Abbildungen der Seite

McAdnm Roads, Treatise on, by J. 3. Williams,
prospectus of, 53 •

Manures, suggestions on, 119—from bone, 151
—by lime, 280—for hop culture, 301—ma-
nagement of a dunghill, 375—for wheat, 408

Manufacturing, distinction between, and mak-
ing—Mechanical Arts, outlines for a descrip-
tion of, 406

Massachusetts, list of railroads and canals in, 5
Mechanics' Institution, (London,) proceedings
of, 263

Mechanical Arts, importance of, 229
Mechanics' Magazine, announcement of, 114
Merchants' Exchange, account of, 326
Meteorological Record, kept at New-Yofk, 9,20,
40, 56, 72, 88, 101, 120, 137, 224, 240, 245,
204, 288, 297, 313, 338, 341, 308, 373, 389,

Meteorological Record, kept at Charleston, 9,


Meteorological Record, kept at Montreal, 221

Million of Facts, extracts from, 200

Moles, method of destroying of, 39

Motive Power, Hainsselin's, 370

Moulding, bricks and tiles, embossed china,

seals, knife and umbrella handles, tobacco

pipes, ccc. account of, 301
Modern Travelling in England, account of, 138
Moon, its distance from the earth, 229
Murder of A. Miller, 9
Mylnc's Dymmomctcr, account of, 342


Nail Making, improved plan of, 47
Natural Wonders, 193

News of the day, Domestic, 11, 24, 43, 57, 74,
0.), 104, 122, 172, 189,204,220, 236,253, 208,
231, 300, 310, 333, 349, 305, 381, 395, 408

News of the day, Foreign, 10, 10, 32, 40, 5G,
72, 88, 108, 120, 172, 188, 205, 230, 252, 301,
;H5, 332, 348,303, 380,412


Organized Structures, composition of, 217

Patents granted, 100, 291

Paterson Railroad, report on, 146

Paper, ploughing machine for, account of, 198

Peat, used as fuel, economy of, 38

Pear, Jargonelle, extraordinary, account of, 54

Pear Trees, grafted, account of, 200

Pennsylvania, improvements in, 06, 129, 211,

275, 290
Pin Making, described, 135
Planing Machine, (Muir's,) improvements in,


Ploughing in Hot Weather, 233

"curious metheod of, in Scotland, 54
Political Economy in America, 200
Pomologies! Association, proposals for forming,

Power, various modes of increasing, 311—re

gulating of, in steam engines, 312
Port Wine, account of adulteration of, 94
Potatoes, account of rearing two crops in one
vear on the same ground, 199—paste made
ii-otii, 229

President's Message to Congress, 59—his In-
augural Address, 159

Printing Machine, Napier's, improved by Hoe,

Printing, from cavities—from copper-plate—
from steel plates—music from pewter-plates
—calico from cylinders—from perforated
sheets of metal (stencilling), 388

"from surface, wooden blocks—by
moveable type—from stereotype—calico from
blocks—on china—lithographic—oil cloth—
by register—from copper-plates, with altered
dimensions, 369

Pump, self acting domestic, 49
•' Rowland's Forcing, 197

Railways, effect of grade and curvature on, 2—
Scrivenor's plan for constructing, 260—un-
dulating one, 225, 242, 339, 346

Massachusetts, list of, in, 5
Petersburg, account of, 6, 17, 36, 117
New-York Guard Rail, 8, 33, 210, 242, 258,

261,276, 277, 306, 307, 354, 355
Foot Paths for, 20, 49, 97, 117, 194
Canterbury, (England,) 49
Birmingham and London, 241
Philadelphia and Trenton, 21, 52
Newcastle, fire on, at, 33
Boston and Lowell, 33
Boston and Providences 37
Advantages of, described, 35, 242
Importance of, 99
Pontchartrain, 50
England, 51, 52, 101, 225
Lexington and Ohio, 66
Pennsylvania, 00
Troy and Bennington, 85
Ilarlaem, 445
Paterson, 147
Chesapeake, and Ohio, 148
Danville and Pottsville, 149
Cape Fear and Yadkin, 149
Baltimore and Washington, 168, 177
New-York, Boston, and Providence, 209, 325
Saratoga, 209, 289
New-York and Pennsylvania, 212
Alabama, 225
New-York City, 326
Providence and Stonington, 241, 257
Rochester, 274
New-Jersey, 289, 293, 386
Norwich and Worcester, 305
South Carolina, 321, 322
Stock, prices of, in various companies, 325,


Mylnc's Dynanometer, 342
Oxford, 355

Wilkcsbarre and Lehigh, 85
Baltimore and Susquehanna,85
Baltimore and Ohio, 309
Erie and New-York, 3S8, 402, 403
Albany and Fort George, 405

