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servants, every one; then, shutting the door of the house, and putting fire under it, he burnt himself, and all his companions that assisted him, together with the captain's dead family and goods."
Many other such circumstances could be enumerated, but we forbear to mention them. The Spaniards, finding the work of devastation thus rapid in its effects, and that the working of the mines, with other laborious occupations, must fall upon themselves, searched both the islands and the main, to capture all they could possibly find, and thus relieve themselves from the burthen. Nearly one hundred thousand were collected in this manner, but they, like their predecessors, soon sank under the barbarity of their masters. Great numbers of them, in the anguish of despair, obstinately refused all manner of sustenance, and, hiding themselves in the unfrequented vallies, desert woods, and dark rocks, silently perished. Others repaired to the sea coast, on the northern side of Hispaniola, and anxiously looking in the direction in which they imagined their own islands to be situated, would eagerly inhale the sea-breeze as it rose, fondly believing that it had lately visited their own happy vallies, and now came, fraught with the breath of those they loved. Here continuing, with outstretched arms, as if to take a last embrace of their country, they fainted through hunger, and fell down dead. Nor were the barbarities of the Spaniards confined to the Indians alone, for they arrogated to themselves, not only a right to the territories discovered by them, but claimed also the sole and exclusive privilege of navigating the American seas. All ships, belonging to any other power of Europe, found within a certain limit, were treated as enemies, and their crews murdered. Sir Walter Raleigh asserts as a well-known fact, that the Spaniards had killed twenty-six Englishmen, by tying them back to back, and cutting their throats, even after they had been upon terms of commercial intercourse for a whole month, and when the English had landed in full confidence, without so much as a single weapon of defence among thein. The English had founded several settlements at Virginia, Bermuda, St. Christopher's, and Barbadoes, some of them by no means connected with the territories claimed by Spain ; yet, the Spaniards perfidiously landed on the island of St. Christopher's, in 1629, and after demolishing the plantations, selected six hundred of the most able-bodied men from the English settlers, and condemned them to the mines; the rest, men, women, and children, were ordered to quit the island, under pain of death.
In 1638, they attacked a small English Colony, at Tortuga, and put every individual to death. The Dutch, shortly afterward, attempted to settle in the same place, and met with a similar fate. In 1680, they landed at New Providence, one of the Bahama isles, and, after completing their work of destruction, they carried the governor to Cuba, and there put him to death by torture. The Buccaniers revenged these perfidious acts; while armaments were fitted out in all the inaritime states of Europe, to attack the Spanish settlements, for such unprovoked aggression. Thus they brought the evils upon themselves, which they have since endured. The island of Jamaica was wrested from them in 1655; and out of the vast possessions formerly claimed by Spain, scarcely any of importance is now under their control. The island of Cuba is a nest of pirates, who are shamefully tolerated by the existing authorities. Here, many of the black deeds of former days are re-acted; and rapine, bloodshed, and cruelty, flourish in full vigour. Mexico, that beautiful and luxuriant province, has become a free and independent state, where slavery is abolished, and freedom bids fair to erect her throne on the foundation of just and equitable laws. Ignorance will no longer be fostered by superstition; the light of knowledge has broken in upon the colonies; and, we trust that, in a few years, we shall see them flourishing under wise governments and judicious councils. Yet, while contemplating the atrocious and detestable acts of the Spaniards, in the new world, we feel a degree of remorse and shame, at being compelled to acknowledge, that they also may bring a black catalogue against our own countrymen, the English, for the inhumanity displayed in that execrable traffic, the slave trade. The very name of the West Indies is inseparably coupled with that of slavery; but the Spaniards themselves were the first who tore the African from his home, to toil for gold in the mines of Hispaniola.
The Portuguese, in their researches along the coast of Guinea, had established fortifications, for the purpose of carrying on a trade with the negroes, before the discovery of the new world ; and when the poor degraded natives of the West Indies were nearly exterminated, the Spaniards hoped to supply their loss, by transporting negroes to the Colonies. Within
after the first settlement was made at Hispaniola, negroes were employed in the mines; and so dreadfully rapid was the decrease of the Indians, that, in 1517, Charles V. granted a patent for the exclusive supply of four thousand negroes annually, to the islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. The merchants to whom this patent was granted were Genoese; and, from that time, the slave trade became established, as a regular branch of commerce. It is somewhat remarkable, that Las Casas, who so loudly condemned the cruelty of the Spaniards to the Indians, should be an advocate for this traffic in human flesh; yet, such was
the case; and it can only be reconciled under the idea, that he considered the African was more capable of enduring fatigue, and had never properly known the sweets of freedom. The English commenced this traffic in 1562, under Hawkins, who was afterwards knighted by Elizabeth, and made Treasurer of the Navy. On his arrival on the coast of Africa, he got into his possession, partly by intrigue, and partly by the sword, three hundred negroes, whom he disposed of at Hispaniola. This speculation turning out to be exceedingly profitable, other adventurers sprang forth; and the unoffending natives were dragged from their villages to supply the waste of human life, in the West Indian islands. The trade met with occasional checks, yet it still continued to increase, till the number annually conveyed from Africa amounted to little short of one hundred thousand! It has been asserted by the enemies of emancipation, that as negroes are brought up from their earliest infancy, to servitude, so they cannot be sensible of the loss of liberty. Those