« AnteriorContinuar »
struction of the prey. The policy of the Scotch | moved them from under the grinding superiority of landlord operates more slowly, but just as surely. the tenant, and brought them into immediate and We may illustrate this by a reference to what is advantageous relation to himself. About six years taking place on the estates of the Duke of Rich. | ago, when there was a large and simultaneous remond. When the farms on his Grace's princely moval of the smaller tenantry from the Duke's domains in Scotland were let about six years ago, a estates, and these were looking for openings under large number of the smaller holders were compelled other heritors, as application after application was to an immediate surrender of their possessions, to addressed to Lord Fife, that generous-hearted noblemake way for the annexation of these to the larger man is reported to have said, “I really wish his Grace adjacent farms. These smaller tenantry were com- would not put them out faster than I am able to take posed partly of those who held immediately of the them in.” But his Lordship could not take them all Duke, and partly of those who held of the tenant, in, and the vast majority were compelled to retake commonly known in Scotland by the name of sub- themselves to the neighbouring villages and larger tenants. A considerable number of the smaller towns. holders were allowed to retain their little farms in Now what must be the effect of this on the villages the meantime, but were refused, almost without ex- situated in the heart of an agricultural district ? We ception, a renewal of their leases. The class of sub- hesitate not to say, perfectly ruinous. What is the tenants the heritor did not feel himself obliged to history of these villages? They have manifestly risen recognise at all, and in no case were they allowed by their connexion with the circumjacent agricultural to retain occupation of their acres. It is but fair to population. Their various shopkeepers and tradessay, at the same time, that those stripped of their men have thus found a ready outlet for their commopossessions, including the sub-tenants, were not dities, and have in consequence thence drawn their ejected from their houses. In almost every instance means of subsistence; and just in proportion as these they were allowed to occupy a house and garden at districts are depopulated do the villages suffer; and a nominal rent. We may remark in passing, how. not only do they suffer by a large subtraction from ever, that this seeming leniency cannot be regarded their incomes, but by an increased drain upon their as very great indulgence after all. What are a house means and substance. This drain is the result of an and garden to the man whom you have stripped of influx of the ejected, who, when the sum obtained by the resource from which alone he drew the subsist the displenish of their places is exhausted, are in ence of himself and family? Almost nothing. And frequent instances compelled to seek enrolment as this is evident from what has since taken place. The paupers. This, of course, leads to an increase of poor-vast majority of these poor people, their means of rate, and this latter again combined with the depopuliving gone, have felt themselves necessitated to go lation of the surrounding country to a depreciation of where they could be more advantageously located. property, We think, therefore, that it does not To resume-It is extremely probable we think that admit of a moment's doubt, that the prosperity of the Duke originally contemplated the immediate and these villages is in the inverse ratio of the depopulawholesale annexation of the smaller to the larger ting process going on around them. farms, but was restrained by the storin of public in- But to judge accurately of the effect of the clearing dignation with which the partial development of his system, we inust not look at it simply as exemplified system was received, and had recourse to the more in isolated instances, but inquire what would be the slow but equally sure way, by refusing a renewal of result of its extensive or universal adoption, and the leases, the purpose of which, as proved by the event, present tendency of it is in that direction. In such was to effectuate the accomplishment of his scheme a case some of the ejected would perhaps be driven in the way of gradual annexation. Accordingly, on to emigrate, but a large proportion would take refuge the decease of the occupant of a small holding, his in the towns generally. Now, what is true of the effect possession is annexed to the larger contiguous farm, on villages, is true in regard to large towns; and, of his remaining family being compelled to seek a live course, on a proportionably extended scale. The inlihood elsewhere. This depopulating system is going Aux into these would be the multiplication of comon in rapid progress. Croft after croft, merges in the petitors for every department of labour, and the larger farms in quick succession. The large farms inseparable accompaniment of this latter again, unless are all becoming monster fams. They are swallow- in times of extraordinary demand, would be the ing up the smaller as saron's rod swallowed up the diminution of wages. Looking at the recent exhibiTods of the Egyptian magicians. We recollect read- tions in our large towns, is this desirable? There ing the report of a speech delivered by his Grace at would be also the additional effect of casting on the an agricultural meeting, in which he employed these towns an undue and unfair proportion of the pauper
