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or destroying the curious orrery belonging to Nassau college. It was contrived and made by an original genius and self-taughtastronomer, Mr. Rittenhouse of Philadelphia. There is not the like in Europe. An elegant and neatly ornamented frame raises pers pendicular pear upon cight feet. In the front of which you are presented, in three several apartments, with a view of the celess tial system, the motions of the planets round the sun, and the satellites about the planets. The wheels, &c. that producethe move. ments, are behind the wooden perpendicular plane, on which the orrery is fixed. By suitable contrivances, you in a short time telt the eclipses of the sun and moon for ages past and ages to come :: the like in other cases of astronomy. It is said that lord Cornwallis intended to have carried it over to Great-Britain; no man of conscience can blainc his taste, which may have preserved it from ruin, by securing to it that protection while in the hands of the chemy, that might otherwise have been denied, But the children of the alına mater, whose it is, triumph in its preservation, though somewhat damaged. The college library did not escape so well as the orrery ; but suffered considerable. . · Let us attend for a while upon the congress at Baltimore, where they met according to adjournment the 20th of December, and soon after passed the following act-[Dec. 27.) “The congress, having maturely considered the present crisis, and having perfect reliance on the wisdom, vigor and uprightness of gen, Washington, do hereby resolve, That gen. Washington shall be, and he is liereby vested with full, ample and complete powers, to raise and collect together, in the most speedy and effectual manner, from any or all of these United Staies, 16 battalions of infuntry, in addition to those already voted by congress; to appoint officers for the said battalions of infantry, to raise, officer and cquip three thousand light-horse, three regiments of artillery, and a corps of engineers, and to establish their pay; to apply to any of the states for such aid of the militia as he shall judge necessary; to form such magazines of provisions, and in such places as he shall think proper; to displace and appoint all officers under the rank of brigadier general, and to fill up all vacancies in every other department in the American armies; to take, wherever he may be, whatever he may want for the use of the army, if the inhabitants will not sell it, allowing a reasonable price for the same; to arrest and confine persons who refuse to take the continental eurrency, or are otherwise disaffected to the American cause ; and return to the states of which they are citizens, their names, and the nature of their offences, together with the witnesses to prove them; and, that the foregoing powers be vested in gen. Washington, for and during the term of six months tron tila date hereof, unless sooner determined by congress.”
. They also “Resolved, that the council of safety of Pennsylo vania, be requested to take the most vigorous and speedy ineasures for punishing all such as refuse continental currency; and that the general be directed to give all necessary aid to the council of safety, for carrying their measures on this subject into effectual execution.”
[Dec. 28.] “Resolved that two large floating batteries be built on Lake Champlain, to cover the boom and the bridge at Tyconderoga ; that a fort be constructed on Mount Indepené dence; that the navigation of the lake near that place, be obstructed by sunken cassoons, joined together by string-pieces, so as, at the same time, to serve for a bridge between the fortifications on the east and west side; and that fort Stanwix be strengthened, and other fortifications made at proper places near the Mohawk river.”
[Dec. 30.] It was “Resolved, That commissioners bc forthwith sent to the courts of Vienna, Spain, Prussia and the grand duke of Tuscany—that the several commissioners of the United States be instructed to assure the respective courts, that notwithstanding the artful and insidious endeavors of the court of GreatBritain, it is their determination, at all events, to maintain their independence-that they be directed to use every inean in their power to procure the assistance of the emperor of Germany, and of their most Christian, Catholic and Prussian majesties, for preventing German, Russian, or other foreign troops, from being sent to America for hostile purposes against these United States, and for obtaing a recal of those already sent-and, that his most Christian majesty be induced, if possible, to assist the United States in the present war with Great-Britain, by attacking the electorate of Hanover, or any part of the dominions of GreatBritain, in Europe, the East or West-Indies." His mos Christian majesty was to be assured, “That should his forces be eniployed, in conjunction with those of the United States, to exclude his Britannic majesty from any share in the cod-fishery of America, by reducing the islands of Newfoundiand and CapeBreton, and ships of war be furnislied, when required by the United States, to reduce Nova Scotia ; the fishery shall be enjoyed equally and in common, by the subjects of his most Christian majesty and of these states, to the exclusion of all other nations and people whatever; and half the island of Newfoundland shall be owned by, and be subject to the jurisdiction of his most Christian majesty, provided the province of NovaScotia, the island of Cape-Breton, and the remaining part of Newfoundland be annexed to the territory and government of the United States.” If these proposals were not suffici
suffizient to produce a declaration of war, and it could not be , otherwise accomplished, his most Christian majesty was to be assured, " That such of the British West-India islands, as in the course of the war shall be reduced by the united forces of France and these states, shall be yielded in absuluic property to his most Christian majesty : and the United Siates engage, on timely no. tice to furnish at their expence, and deliver in some convenient port or ports, in the said United States, previsions for carrying , on expeditions against the said islands, to the amount of two mil. Jians of dollars, and six frigidics imounting not less than twenty
four guns, each manned and fitted for the sea; and to render - any other assistance which may be in their poweras becomes good
Thecommissioners of the courts of France and Spain were to ...consult together, and prepare a treaty of commerce and alliance, to be proposed to the court of Spain, adding thereto, “ that if his Catholic majesty will join the United States in a war against Great-Britain, they will assist in reducing to the possession of Spain the town and harbour of Pensacola, provided the citizens and inhabitants of the United States shall have the free and uninterrupted navigation of the Missisippi, and use of the harbour of Pensacola; and will, provided it be true, that his Portuguese majesty laas insultingly expelled the vessels of these states from his, ports, or has contiscated any such vessels, declare war against the said king, if that measure shall be agreeable to, and be supported by the courts of France and Spain.” . [Jan. 3, 1777.] - Whereas congress hath received information, that Richard Stockton, esq. of New-jersey, and a member of this congress, hath been made a prisoner, and ignominiously , thrown into a common jail, and their detained Resulved, That -gen. Washington be directed to make immediate enquiry into the truth of this report, and if he finds reason to believe it well founded, that he send to gen, Howe, remonstrating against this departure from that humne procedure which has marked the conduct of these states to prisoners who have fallen into their . hands; and to koow of gen. Howe, whether he chooses this shund be the future rule for treating all such on both sides, as the furn tune of war may place in the hands of either party.”
