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justly founded, are, his “ Rise of Woman;" the “Fairy Tale;” the “Hymn to Contentment;" “ Health ;” the “ Vigil of Venus ;" the “ Night-piece on Death ;" the “ Allegory on Man,” and “ The Hermit.” These have been respectively criticised by his biographers Goldsmith and Jobuson, and have stood the test of nearly a century. “ His praise," says Dr. Johnson, “must be derived from the easy sweetness of his diction; in his verses there is more happiness than pains: be is sprightly without effort, and always delights, though he never ravishes : every thing is proper, yet every thing seems casual.”
In 1758, a volume was published, it is not known by whom, entitled “ The Posthumous Works of Dr. Thomas Parnell.” This, although it exceeded the volume published by Pope in bulk, appeared so far inferior in merit, that the admirers of Parnell questioned the authenticity of most of the pieces ; and there are but a few of them indeed which can be ascribed to bim without some injury to his character. Goldsmith refused to incorporate them with the collection he published in 1770; but they were afterwards added to the edition in Johnson's Poets, and apparently without his consent. He says of them : “ I know not whence they came, nor have ever inquired whither they are going."
PARR, CATHERINE. See CATHERINE.
PARR (RICHARD), an English divine, was the son of Richard Parr, likewise a divine, and was born at Fermoy, in the county of Cork, where, we presume, his father was beneficed, in 1617; and this singularity is recorded of his birth, that bis mother was then fifty-five years of age. He was educated in grammar at a country school, under the care of some popish priests, who were at that time the only schoolmasters for the Latin-tongue. In 1635, he was sent to England, and entered as a servitor of Exeter college, Oxford, where his merit procured him the patronage of Dr. Prideaus, the rector, by whose interest, as soon as he had taken bis bachelor's degree in arts, in 1641, he was chosen chaplain-fellow of the college. He found bere another liberal patron and instructor in the celebrated archbishop Usher, who, in 1643, retired to this college from the tumult then prevailing through the nation; and
Life by Goldsmith, prefixed to his Porms. ---Johnson's Life.—Swift's and Pope's Works; (Bowles's edition) see Indexes, -Nichols's Poems, vol. III. &c.
observing the talents of Mr. Parr as a preacher, made him his chaplain; and, about the end of that year, took him with him to Glamorganshire. On his return with this prelate, he obtained the vicarage of Ryegate in Surrey, on the presentation of Mr. Roger James, gent, son of sir Roger James, knight, whose sister he married, a widow lady of considerable property. In doctrinal points he appears to have concurred with the assembly of divines, who were mostly Calvinists; but it seems doubtful whether he ever took the Covenant. In 1649, he resigned his fellowship of Exeter college, and continued chaplain to archbishop Usher, while that prelate lived. In 1653, he was instituted to the living of Camberwell in Surrey, and appears to have been some time rector of Bermondsey, where his signature occurs in the register of 1676, and he is thought to have resigned it in 1682. At the Restoration he was created D. D. and had the deanery of Armagh, and an Irish bishopric, offered to him, both which he refused; but accepted a cationry of Armagh. He remained vicar of Camberwell almost thirty-eight years, and was greatly beloved and followed. Wood, in his quaint way says, was so constant and ready a preacher at Camberwell, that his preaching being generally approved, he broke two conventicles thereby in his neighbourhood ; that is to say, that by his out-vying the Presbyterians and Independents in bis extemporarian preaching, their auditors would leave them, and flock to Mr. Parr." All who speak of him indeed concur in what is inscribed on his monument, that “ he was in preaching, constant: in life, exemplary : in piety and charity, most eminent: a lover of peace and hospitality : and, in fine, a true disciple of Jesus Christ.”. He died at Camberwell November 2, 1691, and was buried in the church-yard, where the above monument was erected to his memory. His wife died before him. Dr. Parr wrote “ Christian Reformation : being an earnest persuasion to the speedy practice of it: proposed to all, but especially designed for the serious consideration of his dear kindred and countrymen of the county of Cork in Ireland, and the people of Ryegate and Camberwell in Surrey," Lond. 1660, 8vo. He published also three occasional sermons; but the most valuable present he made to the publick was bis “Life of Archbishop Usher," prefixed to that prelate's Letters, printed in folio, 1686. It is the most ample account we have of Usher; and few men could
have enjoyed better opportunities of knowing his real character. Wood mentions Dr. Thomas Marshall's intention of enlarging this, as noticed in our account of him.'
PARRHASIUS, a celebrated painter of Ephesus, or, according to others, of Athens, fourished in the time of Socrates, as we learn from Xenophon, who has introduced him in a dialogue, discoursing with that philosopher. He was one of the most excellent painters of his time. Pliny tells us, that it was he who first gave symmetry and just proportions in the art; that he also was the first who knew how to express the truth of character, and the different airs of the face; that he found out a beautiful disposition of the hair, and beightened the grace of the visage. It was allowed even by the masters in the art, that he bore away from all others the glory of succeeding in the outline, in which consists the grand secret of painting. But the same author observes, that Parrhasius became insupportable by his pride; and affected to wear a crown of gold upon bis head, and to carry in his hand a baton, studded with pails of the same metal. It is said that, though Parrhasius was excelled by Timanthes, yet be excelled Zeuxis. Among his pictures was a celebrated one of Theseus; and another representing Meleager, Hercules, and Perseus, in a groupe together; as also Æneas, with Castor and Pollux in a third. But of him, or his pictures, the accounts handed down to us are extremely imperfect, and little to be relied on in forming a just estimate of his merit.