urds, “I would wish to be considered the father of ism of our country, and consequently adding to their my tenantry.” So far as the larger tenantry are already exorbitant poor-rates. And would it not tell concerned, the Duke, we believe, is a respectable detrimentally on the merchant and manufacturer! landlord; but as to the smaller, he appears to us to True, the larger manufacturers export largely to the have done violence to nature, and the scriptural hy- foreign market, but a considerable quantity of their pothesis founded on it: “What man is there of you, goods are consumed at home. And would not this whom if his son ask bread, will he give him a stone!" consumption be seriously abridged ? Manifestly, it
It is pleasing to turn from this stern and unwise would. Compare the population after an extensive policy to record our testimony in favour of that of a clearing with what it was before. The number of neighbouring proprietor of his Grace, the Earl of Fife. hands necessary for labouring these large farms is an His lordship, in adjusting his leases on a recent occa- insignificant fraction of the number of displaced inhasion, found on his estates a class of sub-tenants bitants. In some districts with which we are acsimilar to those whom the Duke found on his. In- quainted, we have in several instances known a large stead of refusing to recognise them, however, he farm raised on the ruins of some twenty or thirty raised them at once to the position of tenants ; re- 1“ reeking houses.” If such be the effect upon the
towns, what can we imagine more caiculated than one needs be told that it is an inseparable concomithis policy to foster and encourage that spirit of tant of the extension of farms. Already in Aberjealousy and antagonism which is so apt to spring up, deenshire, according to a very recent calculation, and which, alas! is now in vigorous existence between bothies are found to exist to the number of between the agricultural and commercial sections of society. five and six hundred. We can calculate the pestiThe attempt of the landlords to cast an undue burden ferous influences upon morals which exhale from these upon towns, while they are at the same time locking sinks of iniquity! up one great outlet for manufactured commodities, What, again, is the effect of the large farm system destroying the consumpt of the various articles of on the prospects of farm-servants? Does it not commercantile retail, and contributing to the reduction pletely darken their future prospects ? Few or none of the operatives' wages, cannot fail to place these of them contemplate working on a farm to the end of interests in direct hostility to those who interpose their days. They have an ulterior object. They wish such obstruction to their prosperity.
to make a provision for declining years. In order to And how does this system tend to destroy the this, they look forward to the probability of their one balance of interests between the two great classes day becoming possessed of the smaller holdings. Inof the community-the agricultural and commercial? spired with this hope, they carefully lay up their little Whatever tends to destroy or even disturb this ba- earnings, the accumulated amount of which, they exlance is fraught with the most pernicious con- pect, will put them into little farms of their own, sequences to national prosperity. The welfare where they can bring up their families, and terminate of these classes is identical. They are mutually their days in independence and comfort. In the prodependent. Where they flourish together, they are secution of this aim, have we not a pretty strong always found to embrace proportional numbers of a guarantee for industry, economy, and sobriety? The country's population. The nation is the most stable debauched will in vain solicit such to indulge in and prosperous that has a due proportion of each, and the neighbouring public-house. The man with the extends equal encouragement to both. Yon cannot little holding in his eye, will strive to commend himpermanently esalt the one at the expense of the self to his master, who, rather than part with such a other. The favoured one will eventually exhibit servant, will be ready to increase the wages on which symptoms of decay, when the other is in a crippled his project of independence is based. True, this is and depressed condition. So far as the agricultural but a subordinate motive, still it does not preclude the is concerned, the want of a due proportion of this higher. Withdraw it, and you remove a strong inclass has been the downfal of other states, and the centive to diligence. Let servants save wages, and in removal or weakening of that element of strength the absence of such prospect, what are they to do with may issue in the downfal of our own. If this system it--bow invest it? The journeyman shopkeeper be permitted to be fully acted out, an honest and in- knows where to invest his earnings. Suppress small dustrious peasantry,“their country's pride,” will live farms, and you rob the farm-servant of an investment but in the imagination of the poet. We have been for his. Without such investment, is it not manifest saddened in surveying some of the depeopled dis- that, on retiring from service, his accumulated earntricts, to look upon the blackened ruin here and there, ings, being subjected to continued drains for himself formerly the homestead of some happy family now and family, will soon be reduced to nothing! Besides, forced into a foreign land, or into contact with the knowing that their is legal provision for him in old temptations and vices of a town.
