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dependent and prosperous, his situa- manufactures are tolerably low, if tion, in a worldly point of view, is a bis produce will neither command very comfortable one. I am inclin- them, por money to buy them. He ed however to think, that inde- can obtain his clothing in exchange pendently of his ambition to found for his leisure hours; but then it a colony, and. bis apparent anxiety must be by employing those bours while on the move to get as far as in actually making his clothing, and possible from bis native country- not through the intervention of an anxiety for which true English agricultural produce. I am sure feeling fiuds it difficult to account- prised to find to how great an exhe might have invested his property tent this species of manufactures in some of the Atlantic States, with is carried, and how rapidly the as much or more advantage to at events of the last two years have least one or two generations of his increased it. In some parts of the family, and with a far less sacrifice State of New York, I was told the of present comfort. Should his little farmers could not make a liv. family, however, retain any large ing, without it. In Pennsylvania, quantity of laud, a growing den- it is perhaps still more general; sity of population in the western some of the lower descriptions of country, and even in Illinois, not- East India goods having almost withstanding its present unhealthi- entirely given place to a domestic ness, may render it a source of substitute actually made in the fawealth in future years.
mily; and the importations of Irish In the ordinary course of things, linens having been most seriously without an European market, agri- checked by the greatly increased cultural profits in this country must cultivation and manufacture of fax be extremely small; among other in the immediate vicinity of Philareasons, because so large a propor. delpbia. In Virginia and North tion of the population, compared Carolina, I had opportunities of with most other countries, will be seeing there domestic manufactures land proprietors, and so small a as I passed in the stage ; and on proportion dependent on others for my horseback route it was a coniheir agricultural produce; and stant source of surprise-to you because the great fertility of the I may add, without dangerof being soil will leave an unusually large suspected 10 be a Radical, and of supply, after maintaining the la- gratification ; for this combination bourers employed in its cultivation. of agriculture and manufacture in It appears to me that the natural the same family appears to me to tendency of this state of things foru a state of society of all others among an industrious and enter the best adapted to produce a happy, prizing people, is to encourage do- independent, and domestic popumestic manufactures; I mean manu- lation. If I mistake not, America factures really domestic-made in will exbibit this combination in a the family-ibe produce of that la- greater degree than any nation with bour which higher agricultural pro- which I am acquainted, unless the fits would retain in the field, but permanent removal of our corn laws which there appears to be no in- should give a new stimulus to her ducement to employ in the cultiva- agricultural labour; and even then, tion of produce which will sell for the immensity of her fertile terrilittle or nothing when raised. This tory might enable her to supply is a species of manufacture in a our wants without checking her in great measure independent for its any material degree in the career I prosperity on governments or ta- bave anticipated for her. But I did riffs ; for it is of litile importance not intend to enter on these specuto the small farmer, that foreign lations. I have sometimes wished
you could see what a pretty family geographer, whom I frequently sa in picture a mother and two daughters in Philadelphia, shewed me a leiter make; the mother spinning, and from Mr. Birkbeck, in which be keeping a daughter on each side most says; “ There is an error of some actively occupied in cardingfor her. importance in my Letters; and I
- In the hope that this picture will wish that a correction of it could play around your imagination, and accompany the publication. In iny lead you to forget how dry a letter estimate of the expenses of culti. you have been reading, I will con- vating these prairies, I have not clude for the present, especially as
made sufficient allowance of time I am arriving at the end of my for the innumerable delays which paper. I intend, if I have time, attend a new establishment in a chat another letter shall accompany
new country. I would now add to this,
the debtor side a year of prepara
tion, which will of course make a Norfolk (Virginia), Dec. 13, 1820.
material deduction from the profits The little digression into which at the commencement of the unI was insensibly led in my letter of dertaking." yesterday, prevented me from com. On the whole, I am disposed to pleting my remarks on Mr. Birk- believe that experience will sugbeck. I have already mentioned gest to Mr. Birkbeck some mode of some of my reasons for supposing making money, though far more that, in the ordinary course of slowly than he expected ; and I things, agricultural profits will be think the general estimate of the generally low in this country. Nor merits of his situation, by the naam I aware of any peculiarities tural reaction of his exaggerated in Mr. Birkbeck's situation which statements, is at present a little bewould form an exception in his low the truth. favour in this particular. It must I should not be surprised if a not be forgoiten, that while the new and extensive market were imminent danger of four turning gradually opened to the western sour at New Orleans, his principal farmers among a population emmarket, is to be set against the ad- ployed or created by manufacvantages he may possess over the iuring establishments beyond the farmers in the Atlantic States, in mountains. Wool may be raised on his competition with the graziers the spot with tolerable facility; and of Ohio, his greater distance from I have already mentioned the low the Atlantic cities may more than rate of freight at which, in Ohio, counterbalance the benefit of a they can obtain cotton from Louisireadier access to extensive prairies. ana and Mississippi in exchange for At present I am told, ibat the ex- wheat, which will scarcely grow at pense of conveying flour from Il- all in the southern countries. linois, and selling it at New Or- As the Waltham factory, near leans, would leave little or nothing Boston, can sustain itself so well for the grower of the wheat; and against foreign competition, I do I have been assured, on the autho- not know why cotton mills should rity of several persons who have not flourish in Ohio, where mill passed through Kentucky and Ohio seats are numerous and excellent, ibis autuinn, that in many cases the provisions low, labour moderate, farmers would uot cut their wheat, and the protection contemplated but turned iheir calile into it; and by the duty on foreign articles in. that in others, the tenants would creased by distance from the coast. hardly accept of the landlord's Hitherto capital has been wanted, moiety of the produce which they commerce and land-speculations had stipulated to give him for rent. absorbing all that could be begged
Mr. Mellish, the traveller and or borrowed; but the India trade
is at present discouraging, the land a farmer, to employ his 5000l. supmania has partly subsided, and posing that to be his capital. He money is readily to be had on good said he would purchase a farm and security at five per cent.