Rainbow, description of its courses, &c. 123

Registering Operations, description of, 344

Reviews of New PuLlicalions, 30, 31, 41, 42,
43, 03, 77, 95, 126, 142, 153, 170, 186, 202,
222, 237, 250, 207. 282, 303, 314, 331, 340,
302, 378, 395, 410

Rice, a machine for making of, described, 103

Rice Paper, description of, 314

Rotation of Crops, on the, 55

Roads, method of forming gravel ones, 4—Re-
port of the progress of the Cumberland, or
national one, 18, 85—Chicago^ 5—Letter
from J. S. Williams, on, 66—Level ones not
good for horses, 71—Extracts from Report of
Engineer at Michigan, 07—Military, 97—on
the Construction of Common, 98—Letter
from J. L. M'Ada'm, 197—Wear of, 212

Roofs, fire-proof, 213

Rudders, account of Taylor's patent for, 232
Rye, on the cultivation of, 407


Salt, why so dear, 39
Saratoga Springs, tour to, 338
Salt Water, account of apparatus for freshen-
ing, 392

Sabbalton's Ink Distributor, account of, 391
Scieuco, pleasures and advantages of, 160
Screw Press, improved, 182

"Dunbar's, improved, 230
Screw, new modification of the power of, 197
Schools, statistics of, 228

"in New-York, annual report of, 40
Sheep, varieties of, 219
Sheep and Lambs, method of rearing, 123
Ship-Building, Ballingall's improvements in,

Ship, self-steering one, 313

Shipwreck, method of saving from, 4, 51—Can-
nine's life raft, 198

Silk Worms, method of mounting, 87

Silk, manufacture of, recommended, 23—im-
portance of the culture of, 54—from Ohio,
151—from Massachusetts, 184—importance

of, to country practitioners, 199—method of

reeling, described, 345
Sisal Hemp, account of, 87
Snail, on the paces of the, 245
Soap, receipt for making, 153
Southwark Iron Bridge, account of, 6
Spontaneous Combustion, 213
Stone Splitting Machine described, 390
Starch, from potatoes, method of preparing, 201
Stocking Knitter, account of an improved one,


Stomach Pump, on the, 297
Stucco for Walls, 329

Steam Camel, proposals for constructing one,

Steam, probable application of, to various pur.
poses, 149—proposed navigation of the ocean
by, 101

Steam Vessels of War, hints respecting, 2

Steam Car, Mr. Phillips' plan, 2

Steam Carriage, Col. Macirone's, 37—on turn-
pike roads, 82—on common roads, 98, 243—
Mr. Ogle's plan, 208—Hancock's plan, 385

Steamboats, invention of, claimed by John
Smith, of St. Helens, (England,) 0—another
claimant in the person of W. Symington, for
his father, 228—on canals, 233—Fulton'*
account of his first voyage, 291—new pad-
dles for, described, 286

Steam Engines, locomotive ones, account of,
33, 36—Ericcson's improved, 68, 69—rotary
one, 372

Submarine Boat, account of, 291

Sullivan, J. S., on Railroads and Water Works
in the city of New-York, 226

Telegraphs in France, for night as well as day,
proposed, 273

Telegraphs, electrical ones, proposed applica-
tion of, 20

Time, saving of, in natural operations, 343
Tichenor's Window Sash, Pannel Door, and

Blind Machine, described, 371
Time and Space, 341
Time, economy of, 310
Thrashing in Germany, mode of, 200
Tobacco, golden leaf, 233—liquid to destroy in-
sects, 233

Tools, descriptive account of the use of, 311
Torrey's Safety Apparatus for Steamboats, 231
Trees, management of, 8—lace bark, size, &zc.
of, 21—method of saving when injured, 88—
peach, method of rearing, 88—forest, reared
from seed, 102—effects of removing fruit,

Turnips and Straw, for cattle to feed on, 265
U & V.

Useful Continued Motion, account of, 228
Vegetable Physiology, 55

Vegetables, method of forcing and forwarding,
70—advantages of cow-wash in the growth

. of, 103—mixture of, by the roots, 219—sexu-
ality of, 219

Venus' Fly-Trap, (a flower,) described, 152

Vines, Mr. Pillan's method of cultivating, 184
—on the culture of, 249


Washington City, improvements in, 130
Waggon for Excavating, 109
Water Works in New-York City, 220
Wheat, called Tea Wheat, how reared, 249
Wheel Carriages, method of locking the fore
wheel fof, 21—misconstruction of, pointed
out, 200—thoughts on, 200—Badmll's patenf
for a propelling power to ascend hills on rail-
roads, 308

