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und so great a lover of knowledge, that he made a your fans, Unfurl yeart fans, Discharge your fans,
“Upon my giving the word to Discharge their were writers who endeavoured to detract from the fans, they give one general crack that may be heard Forks of this author: but as nothing of this nature at a considerable distance when the wind sets fair. is come down to us, we cannot guess at any objec- This is one of the most difficult parts of the exercise: tions that could be made to this paper. If we con- but I have several ladies with me, who at their first sider his style with that indulgence which we must entrance could not give a pop loud enough to be shen to old English writers, or if we look into the heard at the farther
end of a room, who can now variety of his subjects, with those several crítical discharge a fan in such a manner, that it shall make dissertations, moral reflections,
a report like a pocket-pistol. I have likewise taken
care (in order to hinder young women from letting The following part of the paragraph is so mueb off their fans in wrong places or on unsuitable occato my advantage, and beyond any thing I can pre- sions) to shew upon what subject the crack of a fan tend to, that I hope my reader will excuse me for may come in properly: I have likewise invented a Rot inserting it.-L.
fan, with which a girl of sixteen, by the help of a little wind which is enclosed about one of the largest
sticks, can make as loud a crack as a woman of No. 102.1 WEDNESDAY, JUNE 27, 1711.
fifty with an ordinary fan. -Lasus animo debent aliquando dari,
" When the fans are thus discharged, the word of Aa cogitandum mehor ut redeat sibi-PHÆDR. Fab. xiv. 3.
command, in course, is to Ground their fans. This The mind ought sometimes to be diverted, that it may re- teaches a lady to quit her fan gracefully when she to the better to thinking.
throws it aside in order to take up a pack of cards, I do not know whether to call the following letter adjust a curl of hair, replace a falling pin, or apply a satire upon coquettes, or a representation of their herself to any other matter of importance. This several fantastical accomplishments, or what other part of the exercise, as it only consists in tossing a title to give it; but, as it is, I shall communicate it | fan with an air upon a long table (which stands by to the public. It will sufficiently explain its own for that purpose), may be learned in two days' time intentions, so that I shall give it my reader at length, as well as in a twelvemonth. without either preface or postscript.
“ When my female regiment is thus disarmed, I « MR. SPECTATOR,
generally let them walk about the room for some "Women are armed with fans as men with swords, time; when, on a sudden (like ladies that look upor and sometimes do more execution with them. To their watches after a long visit), they all of them the end, therefore, that ladies may be entire mis-hasten to their arms, catch them up in a hurry, and tresses of the weapon they bear, I have erected an place themselves in their proper stations, upon my academy for the training up of young women in the calling out, Recnver your fans. This pari of the exercise of the fan, according to the most fashion exercise is not difficult, provided a woman applies able airs and motions that are now practised at her thoughts to it. court. The ladies who carry fans under me are "The fluttering of the fan is the last, and indeed drawn up twice a-day in my great hall, where they the master-piece of the whole exercise ; but if a lady are instructed in the use of their arms, and exer- does not mis-spend her time, she may make herself cised by the following words of command: Handle mistress of it in three months. I generally lay
aside the dog-days and the hot time of the summer on this occasion, and treate it with a more than offor the teaching this part of the exercise; for as dinary simplicity, at once to be a preacher and as soon as ever I pronounce, Flutter your fans, the example. With what command of himself does be place is filled with so many zephyrs and gentle lay before us, in the language and temper of his breezes as are very refreshing in that season of the profession, a fault which, by the least liberty and year, though they might be dangerous to ladies of a warmth of expression, would be the most lively wit tender constitution in any other.
