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McAdam Roads, Treatise on, by J. S. Williams, RAILROADS,
of, to country practitioners, 1994-method of
reeling, described, 345
-by lime, 280—for hop culture, 361-ma. New-York Guard Rail, 8, 33, 210, 242, 258, Snail, on the paces of the, 245
Soap, receipt for making, 153
Southwark Iron Bridge, account of, 6
Spontaneous Combustion, 213
Birmingham and London, 241
Stone Splitting Machine described, 390
Starch, from potatoes, method of preparing, 201
Stocking Knitter, account of an improved one,
Boston and Providence, 37
Stomach Pump, on the, 297
Stucco for Walls, 329
Importance of, 99
Steam Camel, proposals for constructing one,
Steam, probable application of, to various pur.
poses, 149—proposed navigation of the ocean
Steam Vessels of War, hints respecting, 2
Steam Car, Mr. Phillips' plan, 2
Steam Carriage, Col. Macirone's, 37-on turn-
Chesapeake and Ohio, 148
pike roads, 82-on common roads, 98, 243—
Danville and Pottsville, 149
Mr. Ogle's plan, 268—Hancock's plan, 385
Cape Fear and Yadkin, 149
Steainboats, invention of, claimed by John
Baltimore and Washington, 168, 177
Smith, of St. Helens, (England,) 6-another
his father, 2:28-on canals, 233–Fulton's
account of his first voyage, 291-new pad-
dles for, described, 286
New-York City, 326
Steam Engines, locomotive ones, account of,
Providence and Stonington, 241, 257
33, 36—Ericcson's improved, 68, 69-rotary
Submarine Boat, account of, 291
Norwich and Worcester, 305
Sullivan, J. S., on Railroads and Water Works
South Carolina, 321, 322
in the city of New York, 226
Telegraphs in France, for night as well as day,
Telegraphs, electrical ones, proposed applica-
tion of, 20
Time, saving of, in natural operations, 343
Tichenor's Window Sash, Pannel Door, and
Blind Machine, described, 371
Registering Operations, description of, 314 Time, economy of, 310
Reviews of New Putlications, 30, 31, 41, 42, Thrashing in Germany, mode of, 200
43, 63, 77, 95, 126, 142, 153, 170, 186, 202, Tobacco, golden leaf, 233--liquid to destroy in.
362, 378, 395, 410
Tools, descriptive account of the use of, 311
Trees, management of, 8—lace bark, size, &c.
of, 21-method of saving when injured, 88
Roads, method of forming gravel ones, 4-Re peach, method of rearing, 88—-forest, reared
port of the progress of the Cumberland, or from seed, 102_effects of removing fruit,
from J. S. Williams, on, 66-Level ones not Turnips and Straw, for cattle to feed on, 265
good for horses, 71–Extracts from Report of
U & V.
the Construction of Common, 93—Letter Useful Continued Motion, account of, 228
Vegetables, method of forcing and forwarding,
of, 103--mixture of, by the roots, 219--sexu-
ality of, 219
Venus' Fly-Trap, (a flower,) described, 152
Vines, Mr. Pillan's method of cultivating, 184
--on the culture of, 249
Scienco, pleasures and advantages of, 166 Waggon for Excavating, 169
Water Works in New York City, 226
Dunbar's, improved, 230 Wheat, called Tea Wheat, how reared, 249
wheel "of, 21--misconstruction of, pointed
in New York, annual report of, 46 out, 200--thoughts on, 206– Badnall's patent
for a propelling power to ascend hills on rail-
Wheels, Jones' patent, described, 182
Williams, J. S., on Road Making, 66, 273, 292
Shipwreck, method of saving from, 4, 51-Can- Wine, how to restore it when sour, 103
Wonders of Philosophy, 184
Work, mode of identifying when of the same
Scrivenor's plan for constructing, 260—un portance of the culture of, 54—from Ohio, chinery, 358
151—from Massachusetts, 184_importance
PUBLISHED WEEKLY, AT No. 35 WALL STREET, NEW-YORK, AT THREE DOLLARS PER ANNUM, PAYABLE IN ADVANCE.
D. K. MINOR, EDITOR.]
SATURDAY, JANUARY 5, 1833.
