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against the Britijh post at Powle'i Hoot, p. 283. St. .Vincent

taken by the French, p. 286.

Letter IX. P. 287—304.

The French fleet sails from Brest and joins the Spanijh, p.

288. The Spanijh ambassador presents a manifesto to the Bri-

tijh secretary, p. 289. The combined fleets steer for Plymouth,

p. 291—abandon the Britijh coasts, p. 292. Grenada taken by

the French^ p. 293. Admiral Byron engages count d'Estain.g,

p. 295. Captain Paul Jones engages capt. Pearson, p. 297.

Sir Joseph Yorke presents a memorial to their High Mightinesses,

p. 300. The state of Ireland, p. 302. Gibraltar invested,

p. 304.

Letter X. P. 304—339.

The expedition from Boston against the Britijh post at Penob-

scat, p. 305. General Sullivan's expedition against the Indians,

p. 307. Indian and American expeditions, against each other,

p. 312. The Spanijh governor of Louisiana recognizes Ameri-

can independency, and marches against the Britijh settlements on

the Mississippi, p. 314. Congress conclude upon an ultimatum,

and write to Dr. Franklin, p. 315. Mr. Gerard's private au-

dience of congress, p. 319. Congress choose Mr. Jay for their

minister at the court of Madrid, and Mr. John Adams for their

minister to negotiate a treaty of peace, and a treaty of com-

merce with Great Britain, p. 321—they address a long letter to

their constituents on their finances, p. 322. Count d'EJlaing

fails from the West Indies for the American continent, p. 325—

summons Savannah to surrender, p. 327. He and general

Lincoln are repulsed in an attack upon the town, p. 330. Con-

gress resolve to erect a monument to the memory of count Pu-

laski, p. 332. The Britijh evacuate Rhode Island, p. 333. The

communications of the French minister to congress, p. 335.

Letter XI. P. 339—400.

Congress's answer to the communications of the minister of

France, p. 339. 'she second conference of the minister of

France, p. 342. The distress of Wajhington % army for want of

biead, p. 34,4. Sir.H. (Jljnton's expedition to South Carolina,

p. 346. 'I he Britijh open, their batteries against Clmrlejlown,

p. 351. Colonels Terleten and Webster defeat the American

horse, p, 352,35?. General Lincoln surrenders Charlestown, p.

358. Turleton defeats colonel Buferd, p. 360. The distresled

luuation of the American commander in chief, p. 362. An

unusual darkness in the New England states, p. 365. A large

bud/ of tb,e. royal troops cross from Sffit'n I/Jan/ to E/izabeth-


sown, p. 368. Mrs. Caldwell killed, p. 369. The troops leave

Elizabeth-town and march to Springfield, p. 372—then slopped

by general Greene, p. 373—burn Springfield and return to Sto-

len Ijlar.d, idem. The efforts of the Philadelphia gentlemen

and ladies to relieve Wajhington's army, p. 375. The preamble

of the Pennsylvania act against slavery, p. 377. A French fleet,

with troops, arrive at Newport, p. 379. The affairs of South

Carolina, p. 382. Lord Cornwallis left in command at Charles-

town, p. 385. Colonel Sumpter, being chosen by a party of

South Carolina exiles to lead them, returns with them into the

state, and takes the field against the victorious British, p. 387.

Congress unanimously resolve, that general Gates should take

the command of the southern department, p. 391. He joins

the troops, marches, and encamps on the road to Camden, p.

392. justice Pendletons letter to lord Cornwallis, p. 393.

Congress resolve on destroying all the old paper emission, and

on adopting a new emission, p. 394. The Massachusetts con-

vention agree upon a constitution for the commonwealth, p. 396.

Their general court incorporate a society, by the name of The

American Academy of Arts and Sciences, p. 398.

Letter XII. P. 400—427.

The affairs of Ireland, p. 400. Captain Fielding not being

allowed to examine the Dutch ships under the convoy of count

Byland, employs force, p. 401. The armed neutrality, p. 403.

Sir George Rodney engages and defeats the Spanijh fleet under

Don Langara, p. 407. Don Galvez's expedition against Mo-

bile, p. 409. Sir George Rodney engages count de Guichen, p.

411. County petitions for the redress of grievances, p. 413.

The house of commons vote in favor of redressing the fame, p.

415. All hopes of obtaining redress from that house are at an

end, p. 416. Lord George Gordon, the protestant association,

and the subsequent convulsions, p. 417—his lordship conducted

to the Tower, p. 424. An eventual treaty between the States

of Holland and the United States of America, signed by the di-

rection of Mr. Van Berckel, p. 426.

Letter XIII. P. 427—499.