and satire! But his heart was better disposed, and “ There is an infinite variety of motions to be the good man chastised the great wit in such a man. made use of in the futter of a fan. There is the ner, that he was able to speak as follows: angry flutter, the modest flutter, the timorous flutter, " -Amongst too many other instances of the and the amorous flutter. Not to be tedious, there great corruption and degeneracy of the age wherein is scarce any emotion in the mind which does not we live, the great and general want of sincerity in produce a suitable agitation in the fan; insomuch, conversation is none of the least. The world is that if I only see the fan of a disciplined lady, I grown so full of dissimulation and compliment, that know very well whether she laughs, frowns, or men's words are hardly any signification of their blushes. I have seen a fan so very angry, that it thoughts; and if any man measure his words by his would have been dangerous for the absent lover who heart, and speak as he thinks, and do not express provoked it to have come within the wind of it; more kindness to every man than men usually have and at other times so very languishing, that I have for any man, he can hardly escape the censure of been glad for the lady's sake the lover was at a suffi- want of breeding. The old English plainness and cient distance from it. I need not add, that a fan sincerity—that generous integrity of nature, and is either a prude or coquette, according to the na- honesty of disposition, which always argues true ture of the person who bears it. To conclude my greatness of mind and is usually accompanied with letter, I must acquaint you that I have from my undaunted courage and resolution, is in a great meaown observation compiled a little treatise for the use sure lost amongst us.
There hath been a long enof my scholars, entitled, The Passions of the Fan; deavour to transform us into foreign manners and which I will communicate to you, if you think it fashions, and to bring us to a servile imitation of may be of use to the public. I shall have a general none of the best of our neighbours, in some of the review on Thursday next; to which you shall be worst of their qualities. The dialect of conversavery welcome if you will honour it with your pre- tion is now-a-days so swelled with vanity and com
I am, &c.
pliment, and so surfeited (as, I niay say) of expres“ P.S. I teach young gentlemen the whole art of sions of kindness and respect, that if a man that gallanting a fan.
lived an age or two ago should return into the world " N.B. I have several little plain fans made for again, he would really want a dictionary to belp him this use, to avoid expense.”
to understand his own language, and to know the true intrinsic value of the phrase in fashion-and
would hardly at first believe at what a low rate the No. 103.1 THURSDAY, JUNE 28, 1711. highest strains and expressions of kinduess imaSibi quivis
ginable do commonly pass in current payment: and
when he should come to understand it, it would be Speret idem, sudet multum, frustraque laboret Ausus idem
a great while before he could bring himself with a Such all might hope to imitate with ease :
good countenance and a good conscience to converse Yet while they strive the same success to gain,
with men upon equal terms, and in their own way. Should find their labour and their hopes are vain.
“ And in truth it is hard to say, whether it should
more provoke our contempt or our pity, to hear My friend the divine having been used with words what solemn expressions of respect and kindness of complaisance (which he thinks could be properly will pass between men, almost upon no occasion; applied to no one living, and I think could be only how great honour and esteem they will declare for spoken of him, and that in his absence), was so ex- one whom perhaps they never saw before, and bow tremely offended with the excessive way of speaking entirely they are all on the sudden devoted to his civilities among us, that he made a discourse against service and interest, for no reason; how infinitely it at the club, which he concluded with this remark, and eternally obliged to him, for no benefit; and " that he had not heard one compliment made in how extremely they will be concerned for him, yea, our society since its commencement." Every one and afflicted too, for no cause. I know it is said, in was pleased with his conclusion; and as each knew justification of this hollow kind of conversation, that his good-will to the rest, he was convinced that the ihere is no harm, no real deceit in compliment, but many professions of kindness and service, which we the matter is well enough, so long as we understand ordinarily meet with, are not natural where the one another; et verba valent ut nummi, “words are hcart is well inclined: but are a prostitution of like money;" and when the current value of them speech, seldom intended to mean any part of what is generally understood, no man is cheated by them. they express, never to mean all they espress. Our This is something, if such words were any thing; reverend friend, upon this topic, pointed to us two but being brought into the account, they are mere or three paragraphs on this subject in the first ser- ciphers. However it is still a just matter of com. mon of the first volume of the late archbishop's plaint, that sincerity and plainness are out of fashion, posthumous works. I do not know that I ever read and that our language is running into a lie; that any thing that pleased me more; and as it is the men have almost quite perverted the use of speech, praise of Longinus, that he speaks of the sublime and made words to signify nothing; that the greatest in a style suitable to it, so one may say of this author part of the conversation of mankind is little else upon sincerity, that he abhors any poinp of rhetoric but driving a trade of dissimulation; insomuch that
it would make a man heartily sick and weary of the See Archbishop Tillotson's Sermon on Sincerity, from John, chap. i. ver. 47, being the last discourse he preached, world, to see the little security that is in use and July 23, 1694. He died Nov. 24, following.
practice among men."