Wheel Drags, improved method of using, 133
Wheels, Jones' patent, described, 182
Williams, J. S., on Road Making, 00, 273, 292
Wine, how to restore it when sour, 103
Wonders of Philosophy, 184
Work, mode of identifying when of the same
kind—accuracy of, when executed by ma-
chinery, 358


[graphic][merged small]


D. K. MINOR, Editor.] SATURDAY, JANUARY 5, 1S33. [VOLUME II.—No. 1.


To our Patrons anil the Public, - - - page 1 On the effect of Grade and Curvature upon the motion

of Railroad Cars, 2 Steam Vessels of War; Steam Car, - - ib Russell's Hydraulic Press, (with engravings); Patent fur detaching Horses from a carriage when running away, (with an engraving) - 3

On Common Koads; Railroad Opemtions; Mr. Murray's invention tor saving from Shipwreck, (with an engraving,) - 1

Railroad Intelligence; Railroad, Railroads and Canals in Massachusetts; Ohio Canal, 5 Southwark Iron Bridge, (with an engraving); History of Steamboats, Petersburg Railroad, 6 Agriculture, &c.—Agricultural hssoy, No. VII; Ontho Selection of Seeds; On the manugem "nt of Pear and Apple Trees and on the Keeping of Fruit in Winter, - - 7-8

Editorial Notices; Meteorological Tables, - 8-9

Summary, - 9

Foreign Intelligence, 10 Home Affairs, - 11

Postscript—latest Foreign News; Heaths, - 16


The American Railroad Journal, And AdVocate Ofinternalimprovements.—With this number commences the second volume of our Journal. Contrary to the expectations of many, it has completed a volume, and it affords us much pleasure to be able to say that it enters upon the second with very fair prospects; fair, at least, when compared with its commencement; so fair, indeed, are its prospects of an extensive circulation that arrangements bave been completed for making it altogether niore interesting and valuable than it has here tofore been.

It will hereafter contain, in addition to its usual variety of reading, both upon the subject of internal improvements and in its selections upon miscellaneous and literary topics, much valuable matter, with illustrations, from the London Mechanics' Magazine. This department alone would be worth far more to mechanics and men of science, than the cost of th Journal, and it will at the same time be more interesting to those who read merely for amusement. We have made great exertions during the past year to render the work worthy of a liberal patronage. Our arrangements are now completed; our promises are before the pul lie, and this number is offered as a specimen of the work as it is to be published when our (subscription list amounts to fifteen hundred. >Iay we not look for the continued aid of those oi its friends, who have already done so much,

that we may soon be able to carry into effect this part of our plan! We look to them with confidence, as they have already commenced operations, one subscriber alone having remitted, within a few days, $45 which he had collected for the ensuing volume. A few such friends would very soon secure the performance of our last proposition.

Having thus set forth some of the circumstances which encourage us to persevere in the arduous and expensive publication of this Journal, and glanced at the subjects of several of the papers which will we think be considered as rendering the present number particularly acceptable, may we not in conclusion ask, that those who take interest in all, or some one of the varied brandies of knowledge which fall within the scope of our plan, should make some little personal effort to add to our means of carrying it into complete effect. The opinion of an intelligent and disinterested man expressed to a neighbor as to the merits of a paper he is in the habit of reading, goes farther and has more weight than the most zealous professions of| the conductor of the paper, seeing that these are always more or less biassed by personal interest. It is such an expression of individual opinion, from those who really think it is deserved, and to those whom it may influence, that we would venture now to solicit. In the progressive improvements of which the volume already completed furnishes the evidence, will we may hope, be found an abundant guarantee that our efforts will in the future, as they did in the past, keep equal pace at least, with the en couragement received. And what class in the many differing walks of social life is there, whom some one at least of the topics treated or illustrated in this Journal does not interest? Take tliis number for example: for the farmer, there is agriculture and road making; for the mechanic, there, is useful knowledge in his branch; for the engineer, there nre scientific formula;; for the humane and philanthropic, there is Murray's invention for saving from shipwreck; for the observer of the "skyey in, fluences," an elaborate meteorological table; and for the general reader, without ever losing sight of the main object of the Journal, the diffusion, of accurate information as tQ internal im

provements of all sorts—whether by roads, canals, or bridges, steam boats or steam ears; a careful and impartial synopsis of the polities and literature of the day. For a paper with contents so varied, so copious, at so moderate a price, and in so convenient a form, and which clashes with no prejudices or interests, is it unreasonable to anticipate a large and general circulation 1 Another year will enlighten us as to the reply that must be given to this question.

The cut at the head of the Journal represents the American Locomotive Engine, PhilAdelphia, built at the Westpoint Foundry Works in this city, for the Philadelphia, Norristown and Germantown Railroad, with a freight car, passenger coach, and private carriage attached, by way of showing the advantages and facilities which may be enjoyed by the inhabitants living in the vicinity of Railroads.

