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benefits of the school since its organization is 592—469 boys and 123 girls.

The published report of the school gives a list of the graduates, with post office address and occupation of each. The total number of graduates reported is 305. Of this number 23 have died, and in the case of 42 the occupations are unknown. Below we give a summary of the occupations of the remaining 240.

OCCUPATIONS OF GRADUATES OF THE MILLER MANUAL LABOR SCHOOL.

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Industrial training for young women is provided for in Hartshorn Memorial College of Richmond. This does not mean a training for servants in the kitchen, the chamber, or the laundry, but rather in that knowledge of common things, that disciplined attention, that training of the eye, that cunning of the fingers, which makes the mastery of all things possible.

The instruction includes the physiology and hygiene of woman's physical life; the sanitary and housewifely care of a house-of the sleeping rooms, of the kitchen and pantry, of the bath room, of the cellar, of the parlor; plain sewing, patching, darning, knitting; the arts of the laundry; the use of detergents; soap making; plain cooking; bread making and bread raising preparations; the selection and cooking of meats; of vegetables; cake and pastries; healthful and unhealthful foods; economy in cooking; the principles of nursing and the care of the sick; cooking for the sick; causes and prevention of sickness; the care of clothing; of cotton and linen; of woollen, silks, and furs; the cutting and fitting of plain garments; principles of health and of tasto and beauty in dressing; decorative needlework and knitting; the care of children.

The president, the Rev. Lyman B. Tefft, writes under date of July 20, 1891: "Our industrial training is incidental to our training of teachers and religious workers."

WISCONSIN.

The State Normal School at White Water employs manual training as an adjunct of educational work.

A small workshop, begun a few years ago as an experiment, affords limited means for instruction and practice in the use of wood working

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tools, and has proved a valuable adjunct of the scientific department. Members of the class in physics spend 4 hours each week, for 20 weeks, in learning the use of the fundamental tools and how to construct simple apparatus.

The State Normal School at Milwaukee also adopts manual training to a limited extent. Boys from the model school of this institution receive instruction in sloid. This is an admirable exemplification of the adaptability of carpentry to the lower grades of the public schools. There is opportunity offered, also, to students of the normal school to participate in this work.

CONFERENCE ON MANUAL TRAINING. The conference on manual training held in Boston, April 8-11, 1891, may here receive appropriate notice. This we believe to have been the first general conference in America on this subject, but the report of the proceedings indicates that the teachers of the United States have well matured thoughts concerning the question, and that many of them have had experience in the new educational movement which qualifies them to speak with some authority, and entitles them to a respectful and attentive hearing. It is fortunate that the papers read at the sev. eral sessions of the Boston gathering have been collected and published in full, together with a phonographic report of the discussions called forth by the essays presented.

The conference was held in the English High School building at Boston. It was called to order by Mr. Edwin P. Seaver, and presided over by Dr. Samuel Eliot, who, in his opening address, said with pertinence and force:

Manual training is to be judged by its results, and the results gathered together here will persuade a great many persons that it is worthy of a far more respectful consideration than it has yet received.

Governor Russell was then introduced. He spoke briefly of the Rindge Manual Training School of Cambridge. This school provided, he said, that,

Boys upon graduation from the grammar school, at the age of about 13 or 14, should have the option to enter the manual school and get manual instruction in connection with high school studies. Their time was divided between the two schools. At the high school they pursued the usual studies, such as mathematics and physics, and at the manual school they were taught carpentry and joinery, forging, machine work, patternmaking, drawing, and other manual studies.

Such education should be made a part of our public school system, open to all

then making it optional to the pupil, rather than compulsory.

President Eliot, of Harvard College, spoke in his usual incisive manner. He said in part:

I am old enough to remember when the brain was supposed to be the seat of the mind, just as the lungs were held to be the furnace that warms the body. I remember being taught that the animal heat

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was kept up in the lungs, but we all know better now. We know that wherever an atom is consumed, in whatever part of the body, there het is generated, and, therefore, that the animal heat pervades the whole organism. It is just so with regard to the human mind; it pervades the body. It is not in the head, but it is all over the body; and, when you train the hand, or the eye, or the ear, you train the mind. As Governor Russell said, manual training is mental training. Never admit that mannal training is anything distinguished from, or in opposition to, mental training. In the skill of the artist's hand, in the methodical, accurate movement of the mechanic's arm, in the acute observation through the physician's eye or ear, there is always mind, Therefore, there is no opposition between manual training on the one land and mental training on the other. We are simply training another kind of faculty--not memory, but discriminating observation and correct perception.

Manual training is in the experimental stage. We have not yet learned whether carpentry is a better means of giving training in correct observation and in the nice use of finger and eye than chemical experimentation or physical experimentation with instruments of precision, such as are now used even in elementary instruction. I do not think the better way is as yet demonstrated, but teachers and students are pushing these inquiries in high schools, manual training schools, and scientific schools, and are in a fair way to arrive, in time, at just conclusions.

Dr. Felix Adler made an address at the second day's session, on the Educational Value of Manual Training in the Public Schools. We quote a few of his suggestive utterances:

Manual training has a history in other countries outside the United States, and if we consult the French experiment we shall be impressed by the degree of success which has already been achieved in that country. The very fact that manual training is being rapidly introduced into many of the French public schools is a remarkable testimony in its favor, because the system there is not guided after the haphazard fashion of this country, where every town has its own board of education, and where those boards are not usually composed of experts.