Hor, Ars Poet, v. 240.
When the vice is placed in tbis contemptuous among all orders of men; nay, the very women, light, he argues unanswerably against it, in words though themselves created as it were for ornament,are and thoughts so natural, that any man who reads often very much mistaken in this ornamental part them would imagine he himself could have been the of life. It would, methinks, be a short rule for bes author of them.
haviour, if every young lady in her dress, words, and "If the shew of any thing be good for any thing, actions, were only to recommend herself as a sister, I am sure sincerity is better : for why does any man daughter, or wife, and make herself the more esdissemble, or seem to be that which he is not, but teemed in one of those characters. The care of because he thinks it good to have such a quality as themselves with regard to the families in which be pretends to ? For to counterfeit and dissemble, women are born, is the best motive for their being is to put on the appearance of some real excellency: courted to come into the alliance of other houses. Now the best way in the world to seem to be any Notbing can promote this end more than a strict thing, is really to be wbat he would seem to be. Be- preservation of decency. I should be glad if a cersides, that it is many times as troublesome to make tain equestrian order of ladies, some of whom one good the pretence of a good quality, as to have it; meets in an evening at every outlet of the town, and if a man have it not, it is ten to one but he is would take this subject into their serious consideradiscovered to want it; and then all his pains and la- tion. In order thereunto the following letter may bour to seem to have it, are lost.”
not be wholly unworthy their perusal. In another part of the same discourse he goes on “MR. SPECTATOR, to shew, that all artifice must naturally tend to the “Going lately to take the air in one of the most disappointment of him that practises it.
beautiful evenings this season has produced; as I " Whatsoever convenience may be thought to be was admiring the serenity of the sky, the lively coin falsehood and dissimulation, it is soon over; but lours of the fields, and the variety of the landscape the inconvenience of it is perpetual, because it every way around me, my eyes were suddenly called brings a man under an everlasting jealousy and sus- off from these inanimate objects by a little party of picion, so that he is not believed when he speaks horsemen I saw passing the road. The greater part truth, nor trusted when perhaps he means honestly. of them escaped my particular observation, by reaWhen a man has once forfeited the reputation of his son that my whole attention was fixed on a very fair integrity, he is set fast, and nothing will then serve youth who rode in the midst of them, and seemed to his turn, neither truth nor falsehood.”—R. have been dressed by some description in a romance.
His features, complexion, and habit, had a remarkNo. 104.) FRIDAY, JUNE 29, 1711.
able effeminacy, and a certain languishing vanity ap
peared in his air. His hair, well curled and powQualis equos Threissa fatigat
dered, hung to a considerable length on his shoulHarpalyce. —VIRG. Æn. i. 316.
ders, and was wantonly tied, as if by the hands of his With such array Harpalyce bestrode Her Thracian courser.-DRYDEX.
mistress, -in a scarlet riband, which played like a
streamer behind him; he had a wat and waistcoat It would be a noble improvement, or rather a re- of blue camlet trimmed and embroidered with silver; covery of what we call good-breeding, if nothing a cravat of the finest lace; and wore, in a smart were to pass amongst us for agreeable which was the cock, a little beaver hat edged with silver, and made least transgression against that rule of life called more sprightly by a feather. His horse, too, which decorum, or a regard to decency. This would com- was a pacer, was adorned after the same airy manmand the respect of mankind, because it carries in ner, and seemed to share in the vanity of the rider. it deference to their good opinion, as humility lodged As I was pitying the luxury of this young person, in a worthy mind is always attended with a certain who appeared to me to have been educated only as homage which no haughty soul, with all the arts an object of sight, I perceived on my nearer apimaginable, will ever be able to purchase.