who have been accustomed to witness the free negro in his cottage, surrounded with a small plantation of tropical fruits, and Indian wheat, must, at once, be convinced of the absurdity of such a statement. Every thing he does, every thing he says, even the very drawing of his breath, seems to express, “ I am free.” We have frequently listened with pleasure, and considerable amusement, to the conversation of this class; and can remember, when the free blacks were enrolled at Sierra Leone, as a company, to resist an expected attack from the French, in the late war, with what indignity they rejected the title of “militia,” and claimed the privilege of being called “gentlemen volunteers.” The names of English statesmen and individuals in power were constantly on their tongues, and they spoke as freely of “ Brother George,” as if the king were actually their relative. In an insurrection at Jamaica, in 1760, headed by a negro, (who had been a chief in Guinea, was made captive, and sold to slavery,) many enormities were committed ; but, on its being quelled, three of the most guilty were selected for punishment; one was condemned to be burnt, and the other two to be hung up alive, in irons, and left to perish. The wretch, that was burnt, was chained to an iron stake, in a sitting posture, and the fire being applied to his feet, he saw his legs reduced to ashes, with the utmost firmness and composure, and without uttering a single groan. Of the two that were suspended alive, one expired on the eighth, the other on the ninth day; nor did they, during the time, utter the least complaint, except, during the night, of cold. It is related, that one captain, whose cargo was sickly, actually threw overboard one hundred and thirty-two slaves, the whole of whom were drowned, that his owners might be
enabled to recover their value from the underwriters, which could not have been claimed, had the victims died a natural death. An occurrence of a similar nature is still fresh in our recollection, which, though not so extensive a murder, was equally as barbarous. Only those who have witnessed such scenes can form even the smallest idea of their horrid brutality; and it is a remarkable fact, that seamen, who had been any time in the trade, became gradually hardened to all the softer feelings of humanity; not only to the negroes themselves, but also to their more intimate relatives and connexions, at home. Yet, how could it be otherwise? The men who are constantly in the habit of seeing their fellow-creatures shackled, and, in trivial cases, the torture applied, either to make them jump for exercise, or to wrench open their mouths, when they refused sustenance, must, by degrees, have fallen into a state of mental degradation themselves : but we dismiss this subject, earnestly hoping, that the condition of the slaves may be ameliorated, and the cruel practices, which it was once our lot to witness, may be entirely done away.
Art. VII.- Edward the Fourth, Historical Play, in Two Parts,
blk. Letter, 4to. no date. If you know not me you know Nobody, or the Troubles of Queen
Elizabeth, Two Parts, 4to. 1635. Fair Maid of the Exchange, 4to. 1607. Thé Rape of Lucrece, a true Roman Story, with the Songs in
their apt Places, by Valerius, the Merry Lord among the Roman Peers. The Copy revised, and sundry Songs before omitted, now inserted in their proper Places. Acted by her Majesty's Servants, at the Red Bull
. The Fifth Impression. Written by Thomas Heywood. London, 1638. A Woman Killed with Kindness, as it hath been oftentimes acted
by the Queen's Majesty's Servants. Written by Thomas Hey
wood. Third edition. London, 1617. The Four Prentices of London. With the Conquest of Jerusalem,
as it hath been divers times acted, at the Red Bull, by the Queen's Majesty's Servants. Written by Thomas Heywood.
4to. London, 1615. The Fair Maid of the West, or A Girl worth Gold. Written by
Thomas Heywood. 4to. Two Parts. London, 1631. The English Traveller, a Tragi-Comedy, by Thomas Heywood.
4to. London, 1635. A Challenge for Beauty. 4to. London, 1638.
A Pleasant Comedy of a Maidenhead well Lost. Written by
Thomas Heywood. 4to. London, 1634. The Royal King and Loyal Subject. 4to. London, 1637. Wise Woman of Hogsden. Com. 4to. 1638. Love's Mistress, or the Queen's Masque. As it was three times
presented before both their Majesties, within the space of eight days. The Second Impression, corrected by the Author, Thomas Heywood. 4to. London, 1640.
Thomas Heywood, whose Plays will form the subject of the present paper, was a native of Lincolnshire; and, as appears from Cartwright's edition of his Apology for Actors, was à fellow of Peter House, Cambridge. We find, from the following entry in Henslowe's M$. book, that he had written for the stage, so early as 1596: viz. “ October 14, 1596.-Lent unto them, (the Lord Admiral's servants,) for Heywood's book, xxx. S;”—and that, two years afterwards, he became a hireling, as the players, who were not sharers, were then called. The contract of hiring is curious, and is in these terms: “ Memorandum, that this 25th of March, 1596, Thomas Heywood came and hired himself with me, as a covenanted servant, for two years, by the receiving of two single pence, according to the statute of Winchester, and to begin at the day above written, and not to play any where public about London, not while these two years be expired, but in my house." If he do, then he doth forfeit unto me, by the receiving of the two pence, forty pounds. And witness, Anthony Munday, &c.”
Heywood wrote a greater number of pieces for the stage than any of his contemporaries; indeed, his power of production seems to have been unlimited, for, besides various other works, and attending to his business of an actor, he had, as he informs us, in the preface to The English Traveller, “ an entire hand, or at least a main finger,” in two hundred and twenty plays. Of this numerous offspring, however, only twenty-three remain; a circumstance for which the author accounts in different parts of his works. “My pen," says he, in the Apology for Actors, published in 1612, “ hath seldom appeared in press
I have been ever too jealous of my own weakness, willingly to thrust into the press. • It hath been no custom in me,” he remarks, “ of all other men, to commit my plays to the press; the reason, though some may attribute to my own insufficiency, I had rather subscribe in that to their severe censure, than, by seeking to avoid the imputation of weakness, to incur greater suspicion of honesty; for though some have used a double sale of their labours, first
to the stage, and after to the press, for my own part, 1 here proclaim myself ever faithful in