The educational system of France is governed by a national conncil, consisting of some of the most eminent men of science to be found in that country. Every step that is taken is carefully and fully considered, every trifling innovation is the subject of earnest investigation. If, therefore, manual training has met with remarkable success in France, that is testimony in its favor wilich should not be ignored.

Otlier interesting addresses were made by distinguished educationists; but we have space to introduce only a few specimens of the wise and weighty utterances with which the volume containing the report is filled.

For example, when Mr. D. W. Jones, master of Lowell School, Boston, said, “We welcome this manual training just so far as it is an educational power, and no farther," he expressed, in the most concise terms, the prevalent idea of the teaching fraternity as to the proper function and the limitations of manual instruction.

So, too, when Col. T. W. Higginson said, in his pregnant speech:

We recognize that the whole thing is as yet only half developed. We must go away with that understanding, that each locality has got to work it out in detail for itself, to try its own experiments, avail itself of its own failures, take its own material, use it as it can, and by and by it will be developed into something like a cohesive and systematic form, as our regular high school training may be said to be by this time, where men are working on the same lines and know what those lines are. In manual training we are all working experimentally.

In the profound and carefully prepared paper of Prof. S. N. Patten, of the University of Pennsylvania, also, the necessity of teaching domestic economy in our public schools is urged with peculiar eloquence. We quote one of his remarks on this subject:

In better economy of what we produce, we have a key to our industrial problems; and here, more than anywhere else, our practical endeavors can produce results if we work up the matter systematically. Give the laborers an education of the kind which will have a direct influence upon their consumption, and the solution of other educational problems will be much simpler than it now is.

The address of Prof. C. R. Richards, of the Pratt Institute, on Means and Methods of Manual Training, and the historical sketch of the Origin of Mechanic Art Teaching by Prof. J. D. Runkle, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, are exceptionally rich in suggestiveness; and this is true, also, of the valuable paper read by Prof. Robert II. Richards, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, on Manual Training as an Inspiration to Mental Development, in which the anthor recalls some of his own personal experiences by way of illustration.

We can not refrain from copying the sententious expression of the Rev. C. G. Ames, who, in the closing address, said: “The best part of our education comes not so much from knowing as applying knowledge to action;" a thought whose full import should be felt in schools of every grade and kind.

The discussions at the Boston conference embraced a wider range of topics than the reporters at the German congresses have usually considered, at least, in recent years. The reason is, doubtless, that debate on the subject is more of a novelty with us than with the people of continental Europe, where every phase of the question of manual training has been under investigation for years, and where settled conclusions have been reached concerning many matters, which, in America, are yet sub judice, and which, moreover, in this country involve other conditions and require inore careful adjustment than under European governments.

TRADE AND TECHNICAL SCHOOLS.

Totally different from the manual training schools in aims and methods are the institutions of a trade and technical character. The manual training school, as has been seen, aims at directing, by courses of mental and manual exercises, the development of all the powers of the individual, the single educational purpose being always kept in view. The trade and technical schools, on the other hand, aim at such special development as will give a mastery of some particular craft. Unlike many of the manual training schools none of those for trade and technical training are parts of the public school system. The School of Industrial Art at Philadelphia is the only one of its class, so far as known, that has received any assistance from a state appropriation. But no extended summary of the aims and characteristics of the trade and technical schools need be made. Schools of these classes are not so numerous, nor their methods so various, that any elaborate analysis is necessary to make clear the differences in their aims or in the work for which they are organized. All this will be easily understood by comparison of the statements for the several schools.

NEW YORK TRADE SCHOOLS.

In 1881 the New York Trade Schools were established in New York city, at the corner of First avenue and Sixty-eighth street, by Col. Richard T. Auchmuty, a gentleman of means who has given much attention to labor problems. His investigation of the questions involved led to certain definite conclusions, and these be proceeded to put into practical form by founding schools for the purpose of giving young men instruction in certain trades, and to enable young men already in their trades to improve themselves.

Here courses of instruction are given at very moderate charges in bricklaying, plastering, plumbing, carpentry, house, sign, and fresco painting, stone cutting, blacksmithing, tailoring, and printing. There are both day and evening classes. The thoroughness of the instruction given in each of these trades, it is claimed, leaves nothing to be desired For example, in the bricklaying class the manual instruction will be in building 8, 12, and 16-inch walls; in turning corners and building walls intersecting at different angles; in building piers, arches, flues, fireplaces; in setting sills and lintels; in corbelling, etc.

The scientific instruction is upon the strength of walls, construction of flues, thrust of arches, mixing and properties of mortar, cement, etc. The scientific instruction is given by means of lectures illustrated by experiments, and by carefully prepared manuals.

In the bricklaying classes the young men are taught first how to handle the trowel and how to spread mortar. After this they are practised on 8 and 12-inch walls. When these can be carried up plumb and the courses laid level, the class is put upon walls returned at right angles, piers, arches, fireplaces, and thues. Great care is exercised that each brick is properly laid, and that the joints are neatly pointed. No attempt is made to work fast until towards the close of the course, when an hour is given, at stated intervals, to ascertain how many brick each member of the class can lay in that time in a workmanlike

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