(VOLUME II.-No. 1.
that we may soon be able to carry into effects|provements of all sorts—whether by roads, caTo our Patrons and the Public,
part of our plan? We look to them with|nals, or bridges, steam boats or steam cars; a On the effect of Grade and Curvaturo upon the motion of Railroad Cars,
2 confidence, as they have already commenced careful and impartial synopsis of the politics Steam Vessels of War; Steam Car,
ib Russell's Hydraulic Press, (with engravings); Patent
operations, one subscriber alone having remit- and literature of the day. For a paper with for detaching Horses from a carriage when running ted, within a few days, $45 which he had collect-contents so varied, so copious, at so moderate a
away, (with an engraving) On Common Roads; Railrond Operations ; Mr. Mur
ed for the ensuing volume. A few such friends price, and in so convenient a form, and which ray's invention for saving from Shipwreck, (with an would very soon secure the performance of our clashes with no prejudices or interests, is it
engraving,) Railroad Intelligence ; Experimental Railroad, Raillast proposition.
unreasonable to anticipate a large and general roads and Canals in Massachusetts ; Ohio Canal, 5 Having thus set forth some of the circum-circulation ? Another year will enlighten us as Southwark Iron Bridge, (with an engraving) ; History of Steamboats, Petersburg Railroad,
stances which encourage us to persevere in the to the reply that must be given to this question. Agriculture, &c.-Agricultural Essay, No. VII; On the arduous and expensive publication of this Jour The cut at the head of the Journal repre
Selection of Seeds; On the management of Pear and Apple Trees and on the Keeping of Fruit in
nal, and glanced at the subjects of several of the sents the American Locomotive Engine, PhilWinter,
7-8 papers which will we think be considered as ADELPHIA, built at the Westpoint Foundry Editorial Notices ; Meteorological Tables,
rendering the present number particularly ac-Works in this city, for the Philadelphia, NorSummary, Foreign Intelligence,
10 ceptable, may we not in conclusion ask, that ristown and Germantown Railroad, with a Home Affairs,
those who take interest in all, or some one of the freight car, passenger coach, and private carPostscript-latost Foreign News; Deaths,
varied branches of knowledge which fall within|riage attached, by way of showing the advanTO OUR PATRONS AND THE PUBLIC. the scope of our plan, should make some little tages and facilities which may be enjoyed by THE AMERICAN RAILROAD JOURNAL, AND Ad- personal effort to add to our means of carrying the inhabitants living in the vicinity of Railroads. VOCATE OF INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS.- -With this it into complete effect. The opinion of an in The second and third cuts represent Rusnumber commences the second volume of our telligent and disinterested man expressed to a sell's Hydraulic Press. This press is very Journal. Contrary to the expectations of neighbor as to the merits of a paper he is in the highly spoken of in England. if we are not many, it has completed a volume, and it affords habit of reading, goes farther and has more mistaken there is one very similar to it now us much pleasure to be able to say that it en-weight than the most zealous professions of in use in this city, for raising vessels out of ters upon the second with very fair prospects ;| the conductor of the paper, seeing that these the water for repairs. Those unacquainted fair, at least, when compared with its com- are always more or less biassed by personal in- with their operation and power, would be surmencement ; so fair, indeed, are its prospects | terest. It is such an expression of individual|prised to see the ease with which two men, one of an extensive circulation that arrangements opinion, from those who really think it is de- at each pump, there being one pump at each bave been completed for making it altogether served, and to those whom it may influence, side of the frame or dock, will raise a large ship more interesting and valuable than it has here that we would venture now to solicit. In the from the water. Of this highly ingenious aptofore been.