PARRHASIUS (AULUS JANUS), an eminent grammarian in Italy, was born at Cosenza in the kingdom of Naples, in 1470. He was designed for the law, the profession of his ancestors; but his inclination was to study classical literature. His family name was Giovanni Paulo Parisio ; yet, according to the humour of the grammarians of that age, he adopted that under which we have classed him. He taught at Milan with great reputation, being particularly admired for a graceful delivery, which attracted many auditors to his lectures. He went to Rome during the pontificate of Alexander VI. and was like to have been involved in the misfortunes of the cardinals Bernardini Cajetan, and Silius Savello, whose estates were confiscated, and themselves. banished for conspiring to depose the pope. As it was well known that he had corresponded with these men, he took the advice of a friend, in retiring from Rome. Not long after, he was appointed public professor of rhetoric at Milan, where his superior merit drew upon him the envy of his contemporary teachers, who, by false accusa, tions, rendered his situation so uneasy, that he was obliged to leave Milan, and retire to Vicenza, where he obtained the professorship of eloquence, with a larger salary; and he held this professorship, till the states of the Venetians were laid waste by the troops of the league of Cambray. He now withdrew to his native country, having made his escape through the army of the enemies. He was after wards sent for by Leo X. who was before favourably inclined to him; and on his arrival at Rome, appointed him professor of polite literature.
Ath. Ox. vol. II.-Lysons's Environs, vol. I.-Manning and Bray's Surrey, vol. I.
2 Pliny, lib. XXXV.-Quintilian, lib. xii.-Diodorus, lib. xxv.-Athenæus, lib. xij.Vasari.- Felibien.-Junius de pictura veterum.
He had been now some time married to a daughter of Demetrius Chalcondylas; and he took with him to Rome Basil Chalcondylas, hiş wife's brother, and brother of Demetrius Chalcondylas, professor of Greek at Milan. He did not long enjoy this employment conferred upon him by the pope : for, being worn out by his studies and labours, he became so cruelly afflicted with the gout, as to lose the use of his limbs. Poverty was added to his other sufferings; and in this un, happy state he left Rome, and returned into Calabria, his native country, where he died of a fever in 1533.
His works were published, collectively, by Henry Stephens, in 1567, of which the principal is entitled “Liber de rebus per Epistolam Quæsitis." This consists of a number of letters written to different learned men, containing explanations of passages in the ancient writers, and elucidations of points of antiquity, which display much erudition. There are also illustrations of Ovid's Heroical Epistles; of Horace's Art of Poetry; of Cicero's Oration for Milo, and various other tracts on classical subjects. The whole collection was reprinted in the first volume of Gruter's “ Thesaurus Criticus." A new edition of the book “ De Quæsitis,” with additions from the author's manuscript, was given at Naples in 1771.'
PARRY (RICHARD), D. D. rector of Wichampton in Dorsetshire, and preacher at Market-Harborough in Leicestershire, for which latter county he was in the commis
1 Gen, Diet.Moreri.Saxii Onomast. VOL. XXIV.
sion of the peace, was born in Bury-street, St. James's,
esq." 1758, 4to. 4.
" A Defence of the Lord Bishop of London's (Sherlock] Interpretation of the famous text in the book of Job, “I know that my Redeemer liveth,' against the Exceptions of the Bishop of Gloucester (Warburton], the Examiner of the Bishop of London's Principles; with occasional Remarks on the argument of the Divine Legation, so far as this point is concerned with it,” 1760, 8vo. 5. “Dissertation on Daniel's Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks,” 1762, 8vo. 6. “ Remarks on Dr. Kennicott's Letter,” &c. 1763, 8vo. 7. “ The Case between Gerizim and Ebal," &c. 1764, 8vo. 8. “An Harmony of the Four Gospels, so far as relates to the History of our Saviour's Resurrection, with a Commentary and Notes,” 1765, 4to. 9. “ The Genealogy of Jesus Christ, in Matthew and Luke, explained; and the Jewish Objections removed,” 1771, 8vo. 10. Dr. Parry wrote one of the answers to Dr. Heathcote's pamphlet on the Leicestershire election in 1775.'
PARSONS (JAMES), an excellent physician and polite scholar, was born at Barnstaple, in Devonshire, in March 1705. His father, who was the youngest of nine sons of colonel Parsons, and nearly related to the baronet of that name, being appointed barrack-master at Bolton, in Ireland,' removed with his family into that kingdom * soon
1 Nichols's Bowyer.