sloek with 500l., leave 2000l. in From what I hear of Ohio, I government or bank securities know of no place where a young, bearing interest to bring in a cerenterprizing, skilful-cotton-spinner tain income, and the remaining with from 5000l. 10 15,0001. capital, 25001., he would invest judiciously fond of farming, and exempt from in land 10 be left to improve in those delicate sensibilities which value as a speculation. On this would make his heart yearn to- last, he would venture to uoderwards the land of his pativity, write a profit of 100 per cent, in would
pass bis time more to his ten years, asking no other premium mind, or be in a fairer way of than the excess above 100 per cent. realizing a large fortune. To the Many bargains are now daily offermere farmer or agriculturist also, ing. He said, if a person vested I should consider it an inviting 1000l. in a farm and stock, and State. I was told by the late go- in making his house comfortable, vernor of Ohio-one of the earliest 20001. in government securities, settlers in that State, and for many yielding six per cent. interest, and years one of its representatives in 20001. in land to lie idle, improving Congress, a very active, intelligent in value ; the six per cent, which he man, with whom I have already might safely calculate on making made you acquainted- that unim- from bis farm, besides maintaining proved land is to be had at 14 to his family on its produce, added 10 2 dollars per acre, for good quality; the six per cent. for bis 2000l. in improved with buildings, and pret- money securities--together 1801.ty good, 6 dollars; and 20 10 would enable bim to keep a car80 dollars for the best in the riage and two horses and three country. He considers that farm- servants, and to enjoy many of the ing capital, well managed by a comforts of life. This, too, I conpractical bard-working farmer, as- sider highly coloured, after making sisted by his family, produces six every allowance for the difference to nine per cent. at the low prices between his estimate of comforts of 124 cents for 'Indian corn, and and ours. His would probably ex25 cents for wheat, and fifteen to clude wine, and tea, and coffee; or twenty per cent. at 25 cents for at least his coffee would probably Indian corn, and 50 cents for wheat. be pale enough when every pound I should imagine this was too high cost one or two bushels of wheat. a return to calculate upon where English ideas also as to clotbes, labourers were to be hired, and even on a peace-establishment in the capital large ; but be seem. the western wilds, and still more as ed to say it was not, and added, to education, would probably difthat grazing would pay much bet- fer widely from those of my insorter interest, the cattle being sold mant. The expense of a good to drivers who come for them. In boarding school or “ seminary” for ihe remote forests of the Missis. boys or girls (in this country they sippi, I met drovers from Phila- have as few schools as shops, exdelpbia, with herds of cattle which cept Sunday schools, though as shey had purchased from the ln. many seminaries and academies as dians 1000 or 1200 miles from stores,) is 35l. per annum, near their destined markets.
Chillicothe. He has some of his I asked a very respectable and family at school on these terms; intelligent resident in Ohio, how he and I think he said that at the would recommend an Englishman, female “ seminary" Latin cuming to settle in that State as taught, if desired. In dress and
manger he is of about the same ferent to be the subject of either cen“ grade," as the Americans would sure or approbation. To these arsay, as a respectable Yorkshire guments he replies,First, that the farmer, possessing an estate of Scripture precedents for drawing 80001.or 12,0001., and lives, I should lots are not applicable to the preimagine, somewhat in the same sent times; Secondly, that the style, with a table perhaps more practice is not of an indifferent profusely spread with domestic nature, since it is either an appeal to produce,--such as beef, mutton, Providence or to mere chance; and, venison, turkeys, game, and fruit,- Thirdly, that it may afford encouand more restricted in foreign wine ragement to the injurious and imand colonial luxuries. He spoke of moral system of lotteries and games going over to England to bring two of hazard. or three hundred people with him I quite concur with your corres. to Ohio, where “ he would make pondent in his first argument, that them so bappy;" but his family the precedents of drawing lois, attachments bind him to home. mentioned in Scripture, are not Such men as the overlooker of applicable to the present times. your mill, or others equally steady Those who maintain that they are and experienced but more acute, would confine the drawing of lots would prosper well in Ohio un- to occasions of some moment or der his auspices. They would be difficulty, considering it as an act growing rich, while the poor settler of profaneness to use this mode on land would be only comfortable of decision on trifling questious, and independent; a condition, how- Others argue, on the contrary, that ever, by no means to be despised, drawing lots is allowable in trifles, especially when capable of sug- but not in cases of importance. gesting such poetical ideas as the The points therefore to be settled, following:
are,-First, is the practice ever law"Tis I can delve and plough, love,
ful? and, secondly, if lawful at all, And you can spin and sew;
in what cases is it so ? And we'll settle on the banks
1, Is the practice ever lawful ? Of the pleasant Ohio.