progressive improvements of which the volume|plication of the hydraulic pump, we may hereIt will hereafter contain, in addition to its already completed furnishes the evidence, will after take occasion to speak more definitely ; usual variety of reading, both upon the subject we may hope, be found an abundant guarantee our present reference being merely to mention of internal improvements and in its selections that our efforts will in the future, as they did in one of the uses to which they are applicable. upon miscellaneous and literary topics, much the past, keep equal pace at least, with the en The fourth is a representation ofthe invention valuable matter, with illustrations, from the couragement received. And what class in the of Mr. Murray, for preserving life when vegLondon Mechanics' Magazine. This depart-|| many differing walks of social life is there,||sels are wrecked near shore. There have been ment alone would be worth far more to me- whom some one at least of the topics treated or several inventions for this purpose, but this we chanics and men of science, than the cost of the illustrated in this Journal does not interest ? |believe is considered the most useful, as it is Journal, and it will at the same time be more Take this number for example: for the farmer, the most easily managed. interesting to those who read merely for amuse-| there is agriculture and road making ; for the The fifth cut represents the centre arch of ment. We have made great exertions during mechanic, there is useful knowledge in his the Southwark bridge, of wrought iron, over the past year to render the work worthy of a branch; for the engineer, there are seientific the river Thames, from London to Southwark. liberal patronage. Our arrangements are now formulæ ; for the humane and philanthropic,||The engraving shows the manner in which the completed; our promises are before the pub- there is Murray's invention for saving fronu foundation of the stone piers was constructed. lic, and this number is offered as a specimen of shipwreck; for the observer of the “skyey in ||A, represents the bed of the river; B, Jow, and the work as it is to be published when our fluences,” an elaborate meteorological table ;|C, high water mark. The accompanying desubscription list amounts to fifteen hundred. and for the general reader, without over losing scription, gives a list of important iron bridges, May we not look for the continued aid of those of sight of the main object of the Journal, the dif- and the dates of their construction. This subits friends, who have already done so much,l|fusion of accurate information as to internal im- \lject will be continued.
LEXINGTON AND Ohio RAILROAD, It may, perhaps, be of some use to investi-||built are thirty feet wide, and a hundred and 27th Nov. 1832.
gate a formula for determining the greatest ve- sixty-five feet long; had they been twenty feet To the Editor of the Railroad Journal : locity which will comport with safety, upon have been efficient vessels. I beg it to be fully
deep, and built in the above form, they would Sir-Should you consider the following for-curves of given radii, and with wheels of given understood, that I do not propose this as a vesmulas, relating to the effect of grade and curva- diameters. Let k denote the distance between sel offering the least resistance in the water, ture upon the motion of Railroad cars, to be of the axles, and put P = an arc to rad. 1, and but as one combining the requisites necessary any value to the readers of your Journal, they k
for a steam man-of-war; such a vessel, when are offered to you for insertion.
length The two following theorems will light, would draw little more than four feet
2R In estimating the effect of curvature, it is ne
water, without including the keel, whose depth
should be according to circumstanees, and cessary to have a general formula for the value give the principles upon which the investigation quite independent of her construction.' Her of the centrifugal force. Take V= the velocity is made.
engines and boilers would immerse her between of a car in miles per hour; R = the radius of 1st. The force necessary to cause the flange six and seven feet, and with about eight huncurvature of the track in feet; w= the weight of a wheel to ascend upon the rail, is in a ratio dred tons of coals she would draw about four.
teen, having her gun deck six feet above water of the car in lbs; and f= the centrifugal force compounded of the sub-duplicate ratio of the
at her greatest loading. With a two hundred in lbs. From known principles, the following height of the flange, and the reciprocal sub-du-horse engine, she would consume twenty tons expression for the value of S, is obtained, plicate ratio of the radius of the wheel. of coals a day, and if they were good, with
2d. When the force necessary to cause the great care, something less.' The shaft should f=w X flange to ascend upon the rail is to the friction diameter of the wheels about twenty feet;
be as close to the deck as possible, and the 15R
of the flange upon the edge of the rail, as radius when loaded, to fourteen, the paddle boards Now the effect of the force f is, to produce ato Cos. P: then is the car equally liable either should shift up, so as to reduce the diameter of continued pressure upon the bearing of the to run off the track, or to continue upon it.
the wheels about fifteen feet; as the coal was axles of the wheels, and also upon the flange The demonstration of these two theorems, llexpended, the boards should be shifted down and edge of the exterior rail. Take therefore which, for the sake of brevity, is omitted, may || should be fitted in compartments, to receive
till they came to their full extent; the coal boxes T to denote the friction caused by that pressure, be easily supplied from received principles of water, in order that the wheels may remain suf. and which amounts to the increase of traction mechanics.