proach, and as I turned my eyes downward, a part Tully says, virtue and decency are so nearly re- 1 of the equipage I had not seen before, which was a lated, that it is difficult to separate them from each petticoat of the same with the coat and waistcoat. other but in our imagination. As the beauty of the After this discovery, I looked again on the face of body always accompanies the health of it, so cer- the fair Amazon who had thus deceived me, and tainly is decency concomitant to virtue. As beauty thought those features which had before offended me of body, with an agreeable carriage, pleases the eye, by their softness, were now strengthened into as im. and that pleasure consists in that we observe all the proper a boldness; and though her eyes, nose, and parts with a certain elegance are proportioned 10 mouth seemed to be formed with perfect symmetry, each other; so does decency of behaviour which ap- I am not certain whether she, who in appearance pears in our lives obtain the approbation of all with was a very handsome youth, may not be in reality a whom we converse, from the order, consistency, and very indifferent woman. maderation of our words and actions. This flows • There is an objection which naturally presents from the reverence we bear towards every good man itself against those occasional perplexities and mixand to the world in general; for to be negligent of tures of dress, which is, that they seem to break in wbat any one thinks of you, does not only show you upon that propriety and distinction of appearance in arrogant, but abandoned. In all these considerations which the beauty of different characters is preserved; we are to distinguish bow one virtue differs from and if they should be more frequent than they are at another. As it is the part of justice never to do present, would look like turning our public assemviolence, it is of modesty never to commit offence. blies into a general masquerade. The model of this Is the last particular lies the whole force of what is Amazonian hunting-habit for ladies was, as I take called decency; to this purpose that excellent mo- it, first imported from France, and well enough esrust above-mentioned talks of decency; but this presses the gaiety of a people who are taught to do quality is more easily comprehended by an ordinary any thing, so it be with an assurance; but I cannot capacity, than expressed with all his eloquence. help thinking it sits awkwardly yet on our English This decency of behaviour is generally transgressed modesty. The petticoat is a kind of encumbrance
upon it; and if the Amazons should think fit to go off at first as well as he could; but finding himself on in this plunder of our sex's ornaments, they ought pushed on all sides, and especially by the Templar, be to add to their spoils, and complete their triumph told us with a little passion, that he never liked peOver us, by wearing the breeches.
dantry in spelling, and that he spelt like a gentle “If it be natural tv contract insensibly the man- nian, and not like a scholar: upon this will had ners of those we imitate, the ladies wbo are pleased recourse to his old topic of shewing the narrow-spiwith assuming our dresses will do us more honour ritedness, the pride, and ignorance of pedants; than we deserve, but they will do it at their own ex- which he carried so far, that upon my retiring to my pense. Why should the lovely Camilla deceive us lodgings, I could not forbear throwing together such in more shapes than her own, and affect to be repre- reflections as occurred to me upon that subject. sented in her picture with a gun and a spaniel; A man who has been brought up among books, while her elder brother, the heir of a worthy family, and is able to talk of nothing else, is a very indif
. is drawn in silks like his sister? The dress and air ferent companion, and what we call a pedant. But, of a man are not well to be divided; and those who methinks, we should enlarge the title, and give it to would not be content with the latter, ought never to every one that does not know how to think out of think of assuming the former. There is so large a his profession and particular way of life. portion of natural agreeableness among the fair sex What is a greater pedant than a mere man of the of our island, that they seem betrayed into these town? Bar him the play-houses, a catalogue of the romantic habits without having the same occasion reigning beauties, and an account of a few fashionfor them with their inventors : all that needs to be able distempers that have befallen him, and you desired of them is, that they would be themselves strike him dumb. How many a pretty gentleman's that is, what nature designed them. And to see their knowledge lies all within the verge of the court! mistake when they depart from this, let them look He will tell you the names of the principal fa sorites, at a man who affects the softness and effeminacy of repeat the shrewd sayings of a man of quality, a woman, to learn how their sex must appear to us whisper an intrigue that is not yet blown upon by when approaching to the resemblance of a man. common fame; or, if the sphere of his observations T. “I am, Sir, your most humble servant." is a little larger than ordinary, will perhaps enter
into all the incidents, turns, and revolutions, in a
game of ombre. When he has gone thus far, he No. 105.) SATURDAY, JUNE 30, 1711. has shewn you the whole circle of his accomplish.
ments; his parts are drained, and he is disabled Adprime in vita esse utile, NE QUID NIMIS.
from any farther conversation. What are these but TER. Andr, act. I, Sc. 1.
rank pedants ? and yet these are the men wbo value I take it to be a principal rule of life, not to be too much ad themselves most on their exemption from the pe dicted to any one thing. Too much of any thing, is good for nothing.—Exo. Prov.
dantry of colleges.