The second and third cuts represent Russell's Hydraulic Press. This press is very highly spoken of in England. If we are not. mistaken there is one very similar to it now in use in this city, for raising vessels out of the water for repairs. Those unacquainted with their operation and power, would be surprised to see the ease with which two men, one at each pump, there being one pump at each side of the frame or dock, will raise a large ship from the water. Of this highly ingenious application of the hydraulic pump, we may hereifter take occasion to speak more definitely; our present reference being merely to mention one of the uses to which they are applicable.

The fourth is a representation ofthe invention of Mr. Murray, for preserving life when vessels are wrecked near shore. There have been several inventions for this purpose, but this we believe is considered the most useful, as it is the most easily managed.

The fifth cut represents the centre arch of the Southwark bridge, of wrought iron, over the river Thames, from London to Southwark. The engraving shows the manner in which the foundation of the stone piers was constructed. r\, represents the bed of the river; B, low, and C, high water mark. The accompanying description, gives a list of important iron bridges, and the dates of their construction. This subject will be continued.


Lexinoton And Ohio Railroad, 27th Nov. 18312. To the Editor of the Railroad Journal:

Sir—Should you consider the following Cor mulas, relating to the effect of grade and curva ture upon the motion of Railroad cars, to be of | any value to the readers of your Journal, they are offered to you for insertion.

In estimating the effect of curvature, it is necessary to have a general formula for the value of the centrifugal force. Take V = the velocity of a car in miles per hour; R = the radius of curvature of the track in feet; to = the weight of the car in lbs; and f = the centrifugal force in lbs. From known principles, the following expression for the value of/, is obtained, V2

/= to x

15 R

Now the effect of the force /is, to produce a continued pressure upon the bearing of the axlet: of the wheels, and also upon the flange and edge of the exterior rail. Take therefore T to denote the friction caused by that pressure, and which amounts to the increase of traction arising from centrifugal force. Althotigh the pressure may be nearly the same at both of the points just mentioned, yet it may perhaps be sufficient to take the amount of friction equal to ^ of the whole centrifugal force,* in which ease the following formula is at once derived from the preceding:


60 R

In making a selection, from different routes, for the location of a line of Railroad, it may sometimes be necessary tocompare grades with curvatures. Thus, the traction arising from grade alone is expressed by the quantity n

w X — , or simply by w X n, very nearly ; in


which n represents the rise or fall in the distance unity: and therefore, when the traction arising from an ascending grade; is equal to that arising from curvature, the following forV

mula obtains: ;i =

60 R

From which either of the three quantities, n, V, or R, may be found when the other t wo are given; and thus it is easy to eompute what grades and curvatures are equivalent to each other, as regards traction, with any given velocity.

In order to express a general formula for the traction, when the road-way has both inclination and curvature, let w X m be the traction upon a straight horizontal way. The expression for the whole traction T will then evidently be as follows:

T = to X |m + B^ I

< 60R'

This formula will be of use in all cases where it may be desirable to compare the traction, under circumstances of various loads, grades, curvatures, and velocities.

It may, perhaps, be of some use to investigate a formula for determining the greatest velocity which will comport with safety, upon curves of given radii, and with wheels of given diameters. Let k denote the distance between the axles, and put P = an arc to rad. 1, and k

length —. The two following theorems will 2R

give the principles upon which the investigation is made.

1st. The force necessary to cause the flange of a wheel to ascend upon the rail, is in a ratio compounded of the sub-duplicate ratio of the height of the flange, and the reciprocal sub-duplicate ratio of the radius of the wheel.

2d. When the force necessary to cause the flange to ascend upon the rail is to the friction of the flange upon the edge of the rail, as radius to Cos. P: then is the car equally liable either to run off the track, or to continue upon it.

The demonstration of these two theorems, which, for the sake of brevity, is omitted, may be easily supplied from received principles of| mechanics.


Now, the friction of the flange is as —; and


putting r = the radius of the wheel, and h = the height of the flange, the force necessary to raise

the flange upon the rail, is as < - S .

But it

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* It may perhaps seem at first view, that the increase of traction is less than the friction here given, in the ratio of the radius of the wheel to the height of the flange. That, however, would be an error; but whether a dilFercnt ratio than that of 1 to 4, as here adopted, will best comport with truth, can only be determined from| experience.