ficiently immersed as the coals were expended. arising from centrifugal force. Although the
V2 The engine and boilers should be secured pressure may be nearly the same at both of the Now, the friction of the flange is as ; and against shot, which has not been thought of in
R any of our vessels ; no man will be found to points just mentioned, yet it may perhaps be
the radius of the wheel, and h =
the attend them in their present state; men have sufficient to take the amount of friction equal putting r=
long made up their minds on going into action, to f of the whole centrifugal force,* in which height of the flange, the force necessary to raise to be killed or wounded, but I never heard of case the following formula is at once derived
h the flange upon the rail, is as
any who are ready to be boiled. It has been from the preceding :
But it ||proved that a combination of oak timber, iron
plates, bales of linen, leather, or reams of paT=w X
will, in most cases, be sufficient to take, radius per, five feet thick, would protect the boiler and 60R
to Cos. P. a radius of equality ; in which case engine against an eighteen pound shot, and In making a selection, from different routes, V2 h.
without that protection a steamboat is entirely
h) i ll useless in war. 2
The wheels must of course be for the location of a line of Railroad, it may
; that is, Vo is as R X
exposed ; but if the naves, which are at presR sometimes be necessary to compare grades with
ent of cast, were made of wrought iron, and the h
arms of the wheels connected with plates, it curvatures. Thus, the traction arising from or, V2 = A x R x ; in which A is some would require many shot to disable them. The grade alone is expressed by the quantity
main shaft would be the only vulnerable part, constant quantity, to be ascertained from expe- and if the guards which support it are considew X
or simply by w Xn, very nearly; in|rience. With wheels 5 feet in diameter, andrably rounded, or, indeed, made like a cuirass, Vi+n2
Ilanges 14 inches in height, and upon a track and covered with plate iron, they would glance which n represents the rise or fall in the dis- of 1000 feet radius, the utmost safe velocity is, would be less subject to accidents than either
off any shot. With these precautions, wheels mnce unity: and therefore, when the traction perhaps, about 20 miles per hour. Substitutingmasts or yards. Experience has proved bearising from an ascending grade is equal to these values in the above equation, the result yond a doubt, that the fittest vessels for sea are that arising from curvature, the following for. I will give A = 2, very nearly. The general for those constructed with the wheels buried in the V? mula will, therefore, be the following:
side, as the Irish steamers are. I believe the mula obtains : n =
Salamander is built in this manner; the spenc. 60 R
ing of the Dee only covers one half the wheels From which either of the three quantities, n,
--they are a great deal too wide. She will V, or R, may be found when the other two are
certainly go the faster in the river Thames given; and thus it is easy to compute what From which it will be easy to compute the (which is the only thing the engineers and
builders think of); but in rough weather, such grades and curvatures are equivalent to each greatest safe velocity upon any curve, and with
wheels will never be under command of the
V. D. G. other, as regards traction, with any given vewheels of any diameter.
engines. I am not aware how it is intended to locity.
arm our steamboats ; I should propose as many
[From the United Service Journal for April.) heavy guns on pivots as possible ; on the upIn order to express a general formula for the
STEAM VESSELS OF WAR.
per deck and between decks, two bow-chastraction, when the road-way has both inclina Sir,--To render steamboats fit for war, re-ers : no arrangement of that nature seems to tion and curvature, let w x m be the traction quires a better combination of construction and be intended in those now building. They should upon a straight horizontal way. The expres-lof. The Salamander at Sheerness, and the lower masts in two, having topsails, topgallant
arming than our oflicial people seem to be awarelbe rigged as three masted schooners, with the sion for the whole traction T will then evident- | Dee, at Woolwich, will both be useless as mensails, and royals, and all the necessary sails for ly be as follows:
of war; the former has sufficient depth of hold, common purposes, which, with the exception V?
but is built so sharp that she will not stow more of the lower part of the lower masts, could be T = w X
than ten day's fuel when her stores and gunsgot down when it was necessary to steam 60R are on board; the latter is sufficiently flat, but against the wind.
