the Weever, to the salt-works of Cheshire, a very important advantage, as affording a valuable article of exportation, the salt-rock having been much used at a cheap rate as ballast for vessels The connexion with Manchester, both by river, and by the Bridgewater canal, gives Liverpool a participation in the grand canal system now extended alınost through the whole interior of England. A vast design of cutting a canal fro this port quite to Leeds, across the hilly country separating the two counties, has also been brought to execution after long delays. One part of this which was carried to Wigan several years since, afforded to Liverpool a large addition to its supply of coal.
This great town being almost entirely a new creation, it cannot be supposed that it should offer objects to gratify the curiosity of the lovers of antiquity : but its public buildings, now adapted to every purpose of convenience, utility, and amusement, have bcen planned in a style of liberal expense and tasteful decoration, superior to those of almost any provincial town in England. Several of its new institutions are honourable testimonials of the enlightened spirit by which commercial prosperity has been accompanied in this place: among which may be mentioned, two public libraries upon a large scale, and a botanical garden, richly furnished with rare and valuable articles from different quarters of the globe.'
So much useful information is comprised in this well printed volume, expressed in neat and perspicuous language, that we cannot but express our wish that Dr. Aikin would undertake to furnish the public with another volume, embracing the rest of the British dominions.
Art. IX. An Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the
Holy Scriptures By Thomas Hartwell Horne, A.M. Illustrated with Maps and Fac-similies of Biblical Manuscripts, 8vo. 3 Vols. pp. xix. 1615, Price 21. 2s. 1818.
(Concluded from page 36.) THE quotations from the Old Testament which are found in
the New, constitute one of the most important and difficult subjects that come under the notice of the Biblical student. The differences which are supposed to exist between the cited and the original passage, in several instances, have been laid hold of by the hands of scepticism, as ground on wbich to build its objections against Revelation ; and if these differences were indeed real, and irreconcileable, the objections founded upon them it is evident would possess great force. In other cases we know that the difficulties which have been urged against the Bible, as arguments tending to invalidate its authority, have, on a calm and full examination, not only vanished, but furnished additional reasons for our believing it. Such an effect, the patient and enlightened inquirer may expect from the investigation of the present subject, which be will find admirably prepared for him in Mr. Horne's Sixth Chapter. Mr. H. has availed himself of the assistance of the most eminent writers, domestic and foreign, by whom the subject has been discussed, and has evidently bestowed much labour and great care on this part of his work. Very copious and complete tables of quotations are given, which will prove eminently serviceable to the reader. They are arranged under the following heads : Sec. I. On the External Form of the Quotations from the Old Testament in the New. 1. Quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures in the New Tes