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[From the United Service Journal for April.] STEAM VESSELS OF WAR. Sir,—To render steamboats fit for war, requires a better combination of construction and arming than our official people seem to be aware of. The Salamander at Sheerness, and the Dee, at Woolwich, will both be useless as men of war; the former has sufficient depth of hold, but is built so sharp that she will not stow more than ten day's fuel when her stores and guns are on board; the latter is sufficiently flat, but so shallow that she also will stow little more than the former; and I understand those at Plymouth and Chatham arc in the same predicament. A steam vessel of war ought nei ther to be so fine as a sailing vessel, nor, on the other hand, have the capacity of an Indiaman ; in the first case, she would not stow a sufficient quantity of fuel, and would draw too much water for most purposes—in the latter rase she would not go with sufficient rapidity Her floor should not be quite flat, but nearly so; its length should occupy half the vessel, the form of the bow and run should occupy the other half; the dimensions of the vessels

built are thirty feet wide, and a hundred and sixty-five feet long; had they been twenty feet deep, and built in the above, form, they would have been efficient vessels. I beg it to be fully understood, that I do not propose this as a vessel offering the least resistance in the water, but as one combining the requisites necessary for a steam man-of-war; such a vessel, when light, would draw little more than four feet water, without including the keel, whose depth should be according to circumstanees, and quite independent of her construction. Her engines and boilers would immerse her between six and seven feet, and with about eight hundred tons of coals she would draw about fourteen, having her gun deck six feet above water at her greatest loading. With a two hundred horse engine, she would consume twenty tons of coals a day, and if they were good, with great care, something less. The shaft should be as close to the deck as possible, and the diameter of the wheels about twenty feet; when loaded, to fourteen, the paddle boards should shift up, so as to reduce the diameter of the wheels about fifteen feet: as the coal was expended, the boards should be shifted down till they came to their full extent; the coal boxes should be fitted in compartments, to receive water, in order that the wheels may remain sufficiently immersed as the coals were expended. The engine and boilers should be secured against shot, which has not been thought of in any of our vessels; no man will be found to attend them in their present state; men have long made up their minds on going into action, to be killed or wounded, but I never heard of any who are ready to be boiled. It has been proved that a combination of oak timber, iron plates, bales of linen, leather, or reams of paper, five feet thick, would protect the boiler and engine against an eighteen pound shot, and without that protection a steamboat is entirely useless in war. The wheels must of course be exposed; but if the naves, which are at present of cast, were made of wrought iron, and the arms of the wheels connected with plates, it would require many shot to disable them. The main shall would be the only vulnerable part, and if the guards which support it are considerably rounded, or, indeed, made like a cuirass, and covered with plate iron, they would glance off any shot. With these precautions, wheels would be less subject to accidents than either masts or yards. Experience has proved beyond a doubt, that the fittest vessels for sea are those constructed with the wheels buried in the side, its the Irish steamers are. I believe the Salamander is built in this manner; the spencing of the Dee only covers one half the wheels —they are a great deal too wide. She will certainly go the faster in the river Thames (which is the only thing the engineers and builders think of); but in rough weather, such wheels will never be under command of the engines. I am not aware how it is intended to arm our steamboats ; I should propose as many leavy guns on pivots as possible; on the upper deck and between decks, two bow-chasers: no arrangement of that nature seems to be intended in those now building. They should be rigged as three masted schooners, with the lower masts in two, having topsails, topgallant sails, and royals, and all the necessary sails for common purposes, which, with the exception of the lower part of the lower masts, could lie got down when it was necessary to steam against the wind. I am, &c.

A Oueat Admirer Op Steamdoats.

Steam Car.—Mr. Benjamin Phillips, Architect, of Philadelphia, proposes to construct a Steam Car to travel on rivers at a speed of 20 I to 25 miles per hour, to carry one hundred passengers, to draw 15 inches water, to be only one-third the weight of any other ordinary steamboat of the same dimensions now afloat; of far superior strength and safety, constructed on entirely new principles; the whole materials, except the engine and boiler, not to cost above $1,500, completely furnished and ready for operation by the first day of May next.


[From the London Mechanics' Magazine.] Russell's Hydraulic Press.—We see no reason to doubt that this press of Mr. Russell's is as applicable to the expression of the juice of apples and pears, as to any of the other purposes to which it has been so successfully applied. Neither can we refuse to acknowledge, that it is, iu point of simplicity and probable efficiency, superior to any thing of the kind which has yet appeared in our pages. Our Devonshire and Hertfordshire friends must feel obliged to Mr. Russell for making this description of it public. We have seen a sugar apparatus fixed on this plan, in which there are two boxes running alternately on the railway, so that the sugar in one box is submitted to the action of the press, while the contents of the other are removed, and a fresh charge put in, ready to wheel into the press as soon as it is at liberty; by this means nearly double the usual quantity of work is done in the same time.—{Editor Mechanic's Magazine]

Sir,—Seeing in No. 438 of the Mechanics' Magazine, an engraving and description of an Hydraulic Cider Press, with what appears to me a complex apparatus to work it; and having had longer practical experience in the manufacture of hydraulic presses than I believe any individual in existence, I am induced to send you a drawing of an apparatus of this sort, which I have lately fixed at the Refuge for the Destitute, for the purpose of pressing the rinse ■water from the linen, woollen, and other articles, washed at that establishment, instead of wringing; and which is, of course, equally applicable in all cases where similar pressure is required.