I am, &c. This formula will be of use in all cases where so shallow that she also will stow little more
A GREAT ADMIRER OF STEAMBOATS. it may be desirable to compare the traction, un
than the former; and I understand those at
Plymouth and Chatham are in the same pre Steam Car.—Mr. Benjamin Phillips, Archider circumstances of various loads, grades, cur-||dicament. A steam vessel of war ought nei-tect, of Philadelphia, proposes to construct a vatures, and velocities.
ther to be so fine as a sailing vessel, nor, on Steam Car to travel on rivers at a speed of 20
the other hand, have the capacity of an India- to 25 miles per hour, to carry one hundred pas* It may perhaps seeń at first view, that the man ; in the first case, she would not stow a sengers, to draw 15 inches water, to be only increase of traction is less than the friction here sufficient quantity of fuel, and would draw too one-third the weight of any other ordinary given, in the ratio of the radius of the wheel to much water for most purposes-in the latter steamboat of the same dimensions now afloat ; the height of the flange. That, however, would case she would not go with sufficient rapidity.of far superior strength and safety, construcbe an error; but whether a different ratio than er floor should not be quite flat, but nearly so ;||ted on entirely new principles ; the whole mathat of 1 to 4, 19 here adopted, will best com-its length should occupy half the vessel, the terials, except the engine and boiler, not to cost port with truth, can only be determined from form of the bow and run should occupy the above $1,500, completely furnished and ready experience,
other half; the dimensions of the vessels" for operation by the first day of May next,
[From the London Mechanics' Magazine.] the head of the press, enters the box, and isskey from the eye of the rod, or bolt, let the RUSSELL'S HYDRAULIC Press. We see no made to fit nearly.
hinged clasp fall, and with it the jointed clasp reason to doubt that this press of Mr. Russell's Having, made and erected many presses of attached to the swingletree, and will disengage is as applicable to the expression of the juice this description, for expressing the oil from va- the horse from the carriage. of apples and pears, as to any of the other pur-rious seeds, the molasses from sugar, &c. their The tugs are open in front, thus, (see fig. 3) poses to which it has been so successfully ap- power varying from 500 to 1000 tons pressure, to allow the breeching to slip off freely. This plied. Neither can we refuse to acknowledge, I take leave to ask your opinion whether a press breeching is made from a single strap of leather, that it is, in point of simplicity and probable ef. so constructed and shown in the drawing ac- with rings sewed to the ends, to hook over the ficiency, superior to any thing of the kind companying this communication, is or is not tugs. which has yet appeared in our pages. Our De-as applicable to pressing apples for cider, pears The shutter, or hinged clasp, may have its vonshire and Hertfordshire friends must feel for perry, or any other fruit, in a superior man- end turned up at right angles, and formed like a obliged to Mr. Russell for making this descrip- ner to the methods which have already appeared catch, or hook, and secured by a spring, fastention of it public. We have seen a sugar ap- in the Mechanics' Magazine ?
led to the side of the cross bar, the cords being paratus fixed on this plan, in which there are Should you be of opinion that it is superior, attached to the end of the spring. The shutter iwo boxes running alternately on the railway, you will probably be inclined to give it a place may, indeed, be held up in a great variety of so that the sugar in one box is submitted to the in your truly useful work.
modes, but the before described are sufficient to action of the press, while the contents of the
Yours, &c. W. RUSSELL. show the principles of my invention. other are removed, and a fresh charge put in,
When it is desired to retain the swingletree, ready to wheel into the press as soon as it is [From the Journal of the Franklin Institute.)
and let the horse go off with traces only, a at liberty; by this means nearly double the Specification of a patent for a mode of detach-/hinged clasp must be put on each end of the usual quantity of work is done in the same
ing horses from a carriage, either when run
swingletree, with the jointed clasps secured to time.Editor Mechanic's Magazine.]
ning away, or whenever it may be desirable the end of the traces, and the cords attached to
to effect that object rapidly. Granted to Ro- the spring keys run through pulleys and are Sir,-Seeing in No. 438 of the Mechanics'
BERT BEALE, City of Washington, District of joined to the cord which leads inside of the Magazine, an engraving and description of an
Columbia, May 12, 1832.