I might here mention the military pedant, who al. My friend Will Honeycomb values himself very ways talks in a camp—and is storming towns, making much upon what he calls the knowledge of mankind, lodgments, and fighting battles, from one end of the which has cost him many disasters in his youth; for year to the other. Every thing he speaks siells of Will reckons every misfortune that he has met with gunpowder; if you take away his artillery from him, among the women, and every rencounter among the he has not a word to say for himself. I migbt like men, as parts of his education ; and fancies he should wise mention the law pedant, that is perpetually never have been the man he is, had he not broke putting cases, repeating the transactions of Wesi. windows, knocked down constables, disturbed honest minster-hall, wrangling with you upon the most iDpeople with his midnight serenades, and beat up a different circumstances of life, and not to be conlewd woman's quarters, when he was a young fellow. vinced of the distance of a place, or of the most The engaging in adventures of this nature Will calls trivial point in conversation, but by dint of arge. the studying of mankind; and terms this knowledgement. The state pedant is wrapped up in news, and of the town the knowledge of the world. Will inge- lost in politics. If you mention either of the kings nuously confesses that for half his life his head of Spain or Poland, he talks very notably; but if ached every morning with reading of men over- you go out of the Gazette, * you drop him." In short night; and at present comforts himself under certain a mere courtier, a mere soldier, a mere scholar, a pains which he endures from time to time, that with-mere any thing, is an insipid pedantie character, out them he could not have been acquainted with and equally ridiculous. the gallantries of the age. This will looks upon as of all the species of pedants which I have menthe learning of a gentleman, and regards all other tioned, the book pedant is much the most supportable; kinds of science as the accomplishments of one whom he has at least an exercised understanding, a head he calls a scholar, a bookish man, or a philosopher. which is full, though confused so that a man who
For these reasons Will shines in mixed company, converses with him may often receive from him where he has the discretion not to go out of his hints of things that are worth knowing, and what he depth, and has often a certain way of making his may possibly turn to his own advantage, though real ignorance appear a seeming one. Our club they are of little use to the owner. The worst kind however has frequently caught him tripping, at of pedants among learned men, are such as are nawhich times they never spare him. For as Will turally endued with a very small share of commoa often insults us with his knowledge of the town, we sense, and have read a great number of books withsometimes take our revenge upon him by our know-out taste or distinction. ledge of books.
The truth of it is, learning, like travelling, and He was last week producing two or three letters all other methods of improvemeat, as it tinishes which he writ in his youth to a coquette lady. The raillery of them was natural, and well enough for a mere man of the town : but, very unluckily, several or current money, which was the stated price at which it was
A newspaper, so called from gazette, the name of a piece of the words were wrong spelt. Will laughed this originally sold.
good sense, so it makes a silly man ten thousand contrary, if he coughs, or betrays any infirmity of times more insufferable, by supplying variety of mat-old age, it is easy for a stander-by to observe a se ter to his impertinence, and giving him an oppor-cret concern in the looks of all bis servants. tunity of abounding in absurdities.
My worthy friend has put me under the particular Shallow pedants cry up one another much more care of his butler, who is a very prudent man, and, than men of solid and useful learning. To read the as well as the rest of his fellow-servants, wondertitles they give an editor, or collator of a manu- fully desirous of pleasing me, because they have script, you would take him for the glory of the com- often heard their master talk of me as his particular monwealth of letters, and the wonder of his age! friend. when perhaps upon examination you find that he My chief companion, when Sir Roger is diverting has only rectified a Greek particle, or laid out a himself in the woods or the fields, is a very venerable whole sentence in proper commas.
man who is ever with Sir Roger, and has lived at They are obliged indeed to be thus lavish of their his house in the nature of a chaplain above thirty praises, that they may keep one another in counte- years. This gentleman is a person of good sense Dance; and it is no wonder if a great deal of know- and some learning, of a very regular life and oblig. ledge which is not capable of making a man wise, has ing conversation : he heartily loves Sir Roger, and a natural tendency to make him vain and arrogant. knows that he is very much in the old knight's es
L. teem, so that he lives in the family rather as a rela.
tion than a dependant. No. 106.) MONDAY, JULY 2, 1711.