The military operations in South Carolina, p. 427. General

Gates takes the direct route to Camden, p. 430—joins the mi-

litia under genera] Caswell, p. 432—conducts his army to Cler-

mont, p. 4.33—marches on toward Camden, p. 436—is unex-

pectedly met by lord Cornwallis at the head of the Britijh troops,

and is defeated by him, p. 437. Baron de Kalb mortally wound-

ed; p. 443. 'larkton defeats Sumpter^-p. 447. The relics of


the American army retreat to Salisbury, p. 448—are ordered to

Hill/borough, p. 450. Cornwallis's orders relative to the treat-

ment of South Carolina, p. 451. A number of the citizens of

Charlestown, prisoners under the capitulation, sent to St. Augus-

tine, p. 452. General Marion's exertions against: the Brilijh

adherents, p. 454. The arrangement of the broken American

troops, p. 459. Major Ferguson ordered to manoeuvre through

the northern parts of South Carolina, and then to join lord Corn-

wallh at Charlotte, p. 462—is pursued, defeated and stain, p.

463. His lordship's letter to general Smallwood, p. 467. Gates's

troops march to Salisbury, p. 469. Sumpter defeats major

Weyms; is afterward attacked by Tiarleton, whom he also de-

feats, p. 471. Gates moves his headquarters to Charlotte, and

there surrenders the army into general Greene's hands, p. 472.

Lieut. colonel Washington takes the British post at Clermont by

stratagem, p. 474. The congress resolve respecting Gates, p.

474. Acts of congress, p. 476. General Wajhington's diffi-

culties, p. 478—he meets count de Rochambeau and admiral

'Ternay at Hartford, p. 480. The scheme for delivering West

Point into the hands of Sir H- Clinton discovered, idem. Ma-

jor Andre taken, while on his way to New York, p. 482. Ar-

nold, upon receiving information of it, hastens on board the

Vulture British sloop of war, p. 484. Andre adjudged to be

considered as a spy, p. 487—-and dies as such, universally es-

teemed and regretted, p. 488. Wajhington's thoughts on the

whole affair, p. 490. Sir H. Clinton fends troops to Virginia,

p. 491. A general exchange of prisoners settled by the British

and American generals, Phillips and Lincoln, p. 492. The re-

solve of congress relative to the three militia men, who took

Andre, p. 493. Major Tallmadge's expedition to Long Island,

idem. Congress determine on having a permanent army, p.

494—take into serious consideration the absolute necessity of a

large and immediate foreign aid of money, p. 495. The dor

nations of the daughters of liberty in Philadelphia and the neigh-

bourhood, to the American soldiers, p. 496. The Massachusetts

begin their government agreeable to the new constitution, and

John Hancock efq; is declared to have heen elected governor,

p. 498. Admiral Ternay dies at Newport, p. 499.

ERRATA beside those at the End of the Volume.

Page 361, line 12, read visit—last line read straits. P. 365, last line
and first of 366, read on the special business of examining the con-*
stitution agreed upon by the Massachusetts convention. P, 407, last;
line, read and two which had fullered less, into Cadiz.







Roxbury, Jan. 29, 1778. My Dear Sir,

9 1 'H E military operations in Pennsylvania, are to be *777* **- the subjects of our immediate attention. About a fortnight after the German-town battle on the 19th of October, the royal army under the command of Sir William. Howe removed to Philadelphia.

Measures being concerted between the general and admiral for clearing the Delaware of its obstructions, the former ordered batteries to be erected on the western or Pennsylvania shore, to assist in dislodging the Americans from Mud-island. He also detached a strong l body of Hessians across the river, who were to march down and reduce the fort at Red-bank, while the stiips and batteries on the other fide were to attack Mud-island. Count Donop commanded the detachment, confisting of three battalions of grenadiers and the regiment of Mirback, beside, light infantry and chasseurs. TheAme. Vol. III. B „ ricans

|777* ricans were about 400 under col. Christopher Greene of Oct. Rhode Island. When near enough, the count sent a flag and demanded, a surrender of the fort in the most peremptory terms. The colonel concealed the greatest part of his men, so that the officer with the flag thought I the garrison very small. Greene answered—" I shall defend the fort to the last extremity." Donop attacked , / the intrenchments, and. after, a. sharp action .carried an extensive outwork, not half completed; but in the body of the redoubt, which afforded a better, covering, the defence was equally vigorous and far more successful. Here indeed the Americans meant to risk the fate of the fort, as they would have the greatest advantage of the assailants. The Count was mortally wounded and taken prisoner. Several of his best officers were killed or disabled; and the Hessians, after a desperate engagement, were repulsed. The second in command being also dangerously wounded, the detachment was brought off by lieut. col. Linfing. It suffered not only in the assault but in the approach to and retreat from the fort, by the fire of the American gallies and floating batteries. The whole loss was probably not less than 4 or 500 men. Congress have since resolved to present col. Greene with an elegant sword. The men of war and frigates destined for the attack of Mud-island alias Fort Mifflin, were equally unfortunate. The sttips could not bring their fire to bear with any great effect upon the works.; The extraordinary defences with which the free course of the river had been intercepted, had affected its bed, and altered its known and natural channel. By this mean the Augusta man of war and Merlin sloop were grounded fo fasti that there was no. possibility of getting them

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