carriage. Hydraulic Cider Press, with what appears to Be it known, that I, Robert Beale, of the City| hinged clasps, are hung on the under side of the
In the two-horse carriage, the shutters, on me a complex apparatus to work it; and having had longer practical experience in the man
of Washington, in the District of Columbia, wheppletree, and the cords attached to the ufacture of hydraulic presses than I believe have made
an improvement in carriages, by spring keys run along on the top of the whepany
individual in existence, I am induced to when running away, or whenever required to leys, and are joined to the single cord which send you a drawing of an apparatus of this sort, which I have lately fixed at the Refuge the safety carriage ; which is described as fol
be detached from the carriage quickly ; called leads inside, or outside, of the carriage. The for the Destitute, for the purpose of pressing lows.
pulleys are to cause the cords to run freely, and the rinse water from the linen, woollen, and
to draw the spring keys, or pins, from the eyes other articles, washed at that establishment, in
The swingletree is of the rods, or bolts, in a straight line. stead of wringing ; and which is, of course,
attached to the cross An iron tube, with a flaunch on one end, is equally applicable in all cases where similar
bar by an iron fixture fastened to the end of the pole. Over this is pressure is required.
called a jointed clasp, put a thimble, having a ring on each side, to Fig. 1 is a front elevation of the press, with
formed as in the an- which the breast straps are attached. This thimout its railways.
nexed figure, (see ble slips off the end of the pole, when the Fig. 2 is a side elevation, with the addition
figure 1); the knee horses are disengaged. of the railway.
part, marked A, resting against the back of the The mode of detaching the horses from the The squeezing box A has a perforated lin- cross bar. This jointed clasp is held up against two-horse carriage is similar to that descriing and bottom, through which the water pass-the underside of the cross bar by an iron shut-bed for a single horse carriage. es, and runs off at a spout B at the back of the ter, or hinged clasp, formed thus, (see figure 2,) In a four-horse carriage the leaders are disbox. The diameter of the working piston of turning on a joint, or hinge,
secured to the un- engaged from the pole in the same manner, by this press is four inches, that of the injecting derside of the cross bar. To the end of the a jointed clasp, hinged clasp, spring key, and pump C is one inch diameter, and the power hinged clasp is attached an iron rod, or bolt, B, cord, as described for a two-horse carriage. of this press on the article submitted is up- with an eye at its end. This rod, or bolt, passes The jointed clasp may be held up against the wards of 30 tons. If the piston of the inject-through an opening in the cross bar, and has an cross bar by a pin inserted through the jointed ing pump were one half an inch in diameter iron spring key inserted through the eye, rest-clasp into the hind part of the cross wr, to instead of one inch, the power would be in-ing on the upper side of the bar, which secures which pin the cord is attached. creased four-fold, that is, 120 tons pressure on the jointed clasp from dropping; or the rod may The jointed clasp may also be secured by a the articles submitted, with the same labour at be fixed permanently to the cross bar, project. spring fastened on the hind part of the cross bar, the pump. When the linen, &c. is sufficiently ing far enough below it to pass through a slot the cord being attached to the end of the spring. pressed, that is, almost dry, the pressing box is or mortice in the end of the hinged clasp, with Springs, or friction levers, are secured to the lowered down, by opening the discharging a spring key inserted through the end of the rod, carriage, brought in contact with the hub in orvalve D, on which the water returns back to or bolt, to prevent the hinged clasp falling. Toder to decrease the motion of the carriage when the cistern E, on which the pump is fixed.— the end of the spring key is attached a cord the horses are liberated, or before they are liThe squeezing box is then drawn out on the which leads inside of the carriage, where it berated. railways F, emptied, refilled, and wheeled back hangs loosely. Should the horses take fright,||. This invention may be applied to field artilfor a second charge, and so on. I should have and become unmanageable, the cord is then to lery, and it will enable the men to limber or unobserved, that the mallet G, which is fixed to be pulled suddenly, which will draw the spring|limber the gun in less than half a minute. It
may also be applied to wagons of every de- management can retain, the damp or water||a neighboring farmer, if he understood his own scription, to ploughs, and harrows, and all kinds which we are seeking to disperse. Where this interest, could manage several iniles with ease of agricultural implements drawn by horses, | method is already in existence, frequent ruts
till it was consolidated, which would obviously when required to be taken in haste from the from the sides, at right angles with the roadway other. In the former case the carriages are
occur much sooner by this method than by the carriage to feed, &c.