age, improvidence is even encouraged. This is too Contemplate for a moment the result of this policy much the case already; but deprive the farm-servant on the larger agriculturists themselves, in respect of of an investment, and you increase the evil in an the supply and quality of farm-servants. Whence incalculably great degree. is this supply now drawn? Not from towns. The Look at this system in connexion with our rapidly taste for the special employments of farm-servants is increasing population. Our population is swelling in not imbibed or fostered in towns, but in the actual a prodigious ratio-how is it to be disposed of ? Our scene of such operations. Hitherto the smaller bold statesmen are embarrassed with this question-and ings have been so many nurseries for farm-servants. is it a time to add to this embarrassment? What is The members of a family, familiar from childhood to be done with the rejected tenantry? Let them with agricultural work on the “paterna jugera," behold emigrate, says the landlords. We may be very well in miniature the employments which await them on satisfied if emigration relieve us of the excess of our the larger farms. A number of the family is perhaps population above our resources, or a measure of that compelled to quit the paternal roof at an early age, excess. Emigration should meet a state of things for and engage with the neighbouring farmer to per. which there is no alternative, not an emergency of form some of the lowest and initiatory departments our own creating. At all events it should be volunof farm-work. While so occupied, perhaps in tend- tary, and not, as in the case supposed, the effect of ing the cattle, he looks to his fellow-servant in the direct compulsion. Let it proceed upon the convichigher department, and aspires to the promotion, tion that a man's circumstances will thereby be betwhen grown up, of holding the plough! And farmers tered, but give him every facility for living at home. can calculate on a comparative virtuous race of ser- Let it be resorted to by him as an enterprise pregnant vants. From the proximity of the paternal dwell with hope-not as a last and desperate resource. Not ing, the parental eye is much upon the young people, to speak of the sum lost to the country in the means and in their frequent visits to home, they receive the which emigrants carry along with them, small singly, benefit of parental counsel. On the other hand, ser. but large in cumulo, or of the industrious, perhaps revants drawn from towns are but too often adept in ligious, habits, the deprivation of whose influence on the vices incident to a crowded population, and im- the social economy is a serious loss, the rupturing of port these into their new homes, to the corrupting of the ties of home and kindred is always the most paintheir fellow-servants.
ful when the effect of stern necessity. And then the Need we point to the atrocious bothy system? No | attachment of Scotsmen to their father-land is more
powerful than many suppose. Though the wandering | THE DANGER OF ORGANIC CHANGES IN
THE SUSTENTATION FUND.
Fund. This movement seems to us singularly ill.
timed, and, were it likely to meet with any consider-
able support in the Church, dangerous. It is much
easier to write a pamphlet proposing a new plan, than
vigorously to discharge a present and manifest duty.
But we cordially deprecate this way of responding
to Dr Buchanan's appeal.