Fig. 1 is a front elevation of the press, without its railways.

Fig. 2 is a side elevation, with the addition of the railway.

The squeezing box A has a perforated lining and bottom, through which the water passes, and runs off at a spout B at the back of the box. The diameter of the working piston of this press is four inches, that of the injecting pump C is one inch diameter, and the power of this press on the article submitted is upwards of 30 tons. If the piston of the injecting pump were one half an inch in diameter instead of one inch, the power would be increased four-fold, that is, 120 tons pressure on Uie articles submitted, with the same labour at the pump. When the linen, &c. is sufficiently pressed, that is, almost dry, the pressing box is

the head of the press, enters the box, and is made to fit nearly.

Having made and erected many presses of this description, for expressing the oil from various seeds, the molasses from sugar, &c. their power varying from 500 to 1000 tons pressure, I take leave to ask your opinion whether a press so constructed and shown in the drawing accompanying this communication, is or is notl as applicable to pressing apples for cider, pears! for perry, or any other fruit, in a superior manner to the methods which have already appeared in the Mechanics' Magazine 1

Should you be of opinion that it is superior, you will probably be inclined to give it a place in your truly useful work.

Yours, &c. W. Russell

[ From the Journal of the Franklin Institute.] Specification of a patent for a mode of detach-\ ing horses from a carriage, either when run ning away, or whenever it may be desirable to effect that object rapidly. Granted to RoBert Beale, City of Washington, District oj Columbia, May 12, 1832. Be it known, that I, Robert Beale, of the City of Washington, in the District of Columbia, have made an improvement in carriages, by which the horses may be suddenly disengaged when running away, or whenever required to be detached from the carriage quickly; called the safety carriage; which is described as fol lows.

lowered down, by opening the discharging valve D, on which the water returns back to the cistern E, on which the pump is fixed.— The squeezing box is then drawn out on the railways F, emptied, refilled, and wheeled back for a second charge, and so on. I should have observed, that the mallet G, which is fixed to

The swingletree is attached to the cross bar by an iron fixture called a jointed clasp, formed as in the an nexed figure, (see figure 1); the knee part, marked A, resting against the back of the cross bar. This jointed clasp is held up against the underside of the cross bar by an iron shut Iter, or hinged clasp, formed thus, (see figure 2,) turning on a joint, or hinge, secured to the underside of the cross bar. To the end of the hinged clasp is attached an iron rod, or bolt, B, with an eye at its end. This rod, or bolt, passes through an opening in the cross bar, and has an iron spring key inserted through the eye, rest ing on the upper side of the bar, which secures the jointed clasp from dropping; or the rod may be fixed permanently to the cross bar, projecting far enough below it to pass through a slot or mortice in the end of the hinged clasp, with a spring key inserted through the end of the rod, or bolt, to prevent the hinged clasp falling. To1 'the end of the spring key is attached a cord which leads inside of the carriage, where it hangs loosely. Should the horses take fright, and become unmanageable, the cord is then to be pulled suddenly, which will draw the spring]

key from the eye of the rod, or bolt, let the hinged clasp fall, and with it the jointed clasp attached to the swingletree, and will disengage the horse from the carriage.

The tugs arc open in front, thus, (see fig. 3,) to allow the breeching to slip off freely. This breeching is made from a single strap of leather, with rings sewed to the ends, to hook over the tugs.

Flic shutter, or hinged clasp, may have its end turned up at right angles, and formed like a catch, or hook, and secured by a spring, fastened to the side of the cross bar, the cords being attached to the end of the spring. The shutter j<may, indeed, be held up in a great variety of Tmodes, but the before described are sufficient to show the principles of my invention.

When it is desired to retain the swingletree, and let the horse go off" with traces only, ;i hinged clasp must be put on each end of the jswmgletree, with the jointed clasps secured to the end of the traces, and the cords attached to the spring keys run through pulleys and are joined to the cord which leads inside of the carriage.

In the two-horse carriage, the shutters, on hinged clasps, are hung on the under side of the wheppletree, and the cords attached to the spring keys run along on the top of the wheppletree in a straight line, then pass around pulleys, and are joined to the single cord which leads inside, or outside, of the carriage. The pulleys are to cause the cords to run freely, and. to draw the spring keys, or pins, from the eyes of the rods, or bolts, in a straight line.