I have observed in several of my papers, that my
friend Sir Roger, amidst all his good qualities, is Hinc tibi copia Manabit ad plenum, benigno
something of a humorist; and that his virtues, as Ruris bonorum opulenta cornu.—HoR. 1 Od. xvii. 14. well as imperfections, are as it were tinged by a cerHere plenty's liberal horn shall pour
tain extravagance, which makes them particularly or fruits for thee a copious show'r,
his, and distinguishes them from those of other men. Rich honours of the quiet plain.
This cast of mind, as it is generally very innocent in HAVING often received an invitation from my itself, so it renders his conversation highly agreefriend Sir Roger de Coverley, to pass away a month able, and more delightful than the same degree of with him in the country, I last week accompanied sense and virtue would appear in their common and him thither, and am settled with him for some time ordinary colours. As I was walking with him last at his country-house, where I intend to form several night, he asked me how I liked the good man whom of my ensuing speculations. Sir Roger, who is I have just now mentioned ? and without staying very well acquainted with my humour, lets me rise for my answer, told me that he was afraid of being and go to bed when I please, dine at his own table insulted with Latin and Greck at his own table; for or in my chamber as I think fit, sit still and say which reason he desired a particular friend of his at nothing without bidding me be merry. When the the university to find him out a clergyman rather of gentlemen of the country coine to see him, he only plain sense than much learning, of a good aspect, a shews me at a distance. “As I have been walking in clear voice, a sociable temper, and, if possible, a his fields I have observed them stealing a sight of man that understood a little of backgammon. "My me over a hedge, and have heard the knight de friend,” says Sir Roger,“found me out this gentleman, siring them not to let me see them, for that I hated who, besides the endowments required of him, is, to be stared at.
they tell me, a good scholar, though he does not I am the more at ease in Sir Roger's family, be- shew it. I have given him the patronage of the cause it consists of sober and staid persons; for as parish; and because I know his value, have settled the knight is the best master in the world, he seldom upon him a good annuity for life. If he outlives ehanges his servants; and as he is beloved by all me, he shall find that he was higher in my esteem about him, bis servants never care for leaving him; than perhaps he thinks he is. He has now been with by this means his domestics are all in years, and me thirty years; and though he does not know I grown old with their master. You would take his have taken notice of it, has never in all that time valet-de-chambre for his brother, his butler is gray- asked any thing of me for himself, though he is every headed, his groom is one of the gravest men that 'I day soliciting me for something in behalf of one or bave ever seen, and his coachman has the looks of other of my tenants his parishioners. There has a privy-counsellor. You see the goodness of the not been a lawsuit in the parish since he has lived master even in his old house-dog, and in a gray pad among them; if any dispute arises, they apply them. that is kept in the stable with great care and ten-selves to him for the decision; if they do not acderness
, out of regard to his past services, though quiesce in his judgment, which I think never haphe has been useless for several years.
pened above once or twice at most, they appeal to I could not but observe with a great deal of plea- me. At his first settling with me, I made him a sure, the joy that appeared in the countenances of present of all the good sermons which have been these ancient domesties upon my friend's arrival at printed in English, and only begged of him that his country seat. Some of them could not refrain every Sunday he would pronounce one of them in from tears at the sight of their old master; every the pulpit. Accordingly he has digested them into one of them pressed forward to do something for such a series, that they follow one another naturally, him, and seemed discouraged if they were not em- and make a continued system of practica! divinity." ployed. At the same time the good old knight, with As Sir Roger was going on in his story, the gena mixture of the father and the master of the family, tleman we were talking of came up to us; and upon tempered the inquiries after bis own affairs with se- the knight's asking him who preached tomorrow teral kind questions relating to themselves. This (for it was Saturday night,) told us, the bishop of humanity and good-nature engages every body to St. Asaph in the morning, and Dr. South in the kin, so that when he is pleasant upon any of them, afternoon. He then shewed us his list of preachers all his family are in good humour, and none so much as the person whom he diverts himself with : on the
• Dr. William Fleetwood.