A forked piece of iron is suspended over the to the ditches, will in some measure remove the directed into particular channels ; in the preshound and front axletree to prevent its turning defect, and the attention of the surveyor willent, they have no inducement to press either on the body bolt.
S. D. be directed, in the after distribution of his maWhat I claim as my invention, and which I wish to secure by leiters patent, is the before terials to a gentle raising of the centre. Gen
RAILROAD OPERATIONS.-The new Locomo. described apparatus for suddenly disengaging erally the roadway at present is clothed with ||tive Engine belonging to the Hudson and Mohorses from carriages.
massy stones, and sometimes, as the case may hawk Railroad Company, and mounted on six For a further illustration of my invention 1|be, pieces of natural rock. The former ought wheels, is now running to the entire satisfaction would refer to the models and drawings of the to be removed ; the latter leveled, or the surface the half-way house to the top of the inclined same deposited in the patent office.
of the road raised as may be most convenient.||plane in 13 minutes, a distance of nearly seven
The holes from which these boulders have been miles. For the American Railroad Journal and Advocate of In- taken will be filled with gravel, and a little atten Yesterday afternoon about 65 barrels and ternal Improvements. tion paid to smoothing it until it has become tierces came across from Saratoga, and reach.
ed here in time to be forwarded New-York Boston, Dec. 17, 1832.
properly consolidated. All stones, large and the same day. Common Roads.—The remarks regarding small
, which do not come properly under the We also learn that some enterprising persons drainage in my last, (see No.50, Railroad Jour-denomination of gravel, ought to be removed. in Saratoga are sending large quantities of hard nal,) apply more particularly to a llat country, This will cause some trouble in the first in- wood to the city at a good profit to themselves, though the same principle necessarily obtains stance, but a world of relief afterwards. Their as well as to the Saratoga and Mohawk Railroad
Companies. Two thousand cords are now beevery where. When the road winds along the very being at present creates ruts where other-ing delivered upon one contract, and a large side of a hill, and is formed by what is tech-|| wise none would have been found. The height|quantity is expected during the winter.-[Alnically termed side-cutting, the water from to which they raise the passing wheels gives bany Daily Advertiser.] the upper side will obviously acquire a velocity them an impetus in descending, probably ten
[From the London Meehanics' Magazine.) sufficient to carry it over any ordinary rut, to times greater than would be the ordinary effect MR. MURRAY'S INVENTION FOR SAVING FROM the centre and opposite side of the road. To of a carriage running on a smooth road. The Shipwreck. --Several ingenious methods have obviate this objection, the cross section of such materials are thus loosened and disturbed, the been proposed for effecting a safe communicaa road has sometimes inelined slightly towards body of the road penetrated, and an escape
tion between stranded ships and the shore. Mr.
afthe hill side, with the intention of at the same forded to the clay or earth which may be ly- | kite, and Capt. Manby a shell, for the purpose of
Trenghouse suggested a rocket, Capt. Dansey a time retarding and returning the water into the
ing in reserve. I will endeavor, by’-and-bye, carrying out a line to the ship in distress. The drain always formed, of course, on that side of
to form some estimate of such improvements, | plan of Captain Manby was thought so well of the road next the hill. I have observed, how-||and I anticipate being able to prove that the ex
at first, that it was honored with a Parliamen. ever, that any inclination which can thus be pense of the good road will ultimately be less been made to introduce it into general use. But
tary reward, and very great exertions have given, consistent with the safety of carriages, than that of the bad one. Much will depend|it has been found attended with so much diffi. is of little effect. The better way is either to upon the qualities of the gravel (I am talkingculty, even under the most favorable circumcut small ruts on the face of the hill, and alto- of gravel roads at present) which may be used. stances, and has in not a few instances failed so gether beyond the slope of the road, or to raise River gravel, generally speaking, ought to be decidedly, that it has been only very partially a small parapet of earth 8 or 12 inches in altogether discarded, and gravel from inland ||minution in the general loss of life by shipheight, on the proper side of the ditch; the beds to be completely sisted of the earth which wreck. From the weight of Captain Manby's first when applicable is the better and more