An iron tube, with a flauftch on one end, in fastened to the end of the pole. Over this is put a thimble, having a ring on each side, to which the breast straps are attached. This thimble slips oft' the end of the pole, when the horses are disengaged.

The mode of detaching the horses from the two-horse carriage is similar to that described for a single horse carriage.

In a four-horse carriage the leaders are dislengagcd from the pole in the same manner, by a jointed clasp, hinged clasp, spring key, and cord, as described for a two-horse carriage. The jointed clasp may be held up against the [cross bar by a pin inserted through the jointed clasp into the hind part of the cross Ujir, to which pin the cord is attached.

The jointed clasp may also be secured by rt spring fastened on the hind part of the cross bar, the cord being attached to the end of the spring. Springs, or friction levers, are secured to the carriage, brought in contact with the hub in order to decrease the motion of the carriage when, the horses are liberated, or before they are liberated.

This invention may be applied to field artillery, and it will enable the men to limber or un[limber the gun in lees than half a minute. It may also big applied to wagons of every description, to ploughs, and harrows, and all kinds of agricultural implements drawn by horses, -when required to he taken in haste l'rom the carriage to feed. &c.

A forked piece of iron is suspended over the hound and front axletree to prevent its turning on the body bolt.

What I claim as my invention, and which I wish to secure by letters patent, is the before described apparatus for suddenly disengaging horses from carriages.

For a further illustration of my invention I would refer to the models and drawings of the same deposited in the patent office.

Robert Beu.e.

For the American Railroad Journal and Advocate of Internal Improvements.

Boston, Dec. 17,1832.

Common Roabs.—The remarks regarding drainage in my last, (see No. 50, Railroad Journal,) apply more particularly to a Hat country though the same principle necessarily obtains every where. When the road winds along the side of a hill, and is formed by what is technically termed side-cutting, the water from the upper side will obviously Require a velocity sufficient to carry it over any ordinary rut, to the centre and opposite side of the road. To obviate this objection, the cross section of such a road has sometimes inclined slightly towards the hill side, with the intention of at the same time retarding and returning the water into the drain always formed, of course, on that side of| the road next the hill. I have observed, however, that any inclination which can thus be given, consistent with the safety of carriages, is of little effect. The better way is either to cut small ruts on the face of the hill, and altogether beyond the slope of the road, or to raise a small parapet of earth 8 or 12 inches in height, on the proper side of the ditch; the first when applicable is the better and more general method. Wherever the inclination of'i the road or any other cause gives an undue velocity to surface water, care must be taken that it find no vent to the body of the metal; it will otherwise, as I have several times observed, in the course of a few hours soften the most per feet road, and besides the inconvenience it oc casions, will Bo effectually cleanse tin- gravel as to retard very much the after consolidation of that portion of the way. In flat countries there must, of course, as much attention be paid to creating an inclination1 for the water, as in this case to retarding it.

I perceive that you have lately been embodying the substance of Mr. M'Adam's evidence into your Journal. I was not aware of this when i last wrote, otherwise I should not have troubled you on the subject. As Mr. M'Adam's remarks, however, are very different, anil in many cases not immediately applicable here, I do not regret having thus at the risk of some repetition recalled it to your attention,

Having by that rigorous system of drainage which F have endeavored to inculcate, paved the way for further improvements, the surveyor may direct his attention to the formation of the surface of the road. It will always be of great importance that the foundation upon which the material of the road rests, be not below the top or edge of the drains. I advert to the method sometimes pursued of cutting a trough for the material, obviating in some measure the good effect* of drainage, and retaining as far an mis