The language of this tract is worthy of notice.
of it quietly assumes, that he holds views Why, then, force bim to leave them ?
in common“ with many of the best and most enlightIn connexion with this, we hear a great deal of ened friends of the cause," and he speaks of what the talk about the reclamation of waste lands; but would result would have been,“ had our financial system it not be more advisible to attempt a more equal par- been properly adjusted, and honestly worked.” This tition and occupation of those already reclaimed ? | last expression ought certainly not to have been Exhaust the space here first. Stud these with our used, especially by the elder of a congregation that population. The soil is the right of the people, and is already to some extent“ aid-receiving.” His own recent events teaches not to trench on the natural congregation has not only got what justice and rights of men. But how is this to be accomplished ? honesty would have dicated, but has received the fruit Legislative interference may be considered inexpe- of a striking generosity, to which no other Church dient; but in what other way is a remedy to be ap- affords a parallel. plied ! We do not think an agrarian law, in the Ro- The object of the pamphlet, is to induce the inan sense of the term, would suit our state of society. Church to seize upon all the local funds of our conThe man with capital, whose tastes may lie in the gregations, and add them, with the exception of a direction of agriculture, should find scope for the small drawback, to the Sustentation Fund—to prohiemployment of his capital in that department, just as bit all congregations from supplementing the stipends the man with commercial tastes should find invest- of their own ministers, and to pay all the ministers meat for his capital in the department of commerce. exclusively from the General Fund.
But let us But we think the State would be doing no injustice to quote: capitalists-neither to landlord nor tenant-by im. posing a limit upon the extent of farms, and adjusting exertions have been made throughout the country at large, in
“A strong feeling has been expressed, and considerable the proportion of large and small farms on estates.
favour of the movement so ably conducted by Dr Buchanan At all events, the evil on which we have been com- of Glasgow, with the view of augmenting the stipends of the menting, must receive a Legislative check in some ministers of the Free Chorch. Most heartily do I approve of shape.
this object, so far as it goes; my only regret is, that the sum The Free Church is specially interested in the
aimed at had not been stated at £200 fer annum as the settleinent of this question. The part of the popula- and most enlightened friends of the cause, I hold that the
minimum stipend. But, in common with many of the best tion who are sufferers by the system are principally system, according to which our ministers are at present paid, her members. The landlord cannot compel their re- is fundamentally wrong. Until it is disencumbered of the turn to the Establishment, but he may seriously thin appendage fastened upon it in an evil hour; until the enacto our ranks in the way indicated. The vast proportion ment which gives to every deacons' court the discretionary of our country adherents is drawn from the class of power of supplementing the stipend of their own minister, out small tenants. We recently visited some of the con.
of the funds of the congregation, be recalled; and until, in
terms of the original pledge and design, the whole of the gregations in the depopulated districts, which we had
resources available for the supply of Christian ordinances in visited soon after the Disruption, and were astonished the land, be administered on a fixed principle, and according by the diminution of numbers. The allowed cause is to rule, it will be vain to expect that the Free. Church, as a the clearance system. The families who had left were great institute, can possibly flourish and prevail. It will enumerated to us, and their number was alarmingly speedily, find its own sectarian level
, and lay its boasted
nationality in the dust. On the other hand, I believe that a great.
change of the system would, in the course of a very few years, Not the Free Church only, but the whole country secure for the Free Church such a place in the affections, and is interested in this matter. Let them force the evil such a hold upon the highest principles, of the people, that it on the attention of the Legislature. Our legislators would be found erect and strong, when, perhaps, the ancient do not commonly interpose a remedy till the evil is Establishments of the land had fallen into decay, and when full-grown. The general public concern themselves
other Churches were offering but a feeble resistance to the but little with it while it exists in detached localities abounding inroads of infidelity and error." -it is less under their eye. Would it not be wisdom Againto come with it in its infancy? Leave it till it assume
“I have in my hands the report for 1846-7, of all the giant proportions, and it may defy any effort for its money raised by the Free Church for the various objects overthrow short of civil convulsion. The certain or which she 80 zealously, prosecutes. It is not, I think, too probable development of an existing evil warrants much to presume, that, had some plan similar to that which I Legislative interposition. If any are made to guard have suggested been acted upon, the Pastoral Fund would not against what men may do, it is surely time to inter
have fallen short of the gross amount said to be realized by pose when you have a certain indication of what they for congregational purposes, and that in addition to this
our local associations, and by collections at the church door will do; and this what, if unchecked, will convulse amount all other local expenses might have been specially society to its very centre.