The capture of gen. Lee has proved inconvenient to both sides, and calamitous to individuals. Somewhat like a cartel was before established for the exchange of prisoners between generals Howe and Washington. Gen. Lee being particularly obnoxia ,ous to goverament, and Howe perhaps having received prior instructions how to conduct himself with respect to him individually, (for he can have had none asyet up.)o the news of his.cap. VOL. II.
ture) his exchange was refused. Washington having no prisoner or equal rank, proposed six Hessian ficid ofiicers to balance that disparity; and, if this was not accepted, required that he should be treated suitable to his sitation, and the precedent already set by the Americanis in regard to the Buitish officers thcy had captivated. It was answered, that as Lee was a deserter from his majesty's service, he could not be considered as a prisoner of war, nor come within the conditions of the cartel, nor receive any of its benetits. A fruitless discussion ensued : and Lee was still confined, watched and guarded with the utmost strictness and jealousy; which produced the following congressional act--[ Jan. 6.] “ Congress being informed ihat major gen. Lee hath, since his captivity, been committed to the custody of the provost, instead of being enlarged on his parole, according to the humane prac- . tice that has taken place with others of the enemy who have fala len into the hands of the Americau troops ; a treaiment totally unworthy of that gentleman's eminent qualifications, and his rarik in the service of the United States, and strongly indicative of further injuries to his person :-Resolved, That gen. Washington be directed to send to general Howe, and intorm him, that, should thc proffered exchange of gen. Lee for six llessian field officers not to be accepted, and the treatment of him as abovementioned be continued, the principles of retaliation shall occasion five of the Hessian field officers, together with lieut, col. Archibald Campbell, or any other officers that are or shall be in our possession equivalent in number or quality, to be detained in order that the said treatment which gen. Lee shall receive may be exactly inflicted upon their persons :-Ordered, that a copy of the above resolution be transmitted to the council of the Massachusetts-bav, and that they be desired to detain lieut. col Campbell, and keep him in safe custody till the further order of congress; and that a copy be also sent to the committee of congress in Philadelphia; and that they be desired to have the prisoners, officers and privates, lately taken, properly secured in some safe place."
When the resolution was received by the Massachusetts council, instead of conforming solely to the words of the order to keep the colonel in safe custody, they sent him to Concord jail; where he was lodged in a dungeon of twelve or thirteen feet square whose sides were black with the grease and litter of successive criminals. 'Two doors with double locks and bolts, shut him from the yard, with an express prohibition from entering it, either for health, or the necessary calls of nature. A leathsome black hole, decorated with a pair of fixed chains, was granted him for his inner apartment; from whence a felon had been re
moved but the moment before, and in which his litter and excrements remained a fortnight after it was appropriated to the use of the colonel. The attendance of a single servant on his person was denied him, and every visit from a friend positively refused. When he had transmitted an account of these and other inatters to Sir William Howe on the 14th of February, and the same had been cominunicated to gen. Washington, a letter was directly written on the 28th, in which the general says, “You will observe that exactly the same treatment is to be shown to col. Campbell and the Hessian uthcers, that gen, Ilowe shows to gen. Lee; and as he is only contined to a commodious house, with genteel accommodations, we have no right or reason to be more severe upon col. Campbell, who I would wish should be immediately removed from his present situation, and put into it house where he may live comfortably."
The enemy hare in their power and subject to their call, near 300 othcers belonging to the army of the United States; while the Ancricans have not more than 50 belonging to the enemy. The resolve therefore, of putting in close continententcol. Campbell and the Hessian officers, in order to retuliate Lee's punishment, seenis injurious in every point of view, and io have been entered into without due attention to the consequences. Gen. Lee's misfortune has sunk him greatly in the opinion of many Americans ; and serves to convey a lively idea of the inconstancy and ingratitude of mankind. Some of those very people who, when he was marching to juin gen. Washington, regarded him as the guardian angel that was to deliver America, not only ceasure him bitterly, but even insinuate that he was treacherous. The Americans however, have reaped one advantage by that event- the enemy. are convinced that they have not goiten thic palladium of America, as they fondly boasted.
Congress have been often, and fora considerable time, in a conmittee of the whole, upon the state of the treasury, and the means of supporting the credit of the continental currency. At length they have "Resolved [lan. 14.] That all bills of credit emitted by authority of congress, ought to pass current in all payments, trade and dealings in these states, and be deemed in value equal to the same nominal sums in Spanish milled dollars; and that whosoever shall offer, ask or receive more in the said bilis, for any gold or silver coins, bullion, or any other species of money whatsoever, than the nominal sum or amount thereof in Spanish milled dollars, or more in the said bills for any lands, houses, goods or any commodities whatsoever, than the same could be purchased at of the same person or persuns, in gold, silver or any other species of money whatsoevei; or shall viter to sell any goods or commudities for gold or silver coins, or any other species of