management can retain, the damp or water which we are seeking to disperse. Where this method is already in existence, frequent ruts from the sides, at right angles with the roadway to the ditches, will in some measure remove the defect, and the attention of the surveyor will be directed, in the after distribution of his materials to a gentle raising of the centre. Generally the roadway at present is clothed with massy stones, and sometimes, as the case may be, pieces of natural rock. The former ought to be removed; the latter leveled, or the surface of the road raised as may be most convenient The holes from which these boulders have been taken will be fdled with gravel, and a little atten lion paid to smoothing it until it has become properly consolidated. All stones, large and small, which do not come properly under the denomination of gravel, ought to be removed This will cause some trouble in the first in stance, but a world of relief afterwards. Their very being at present creates ruts where otherwise none would have been found. The height to which they raise the passing wheels gives them an impetus in descending, probably ten times greater than would be the ordinary effect )f a carriage running on a smooth road. The materials are thus loosened and disturbed, the body of the road penetrated, and an escape afforded to the clay or earth which may be lying in reserve. I will endeavor, by'-and-bye, to form some estimate of such improvements, and I anticipate being able to prove that the expense of the good road will ultimately be less than that of the bad one. Much will depend upon the qualities of the gravel (I am talking of gravel roads at present) which may be used. River gravel, generally speaking, ought to be altogether discarded, and gravel from inland beds to be completely sifted of the earth which accompanies it. It can never be cleared entirely of earth, and when sifted to the greatest advantage there will always remain sufficient to assist in the proper and active binding of the road. The first species of gravel is too clean, the latter too full of earth. The nature of gravel being water-worn and rounded of all asperities, renders a second substance indispensable to its acquiring compactness within a requisite time. The first would consolidate, but not until, in consequence of coarse weather or other means, it had acquired from the bottom or sides of the road the necessary proportion of earthy particles, and having seen it used, I am aware that it may remain for months a very fatiguing and heavy road. Mixing it with a slight quantity of earth might in some measure remedy the defect, but I apprehend the two substances would hardly assimilate so closely as when found so disposed in their natural beds. In sifting gravel, different sized sieves, standing at an inclination of 30 or 40 degrees before the workman, will be found convenient. One for separating all stones, properly so called, from the mass, and another for separating from the gravel so procured, the loose earth: these two objects ought to be strictly enforced. Any slovenness in this respect will be productive, as will be found, of four-fold trouble afterwards. The time spent in this portion of the work must never be grudged, since it will certainly be productive of much more than proportional beneficial effects. The placing of large stones or obstacles of any kind on the body of the road, while the material remains soft, is a clumsy and dangerous expedient when itcan be avoided. Raking up the wheel tracks daily would be found much more efficient, aud one man or

a neighboring farmer, if he understood his own interest, could manage several miles with case till it was consolidated, which would obviously occur much sooner by this method than by the other. In the former case the carriages are directed into particular channels; in the present, they have no inducement to press either side. S. D.

Railroad Operations—The new Locomotive Engine belonging to the Hudson and Mohawk Railroad Company, and mounted on six wheels, is now running to the entire satisfaction of the company. It came a few days since from the half-way house to the top of the inclined plane in 13 minutes, a distance of nearly seven miles.

Yesterday afternoon about 65 barrels and tierces came across from Saratoga, and reached here in time to be forwarded to New-York the same day.

We also learn that some enterprisingpersons in Saratoga are sending large quantities of hard wood to the city at a good profit to themselves, as well as to the Saratoga and Mohawk Railroad Companies. Two thousand cords arc now being delivered upon one contract, and a large quantity is expected during the winter.—[Albany Daily Advertiser.]

[From the Jjtmdon Mechanirs' Magazine.] Mr. Murray's Invention For Saving From Shipwreck.—Several ingenious methods have been proposed for effecting a safe communication between stranded ships and the shore. Mr. Trenghouse suggested a rocket, Capt. Dansey a kite, and Capt. Manby a shell, for the purpose of carrying out a line to the ship in distress. The plan of Captain Manby was thought so well of at first, that it was honored with a Parliamentary reward, and very great exertions have been made to introduce it into general use. But it has been found attended with so much difficulty, even under the most favorable circumstances, and has in not a few instances failed so decidedly, that it has been only very partially adopted, and has not effected any material diminution in the general loss of life by shipwreck. From the weight of Captain Manby's apparatus, it is not quickly transportable from the few stations which are provided with it, to the immediate scene of danger; and when the rope is projected it too frequently snaps in two. A transport was wrecked only three miles from Mundesley, where there was one of Captain Manby's safety-mortars, but before it could be conveyed to the spot the ship had gone to pieces, and all on board perished. In another case, of a ship wrecked off Whitby in 1820, within 00 yards of the shore, the shot, in the first attempt, fell short; the rope«in the second, broke; and the ship and crew were buried in the breakers. On many parts of the coast there is not even this imperfect apparatus of Captain Manby. So late as December, 1830, one of the most frequented, and, at the same time, most dangerous parts of the British coast that between Plymouth and the Land's End —was so entirely destitute of every sort of means for saving shipwrecked mariners, that of the passengers and crews of 28 vessels which went on shore in the dreadful storm of t hat month, only two men and a boy were saved!

Frequent reflection on these distressing facts has li'd Mr. John Murray (the popular lecturer on chemistry, and the author of many excellent scientific works,) to the invention of the apparatus represented in the prefixed engravings, and described in the pamphlet which we have now before us.* Mr. Murray first tried to project from a common musket an arrow with a line attached to the feather end, but the arrow became reversed in its transit through the air, and the following improved and very ingenious arrangement was therefore adopted :—

* Invention of an Effective anil Unfiiiling Metiiod for formin',' an Inslnnuineoim Communication Willi the Shore in Shipwreck ; and Illuminating ihe Scene in the Dark and Tempestuous Night. By Johu Murray, I'. S. A- Ac 30 pp. Hyo. Whittftker ii Co.


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