provided for and easily raised. The amount arising from
these two sources is £157,756, 148. 9d. At present, however, | adopted in the early ages, it was entirely spontaneous I deduct the sum of £14,000, being an average allowance of and not the result of any such rigid legislation as the £20 to each of our 700 congregations for local purposes. W: Selkirk elder proposes.' “ Whilst it was with thee," have, then, left a sum of £143,756, 148. 9d., from which I next dedact the amount that would have been disposed of
says the apostle, was it not thine own, and after it consistently with the provisions of our regulator, had it been was sold, was it not in thine ovon porer?" Besides, in force, and which, in round numbers, may be stated at it was not confined to ministers. We may whisper £30,000, and then a balance remains for the common fund, to our friend of Selkirk, that it extended to the whole amounting to £113,756, 14$. 9d., which, divided equally congregation is so far as it did prevail, and that “ as amongst our 700 ministers, gives upwards of £160 of stipend to each. To this sum falls to be added the reserved fourth
many as had lands sold them, and brought the money apportioned by the regulator and sent back simpliciter, under
and laid it at the apostles feet.” The company of the the restriction aforesaid, to the minister of the congregation disciples, as well as the ininisters, had, to a great exfrom whence it came.
tent, a common stock. Is this proposed now? And, “ The smallest amount which any minister would receive u besides, the plan seems to have been afterwards abanan addition to his stipend, being determined by the sum sent
doned as being fitted to encourage the idle to “sorn to the general treasury, will be 158. 7}d., and the highest, being restricted by our regulating principle, would be £160, upon the industrious; and it was ordained that if whilst the average would be upwards of £40. At this very
any man would not work, neither should he eat. moment, therefore, had our financial system been properly It is quite plain, besides, that we should lose oneadjusted and honestly worked, the ministers of the Free half of our strength, as Dr Chalmers well knew, by Church, would have been receiving a minimum stipend of throwing away the fruits of personal attachment to fully £160, an average of about £200, and a maximum of individual ministers. It may look very plausible to apwards of £320.”
say, “ Add all the supplements to the Sustentation There are several distinct points raised by this Fund, and we shall increase the dividend;" but since proposal, which it may be well to keep apart. We those supplements are contributed expressly for infeel the deepest sympathy, not indeed for our young dividual ministers, it would be most dishonest to atunmarried ministers, not for those who formerly oc- tempt this, and not unlike the plan of the French, cupied quoad sacra churches, but for our aged minis- to swell their private means by coining their neighters with large families, and formerly with large sti- bours'silver spoons. But even if the law were changed, pends. If any plan could be proposed for helping is there any evidence that much of this money would them, which did not involve a dangerous 'general ever be given at all? The very attempt, if made by principle, we should be most happy to support it. the General Assembly, might create such differences We have heard it proposed, for example, that those as might wreck the General Fund altogether. No who formerly were quoad sacra ministers, should get greater blunder can be committed in such a legislation only at present the amount of their former stipends as ours, than to leave out of our calculations the from the General Fund, and that the balance should mighty element of the human will. A country congre. go to augment the stipends of the meritorious class gation getting, let us say, at present, £50 a-year more referred to, or that a separate Fund should be create from the General Fund than it sends, may say, "We ed for the purpose. But there is something so simple would get £100 a year from the same quarter, if we and so satisfactory in the working of the equal divi- could only, by a law of the Church, cast into the Fund dend, that we should be sorry to disturb it. Still we the supplements of all the ministers.” But, first, the should like to see some other plan for securing this proposal is not remarkable for its modesty; and most important object. The question is,
