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The discussions on these resolutions drew from Mr. Madison a “Report” devoted to their vindication and in opposition to the Alien and Sedition laws. This report is a very able paper, and the subject on which it treats mostly-the relations of the States-possesses the greatest interest.

His next public employment was as Secretary of State under Jefferson, in 1801, continuing until 1809, when he succeeded to the Presidency, and filled that exalted position most acceptably throughout the war of 1812 and until 1817. That war was also an occasion of much party feeling, being bitterly opposed by the Federalists of New England; but its brilliant and happy conclusion wiped that party out of existence.

On the expiration of his second term he retired to Montpelier, his estate in Virginia, where he passed a peaceful old age, only once, meanwhile, engaging in public affairs, being a member of the convention to remodel the State Constitution. Like Jefferson, he also felt a strong interest in the cause of education, and particularly manifested a desire for the success of the University of Virginia, of which he was long a rector. Universally respected and beloved, he died in 1836.

It is difficult to speak of Madison without employing language seemingly too eulogistic. IIe was always temperate, moral, studious and agree

able. At first he was timid, but overcoming that defect, he became one of the best debaters of his time. He never indulged in flights of the fancy, yet his style was not devoid of orna- , ment, and his reasoning powers were unexcelled. Washington was always his warmest friend, and Jefferson, who appreciated lim highly, has left on record a very exalted opinion of his genius and his worth.

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CHAPTER V.

JAMES MONROE.

Birth and Early Military Service-Studies Law and is Sent to Con

gress- Minister to France, United States Senator---Secretary of State for President Jefferson-Elected President-Era of Good FeelingMonroe Doctrine-Life of Ilonorable Public Service-Dies in New York Poor.

The fifth President was born in Westmoreland county, Virginia, April 28, 1758. He was a student of William and Mary College, which he quit in 1776, then eighteen years old, to enter the army as a cadet. He was immediately placed in active service, where he was distin

guished, capturing one of the British batteries · at Trenton, and receiving a bullet in his shoulder, as well as a captaincy.

Leaving the service, he commenced the study of the law under Jefferson, then Governor of Virginia, and was elected to the Legislature in 1782, and thongh but twenty-three years old, was appointed a member of the Executive Council. In 1783 he was chosen a delegate to Congress, and was soon active in measures which led to the convention and adoption of our Constitution.

In 1785 he was married to a New York lady, Miss Kortright, who is described as having possessed remarkable beauty and accomplishments, and their married life, a happy one, was terminated by her death in 1830. In 1787 he was again elected to the Legislature, and in 1790 was sent to the United States Senate. In 1794 he received the appointment of Minister to France, but was recalled by President Adams in 1796. Chosen Governor of Virginia in 1799, he retained that office until 1802, when he again went abroad as commissioner to negotiate, in conjunction with our Minister to

iana. After the conclusion of that treaty he was employed in arranging a treaty with Spain, and afterwards with England, returning home in 1806. In 1808 he was a prominent candidate for the Presidency, but withdrew in favor of Mr. Madison. In 1810 he was again elected to the Legislature, and in the next year as Governor of Virginia. In the sainc year he was appointed Secretary of State, which office he held to the end of Madison's administration, when he was, in 1816, elected President by a vote of 183 out of 217 electoral votes.

Soon after his election he took an extended tour through the Northern States, which was marked by the expression of much good-will. His administration was very popular-nearly every measure he recommended in his messages being adopted, and he was re-elected by nearly a unanimous vote, receiving all but one of the whole 232 electoral votes, a compliment shown to no other candidate since Washington's time.

His first administration is remembered as the “era of good feeling," the debates in Congress being attended with an absence of acrimony, which, unfortunately, has not characterized any other period of our national existence. But in 1820 the admission of Missouri opened the slavery question, attended with much excitement, which was quieted by the adoption of a compromise affecting the constitution of that State. Mr. Monroe is now often referred to as the author of the “Monroe Doctrine," he having advanced the idea that any interference of European powers to establish themselves on this continent is opposed to our interests, dangerous to our peace and safety, and ought to be resisted.

His term of office expiring in 1825, he returned to his farm in Virginia, where he filled the office of magistrate, and assisted in the convention to remodel the constitution of the State. His health failing, he removed to New York, where he died at the residence of his son-inlaw in 1837. His remains were afterwards removed to Richmond, Virginia, with much ceremony, where they now rest. Like Jefferson and Madison, his life was spotless, and his memory is deservedly held in high estimation, unsullied

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