accompanies it. It can never be cleared entirely apparatus, it is not quickly transportable from general method. Wherever the inclination of of earth, and when sisted to the greatest advan- the few stations which are provided with it, to the road or any other cause gives an undue ve
the immediate scene of danger; and when the tage there will always remain sufficient to aslocity to surface water, care inust be taken that sist in the proper and active binding of the road. A transport was wrecked only three miles from
rope is projected it too frequently snaps in two. it find no vent to the body of the metal; it will||The first species of gravel is too clean, the lat-Mundesley, where there was one of Captain otherwise, as I have several times observed, inter too full of earth. The nature of gravel be- Manby's safety-mortars, but before it could be the course of a few hours soften the most pering water-worn and rounded of all asperities, conveyed to the spot the ship had gone to fect road, and besides the inconvenience it oc- renders a second substance indispensable to its ease, of a ship wrecked off' Whitby in 1820,
pieces, and all on board perished. In another casions, will so etlectually cleanse the gravel as acquiring compactness within a requisite time. within 60 yards of the shore, the shot, in the to retard very much the after consolidation of the first would consolidate, but not until, in first attempt, fell short; the rope in the second, that portion of the way. In flat countries there
broke ; and the ship and crew were buried in consequence of coarse weather or other means, must, of course, as much attention be paid tollit had acquired from the bottom or sides of the there is not even this imperfect apparatus of
the breakers. On many parts of the coast creating an inclination for the water, as in this road the necessary proportion of earthy par-|Captain Manby. So late as December, 1830, case to retarding it,
ticles, and having seen it used, I am aware that one of the most frequented, and, at the same I perceive that you have lately been embody-lit may remain for months a very fatiguing and time, most dangerous parts of the British coast ing the substance of Mr. M'Adam's evidence heavy road. Mixing it with a slight quantity —that between Plymouth and the Land's End into your Journal. I was not aware of this of earth might in some measure remedy the -was so entirely destitute of every sort of when I last wrote, otherwise I should not have defect, but I apprehend the two substances means for saving shipwrecked mariners, that
would hardly assimilate so closely as when of the passengers and crews of 28 vessels troubled you on the subject. As Mr. M'Adam's found so disposed in their natural beds. In sift- which went on shore in the dreadful storm of remarks, however, are very different, and in ing gravel, different sized sieves, standing at an that month, only two men and a boy were saved ! many cases not immediately applicable here, I inclination of 30 or 40 degrees before the work Frequent reflection on these distressing facts do not regret having thus at the risk of some man, will be found convenient. One for sepa- | bas led Mr. John Murray (the popular lecturer repetition recalled it to your attention,
rating all stones, properly so called, from the on chemistry, and the author of many excellent
mass, and another for separating from the grav-scientific works,) to the invention of the appaHaving by that rigorous system of drainage el so procured, the loose earth : these two ob-ratus represented in the prefixed engravings, which I have endeavored to inculcate, paved thejects ought to be strictly enforced. Any slo- and described in the pamphlet which we have way for further improvements, the surveyor
venness in this respect will be productive, as now before us.* Mr. Murray first tried to promay direct his attention to the formation of the The time spent in this portion of the work must line attached to the feather end, but the arrow
will be found, of four-fold trouble afterwards.ject from a common musket an arrow with a surface of the road. It will always be of great never be grudged, since it will certainly be pro- became reversed in its transit through the air, importance that the foundation upon which the ductive of much more than proportional benefi-||and the following improved and very ingenious material of the road rests, be nol below the top cial effects. The placing of large stones or arrangement was therefore adopted :or edge of the drains. I advert to the method obstacles of any kind on the body of the road,
while the material remains soft, is a clumsy * Invention of an Effective and Unfiling Method for sometimes pursued of cutting a trough for the land dangerous expedient when it can be avoid-forming an Sustantaneo. Communication with the Shore material, obviating in some measure the good ed. Raking up the wheel tracks daily would ||and Tempestuous Night. By John Murray, F. S. A. &c. effects of drainage, and retaining as far as mis- be found much more efficient, and one man or||30 pp. 8vo. Whittaker & Co.