second, the first effect of such a law probably would ls. Is the plan of supplementing minister's stipends be at the very least to make that money be withheld a novelty? The elder of Selkirk says that it is. altogether. And here we would notice the dexterous But we should like to hear him attempt to prove it. attempt made to induce the elders and deacons to It is notorious that Dr Chalmers regarded it as a favour this wild proposal. vital part of his plan. He maintained that there “ It would relieve our deacons' courts of a discrewere two duties equally binding upon congregations- tionary power in a matter of peculiar delicacy; and, one enjoined by the text, " Let him that is taught by rendering their work purely ministerial, would at in the word communicate to him that teacheth," the same time make it pleasant and easy." i.eu, to his own minister, “ in all good things;"—the It would render their work “purely ministerial," other, “ Look not every man on his own things, i.e., they would become mere “hewers of wood, and but every man also on the things of others.” The drawers of water” to the general Church, and be deone has reference to the General Fund, the other to prived of all " discretionary/power,” in regard to the the supplementing of stipends--the one brings out affairs of their respective congregations. This may the congregational feeling, the other the patriotic; seem all “pleasant and easy" to those who intend to but both are equally scriptural, and were equally take the trouble of spending their money without pressed by Dr Chalmers. The General Assembly any of the labour of collecting it, but we suspect it aļso, from the very first, announced this as part of will not be found so very agreeable to the others. the regular system of the Free Church, and made It is to be hoped that our Free Church will be her rules accordingly. It is therefore a very singu- prevented from listening to any crude and ill-digested Lar but thorough mistake, to call this an “appendage plan of organic change. The Church in Canada may fastened upon it in an evil hour," and implies either well act as a beacon. They made a law that all eptire ignorance of the whole subject, or an extrat- congregational funds should be sent in to the general ordinary confusion of ideas.
treasury, and then dealt out in certain fixed proporBut suppose it were not so, is it not,
tions. But they were forced, on that account, to 21. An essential and a right thing, apart from all make the adoption of the scheme at all optional on previous resolutions! We apprehend it is. Refer the part of congregations, and the result was, that ence is sometimes made to the primitive Church as many, and some of these amongst the richest, never warranting an entire community of goods amongst joined at all, and others having joined, soon broke ministers. It is plain that in so far as this plan was I off. By grasping thus at too much, they have nearly
defeated their scheme altogether. Let us keep That which is most important in regard to the time steadily in view the raising of the dividend to £150, of family worship, is, that it should be fixed. We or, what would be far better, £200, the raising of ascribe great value to this particular. It adds digmanses, &c.; but let us avoid all idle speculations nity to the service, by showing that it is not to give which have only a tendency to breed unjust discon. way to the changes or caprice of business or amusetent, and to relax local exertion. It is well to find ment. It saves the time of the household; and it that in some country districts the people are vigo- tends to that method and punctuality in domestic rously aiming at reaching the self-sustaining point. affairs, which is a chief ornament of a Christian This is a nobler object than grumbling at our well | house. supplemented metropolitans," who receive nothing Morning prayer should, in our humble judgment, which they do not work for, and who go far to main be early in the morning. Here there is diversity of tain some of our country brethren to the bargain. usage, and we are not of those who would impose All our charges, besides, are now open to public com- our own preferences on others, or invent any cerepetition. The most obscure country minister, if he monial yoke. But we have noted striking advanis diligent and eminent, may become pastor of St tages, in observing family devotion at as early an hour George's, and there ought not to be, therefore, " dis- as the whole household can be assembled. There is a Chriscontent with our own estate." But since we trust the tian decorum in resorting to God before we gather Church will determinedly oppose all organic change around the table of his bounty. The refreshment of in the Sustentation Fund, “let us,” in the language food seems to acquire a blessing; “ for it is sanctified of this tract, “ zealously, but peacefully in our dif- by the word of God, and prayer.” (1 Tim. iv. 5.) It ferent localities, do the most for it we can, and to the appears right to seek food for the soul before we God of Providence let us in faith and prayer commit seek food for the body. Otherwise, we lose the dethe issue."
lightful feeling of having begun the day with God.