Now, it certainly was lawful in the (To be concluded.)
Scriptural instances alluded to by
your correspondent; and we are To the Editorof the Christian Observer. that the lot is cast into the lap,
expressly told as a general truth, A CORRESPONDENT,in your Num- but the disposing thereof is of the ber for January (p. 12), has pro- Lord.” In the instances in quesposed for solution the following tion, it was a solemn religious act, query: “ Is it consistent with the a direct appeal to the Almighty. spirit of Christianity for persons in But to make it lawful in this sense the present day to draw lots, in in modern times, it must be shewn any case, in order to settle a doubt that God has continued to authoful or disputed point ?" The argu- rize us to expect his immediate ments which your correspondent and visible interference, whenever mentions, as usually urged in favour we may think proper to appeal to of this mode of decision, are, it; which would amount to a standFirst, that it rests on the authority ing miracle aud coplinued revelaof Scripture, both under the Old tion, and is no where countenanced and the New Testament dispensa- by the authority of Scripture. I tions ; and secondly, that in cases conclude therefore, that casting of a minute nature, such as the lots in the present day, as a religious disposal of a slight article of pro- act, is wbolly unwarranted and preperty, the practice is often conve- sumptuous. nient, and is, at all events, toa indir- Still, it may possibly be lawful
CHRIST, OBSERV. No, 243. X
in a lower view : it may be lawful, venience to abide by this tęst, there for instance, as a convenient mode seems to be nothing abstractedly of decision in dubious cases, with- unlawful in their determination. out being intended as an immediate Whether it is, generally speaking, appeal to Heaven. Its having been a wise or prudent method of reused on certain occasions by Divine solving doubts, is quite another appoiotment for a higher purpose, question. Many things are abdoes not prove that it is unlawful stractedly “ lawful,” which for to use it for a lower. An act in many reasons are not "expedient.” different in itself may be connected 2. Supposing it then to be adwith certain associations, or not, as mitted, that drawing lots may, in the case may bappen. Some forms certain cases, be lawful; the quesand customs in our own church, tion is, to what kind of cases does for example, may be either decent the permission apply? and devout, or superstitious and Is it lawful, in the first place, to injurious, according as they hap- resort to this mode of determining pen to be employed by a Protes differences in cases of importance ? tant or a Papist ; that is, according Those wbo think that it is, argue to the intention of using them, and upon the ground of its being a dithe associations connected with rect appeal to the Almighty; but them.
if, as has been endeavoured to be But your correspondent says, proved, such an appeal is no longer that drawing lots is not an action warranted, the argument cannot of this indifferent nature; for that rest upon this basis. The question it is either a direct appeal to God, then comes to this: "Are the lower or an appeal 10 the fabled deity grounds, on which a decision by lot called Chance. I agree with him, inay be defended, admissible in for the reasons just mentioned, cases of great moment ?” I think inat if it be a direct appeal to God, unquestionably not ; because God it is wholly unauthorized in modern has given us beller and safer guides, times. But I do not admit, that and more rational modes of deci. the case comes strictly to this al- sion. In those important questions, ternative. I know of no such be- for example, in which the determiing as “Fors Fortuna." There are nation by lot has been resorted to in certain laws of matter and motion some religious societies, the points appointed by the Almighty: in in dispute would have been far more recognizing these we are never to rationally and scripturally settled forget bis supreme agency; yet it by vote, or ballot, or arbitration ; is obvious that it would, in nume- or, what is yet better stil, by the Tous instances, be unwise and almost force of patient and candid arguprofane, to speak of Him as exer- ment, and mutual concession. As cising a direct interference. I a proof how much may be done 10. think that, in the case of drawing wards the settlement of differences, Jots, this remark strongly applies. even in cases of great difficulty, We are not to resolve the issue of by a forbearing and liberal spirit, drawing lots into the immediate I might mention the very honouraand visible decision of Divine Pro. ble fact, that the Committee of the vidence ; nor yet are we to impute British and Foreign Bible Societyit to necessity or chance. It is composed as it is of a considerable the effect of certain laws and ope- number of persons of various ranks, rations quite regular and consistent, denominations, and babits of life, and by which both the contending and called,' at every meeting, to parties agree to be bound, neither decide upon questions capable of of them having any greater fore- eliciting much opposition of sentisight of the result than the other. ment-have never, in a single inIf both are willing for mutual con- stance, if I am rightly informed,