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EXERCISES. What does each of the following conjunctions connect ? Peter and John went to the temple. Virtue is praised and neglected. The moon and stars were shining. You will be despised, and he will be honored. You must labor if you would succeed. If you would succeed, you must labor. George and James will go. George or James will go. Both George and James will go. Either George or James will go. Neither George nor James will go. He was poor though he might have been rich. He was poor, but he might have been rich. He was poor, yet he might have been rich. He was poor, notwithstanding he might have been rich. Wisdom is better than riches (are.) Tell me whether you will go or stay.

Table for parsing a conjunction.
Tell, 1. What part of speech ?

2. What words or propositions does it connect ?
3. Rule.

PARSING EXERCISES.
The preceding exercises may be parsed in full.

MODEL.

" Peter and John went to the temple." And is a conjunction - it connects Peter and John. RULE XVI.—Conjunctions connect words and propositions.

You will be despised, and he will be honored.And is a conjunction - it connects the two propositions, “You will be despised,” and “ he will be honored.”

RULE XVI.-Conjunctions connect words and propositions.

INTERJECTION. An interjection is a word used in exclamation, to express some strong or sudden emotion; as, “Oh! what a fall was there !"

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The following are some of the principal interjections :- Ah ! alas! oh! ha! O! fudge ! pish! tush! pshaw! poh! pugh!

fie ! avaunt ! ho! holla ! aha! huzza ! hurrah! welcome! hail ! all-hail ! ho! hush! hist! heighho! heyday! bravo ! adieu!

Some words belonging to other classes are called interjections when uttered in an unconnected and forcible manner; as, Strange! wonderful! what! behold ! off! away! wo!

PARSING EXERCISES.

He died, alas ! in early youth. Ah! then and there was hurrying to and fro. Oh! make her a grave where the supbeams rest.

Alas! when evil men are strong,
No life is good, no pleasure long.

To parse an interjection,
Tell, 1. What part of speech—and why?

2. Rule.

MODEL.

He died, alas ! in early youth." Alas is an interjection -- it is used in exclamation, to denote a strong emotion; it has no grammatical connection with any other word.

RULE XVII.--Interjections have no grammatical connection with other words.

WORDS BELONGING TO DIFFERENT CLASSES.

Many words belong to different classes; thus, iron may be either a noun or a verb, or an adjective ; as, “ Iron is a hard metal ;" “ To iron clothes ;" “ An iron rod.”

Name some interjections.

Ilow do you parse an interjection ? When are other parts of speech used as Does the same wordi ever belong to differinterjections ?

ent classes? Give examples.

WORDS BELONGING TO DIFFERENT CLASSES. 125

Some of the words commonly employed as different parts of speech are here mentioned.

Much is used,

1. As an adverb_“You have your mother much offended.” 2. As an adjective I have taken much pains.”

3. As a noun—"Where much is given, much is required." SINCE is used,

1. As a preposition" Since that time.”
2. As a conjunction_“I will go, since you desire it.”

3. As an adverb-"I saw him long since.But is used,

1. As a conjunction" He is sick, but you are well.”
2. As a preposition All but him had fled.”
3. As an adverb" We are but (only) of yesterday.”

AFTER is used,

1. As a preposition"After that time." 2. As an adverb_" After I had seen him.” So before, below, above, etc. NOTWITHSTANDING is used,

1. As a preposition" Notwithstanding his merit."

2. As a conjunction“He is respected, notwithstanding he is poor." That is used,

1. As an adjective“Give me that book.”
2. As a pronoun-" The child that was sick.”

3. As a conjunction"I tell you that you must try.” As is used,

1. As an adverb_"He acted as he was directed.” 2. As a conjunction" A8 (since) you have requested me, I will do so."

3. As a pronoun"Such as should be saved.” For is used,

1. As a preposition"This is good for us."

2. As a conjunction "Love God, for he loves you." Tue is used,

1. As a limiting adjective (or article)--- The man."

2. As an adverbThe wiser he is, the better he is." What is used,

1. As a relative pronoun—"He got what he wanted." 2. As a limiting adjective_"What man is there?”

Mention the different classes in which the

following words are used, and give examples of each: Much, since, but, after,

notwithstanding, that, as, for, the, what?

126 WORDS BELONGING TO DIFFERENT CLASSES.

What is used, 3. As an adverbWhat (partly) by entreaty, and what by threatening, I

succeeded.” 4. As an interjection—"What! warder, ho!"

Remarks.-1. But is an adverb when only may be used in its place; as, "Our light affliction, which is but (only) for a moment.” But has been made to assume this meaning by the omission of the negative which was originally used with it; thus, “Our light affliction which is not but (except) for a moment."

2. Some grammarians assert that that, in all those cases in which it is supposed to be a conjunction, is merely a pronoun standing for a sentence or part of a sentence; or rather a limiting adjective. This sentence, “I wish you to believe that I would not willingly hurt a fly," is resolved thus: “I would not willingly hurt a fly; I wish you to believe that [assertion;"] “I wish you to believe that [assertion] I would not willingly hurt a fly."

That in its origin is the passize participle of the Anglo-Saxon verb thean, to take, to assume; but the derivation, and the ancient mode of using a word, do not always show how it is used at present; though a knowledge of them may be useful for this purpose, and may show how present usage originated.

That, as a conjunction, is merely a connective, or, if the expression may be allowed, an introduction to a clause, and does not refer to assertion or fact, etc. The following is a correct English sentenco: “I wish you to believe this assertion, that I would not willingly hurt a fly." How would a sentence of this kind appear when resolved in the mode adopted by Horne Tooke and others ? “I wish you to believe this assertion, that (assertion] – would not willingly hurt a fly."

3. In such sentences as the following, so and as are usually considered conjunctions; “She is as amiable as her sister;" " As two are to four, so are six to twelve;" “No lamb was e'er so mild as he ;"! " He acted as he was directed.” But in all these sentences as and so are adverbs, being used instead of adjuncts. Thus, “She is amiable in the same degree in which her sister is ;' "Six are to twelve in the proportion in which two are to four;" “No lamb was e'er mild in the degree in which he is.” As, in the last sentence, is a conjunctive adverb; thus, “ He acted in the manner in which he was directed to act.”

When is but an adverb ?

What is said of 80 and as ?

SYNTAX.

SYNTAX treats of the arrangement of words in propositions, and their relation to each other.

A proposition consists of a subject and a predicate.

The subject of a proposition is that of which something is affirmed.

The predicate is that which is affirmed of the subject. Thus, “ John runs." Here John is the subject, and runs is the predicate.

Note 1.—The word affirm must be understood to include interrogations, commands, etc.

Note 2.—The name of the object addressed does not form a part of the proposition: thus, “William, John runs."

Note 3.-In interrogations, the subject often comes after the verb; thus, “ What says the preacher 9.

· EXERCISES. 1. Name the subject and predicate in each of the following propositions. Peter jumps. God exists. Virtue will triumph. I can write. Children play. Children love to play. Vice is pernicious. He is happy. Happy is he. Diana is great. Great is Diana. Blessed are peacemakers. Gratiano has gone along with him. With him has Gratiano gone along. In their ship Lorenzo is not. What is man? Who art thou? Where is John? Whither art thou going? Is happiness to be found among men ?

Go thou. Go in peace. Study thou thy lesson. Study thy lesson. Stay with me. Love virtue. Honor thy father and thy mother.

Of what does Syntax treat?
Of what does a proposition consist ?

| What is the subject of a proposition 8–

the predicate ? | What does the word affirm include:

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