The moment of repletion from a meal is of all others PRACTICAL DIRECTIONS AS TO THE MODE Moreover, by seizing an early hour, we avoid nume
the least comely for a solemn approach to heaven. OF CONDUCTING FAMILY WORSHIP.*
rous interruptions, and that sense of hurry and imTo one who is conscientiously resolved to honour patience which attend the time immediately preGod in his household, a clear conception of the duty ceding the forenoon's business. All these reasons itself, and some method in the observance of it, are may, however, be controlled by considerations of indispensable.
health and business, and every mau must be left to The very first estion which offers itself, is, By his own judgment. whom is this service to be rendered? To this the Evening prayer is, of course, the closiņg domestic name is a reply : is family worship. All the service. Hence it has been the prevalent custom to dwellers in one house. More particularly the parents, make it the last thing before retiring for the night; the children, or such as occupy the children's place, and there is certainly something beautiful in the as wards, pupils, apprentices; the lodgers, and other arrangement. In many houses it is the only time inmates ; the guests and sojourners; and the which can be secured. Yet it must be acknowledged servants.
On the duty of masters it may suffice that there is a practical difficulty connected with this; to say, that every Christian householder should and family-worship may be too late for those who, acknowledge · his solemn obligation to extend the agreeably to our view of the subject, are principally blessings of domestic religion to his servants, as much as to his children. All proper means
concerned—to wit, servants, and especially children.
The younger members of a family are apt to be unfit should be used to secure the attendance of every for the service, as being overcome with sleep; and it individual engaged in the labour of the family, even is scarcely just that they should be robbed of one if this should render it needful to sacrifice some half of domestic prayer, as they must be, if they remomentary convenience in regard to meals and other tire at an early hour. Even adults are often disarrangements. The beauty of this service depends, qualified for enjoying the work of praise, by the in no small degree, on the presence of the whole weariness and stupor consequent on a long day of family. The reverse of this is too coinmon; and toil. Hence some have thought they found an adthere are houses, where, from sloth or irreligion, vantage in calling together the family immediately some members habitually absent themselves from before, or immediately after the evening meal. It the prayers. Even in boarding houses and inns, we is a laudable method; but here, as in all things conhave known the most happy effects to flow from the nected with form, we would ask and give the largest practice of gathering all who were under the roof at liberty, only " let all things be done decently, and in the time of worship. It is also a good usage, to pro- order.” (1 Cor. xiv. 40.) ceed with the accustomed devotion, even though The person whose office it is to lead in familycasual visitors may be present. Providence may worship, is undoubtedly the head of the household. thus be opening a door for unexpected influence. The father is here in his proper place, as the prophet
The time for family worship demands our conside and patriarch of his little state. In the occasional ration. By common consent the Christian world absence of the father, or in the lamented event of has allotted to it the two seasons of morning and the his removal, Providence has devolved this, with all evening; not that there is any virtue in this number, other parental trusts, on the solitary, or the widowed or in these seasons, but because it seems just and fit mother. And though it brings with it a keen trial to place our acknowledgment of God at these natural to diffidence and feminine reserve, it is also emi. terms of our working-day. There have been those nently amiable and touching; and dutiful sons will who have found editication in three hours of prayer : make every sacrifice in order to lessen the burdens “ Evening and morning, and at noon, will I pray, and of the maternal heart, when engaged in such a duty. cry aloud, and he shall hear my voice.” (Ps.lv. 17.) The parent may sometimes see cause to depute this
* By the Rev. J. W. Alexander, D.D., New York. office to a son or brother, when the latter, from edu.